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AN 6.56 Phagguna (Pali+Eng.) B. Sujato trans


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AN 6.56 Phagguna

AN 6.56 Phagguna
AN 6.56 With Phagguṇa
(b. sujato trans.)
Tena kho pana samayena āyasmā phagguno ābādhiko hoti dukkhito bāḷhagilāno. Atha kho āyasmā ānando yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi. Ekamantaṃ nisinno kho āyasmā ānando bhagavantaṃ etadavoca: “āyasmā, bhante, phagguno ābādhiko dukkhito bāḷhagilāno. Sādhu, bhante, bhagavā yenāyasmā phagguno tenupasaṅkamatu anukampaṃ upādāyā”ti. Adhivāsesi bhagavā tuṇhībhāvena. Atha kho bhagavā sāyanhasamayaṃ paṭisallānā vuṭṭhito yenāyasmā phagguno tenupasaṅkami. Addasā kho āyasmā phagguno bhagavantaṃ dūratova āgacchantaṃ. Disvāna mañcake samadhosi. Atha kho bhagavā āyasmantaṃ phaggunaṃ etadavoca: “alaṃ, phagguna, mā tvaṃ mañcake samadhosi. Santimāni āsanāni parehi paññattāni, tatthāhaṃ nisīdissāmī”ti. Nisīdi bhagavā paññatte āsane. Nisajja kho bhagavā āyasmantaṃ phaggunaṃ etadavoca:
Now at that time Venerable Phagguṇa was sick, suffering, gravely ill. Then Venerable Ānanda went up to the Buddha, bowed, sat down to one side, and said to him: “Sir, Venerable Phagguṇa is sick. Sir, please go to Venerable Phagguṇa out of compassion.” The Buddha consented in silence. Then in the late afternoon, the Buddha came out of retreat and went to Venerable Phagguṇa. Venerable Phagguṇa saw the Buddha coming off in the distance and tried to rise on his cot. Then the Buddha said to him: “It’s all right, Phagguṇa, don’t get up. There are some seats spread out by others, I will sit there.” He sat on the seat spread out and said to Venerable Phagguṇa:
“Kacci te, phagguna, khamanīyaṃ kacci yāpanīyaṃ? Kacci te dukkhā vedanā paṭikkamanti, no abhikkamanti; paṭikkamosānaṃ paññāyati, no abhikkamo”ti? “Na me, bhante, khamanīyaṃ na yāpanīyaṃ. Bāḷhā me dukkhā vedanā abhikkamanti, no paṭikkamanti; abhikkamosānaṃ paññāyati, no paṭikkamo.
“Phagguṇa, I hope you’re keeping well; I hope you’re alright. And I hope the pain is fading, not growing, that its fading is evident, not its growing.” “Sir, I’m not keeping well, I’m not alright. The pain is terrible and growing, not fading; its growing is evident, not its fading.
Seyyathāpi, bhante, balavā puriso tiṇhena sikharena muddhani abhimattheyya; evamevaṃ kho me, bhante, adhimattā vātā muddhani ūhananti. Na me, bhante, khamanīyaṃ na yāpanīyaṃ. Bāḷhā me dukkhā vedanā abhikkamanti, no paṭikkamanti; abhikkamosānaṃ paññāyati, no paṭikkamo.
The winds piercing my head are so severe, it feels like a strong man drilling into my head with a sharp point. I’m not keeping well.
Seyyathāpi, bhante, balavā puriso daḷhena varattakkhaṇḍena sīsaveṭhanaṃ dadeyya; evamevaṃ kho me, bhante, adhimattā sīse sīsavedanā. Na me, bhante, khamanīyaṃ na yāpanīyaṃ. Bāḷhā me dukkhā vedanā abhikkamanti, no paṭikkamanti; abhikkamosānaṃ paññāyati, no paṭikkamo.
The pain in my head is so severe, it feels like a strong man tightening a tough leather strap around my head. I’m not keeping well.
Seyyathāpi, bhante, dakkho goghātako vā goghātakantevāsī vā tiṇhena govikantanena kucchiṃ parikanteyya; evamevaṃ kho me, bhante, adhimattā vātā kucchiṃ parikantanti. Na me, bhante, khamanīyaṃ na yāpanīyaṃ. Bāḷhā me dukkhā vedanā abhikkamanti, no paṭikkamanti; abhikkamosānaṃ paññāyati, no paṭikkamo.
The winds piercing my belly are so severe, it feels like an expert butcher or their apprentice is slicing my belly open with a meat cleaver. I’m not keeping well.
Seyyathāpi, bhante, dve balavanto purisā dubbalataraṃ purisaṃ nānābāhāsu gahetvā aṅgārakāsuyā santāpeyyuṃ samparitāpeyyuṃ; evamevaṃ kho me, bhante, adhimatto kāyasmiṃ ḍāho. Na me, bhante, khamanīyaṃ na yāpanīyaṃ. Bāḷhā me dukkhā vedanā abhikkamanti, no paṭikkamanti; abhikkamosānaṃ paññāyati, no paṭikkamo”ti. Atha kho bhagavā āyasmantaṃ phaggunaṃ dhammiyā kathāya sandassetvā samādapetvā samuttejetvā sampahaṃsetvā uṭṭhāyāsanā pakkāmi.
The burning in my body is so severe, it feels like two strong men grabbing a weaker man by the arms to burn and scorch him on a pit of glowing coals. I’m not keeping well, I’m not alright. The pain is terrible and growing, not fading; its growing is evident, not its fading.” Then the Buddha educated, encouraged, fired up, and inspired Venerable Phagguṇa with a Dhamma talk, after which he got up from his seat and left.
Atha kho āyasmā phagguno acirapakkantassa bhagavato kālamakāsi. Tamhi cassa samaye maraṇakāle indriyāni vippasīdiṃsu. Atha kho āyasmā ānando yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi. Ekamantaṃ nisinno kho āyasmā ānando bhagavantaṃ etadavoca: “āyasmā, bhante, phagguno acirapakkantassa bhagavato kālamakāsi. Tamhi cassa samaye maraṇakāle indriyāni vippasīdiṃsū”ti.
Not long after the Buddha left, Venerable Phagguṇa passed away. At the time of his death, his faculties were bright and clear. Then Venerable Ānanda went up to the Buddha, bowed, sat down to one side, and said to him: “Sir, soon after the Buddha left, Venerable Phagguṇa died. At the time of his death, his faculties were bright and clear.”

(all 6 scenarios refer to time of death, hearing Dhamma, using V&V)

“Kiṃ hānanda, phaggunassa bhikkhuno indriyāni na vippasīdissanti. Phaggunassa, ānanda, bhikkhuno pañcahi orambhāgiyehi saṃyojanehi cittaṃ avimuttaṃ ahosi. Tassa taṃ dhammadesanaṃ sutvā pañcahi orambhāgiyehi saṃyojanehi cittaṃ vimuttaṃ.
“And why shouldn’t his faculties be bright and clear? The mendicant Phagguṇa’s mind was not freed from the five lower fetters. But when he heard that teaching his mind was freed from them.

(1. Has 5 lower fetters → after Buddha talk → rid of 5 lower fetters )

Chayime, ānanda, ānisaṃsā kālena dhammassavane kālena atthupaparikkhāya. Katame cha? Idhānanda, bhikkhuno pañcahi orambhāgiyehi saṃyojanehi cittaṃ avimuttaṃ hoti. So tamhi samaye maraṇakāle labhati tathāgataṃ dassanāya. Tassa tathāgato dhammaṃ deseti ādikalyāṇaṃ majjhekalyāṇaṃ pariyosānakalyāṇaṃ sātthaṃ sabyañjanaṃ, kevalaparipuṇṇaṃ parisuddhaṃ brahmacariyaṃ pakāseti. Tassa taṃ dhammadesanaṃ sutvā pañcahi orambhāgiyehi saṃyojanehi cittaṃ vimuccati. Ayaṃ, ānanda, paṭhamo ānisaṃso kālena dhammassavane. (1)
Ānanda, there are these six benefits to hearing the teaching at the right time and examining the meaning at the right time. What six? Firstly, take the case of a mendicant whose mind is not freed from the five lower fetters. At the time of death they get to see the Realized One. The Realized One teaches them Dhamma that’s good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, meaningful and well-phrased. And he reveals a spiritual practice that’s entirely full and pure. When they hear that teaching their mind is freed from the five lower fetters. This is the first benefit of listening to the teaching.

(2. Has 5 lower fetters → after Buddha’s disciple talk → rid of 5 lower fetters )

Puna caparaṃ, ānanda, bhikkhuno pañcahi orambhāgiyehi saṃyojanehi cittaṃ avimuttaṃ hoti. So tamhi samaye maraṇakāle na heva kho labhati tathāgataṃ dassanāya, api ca kho tathāgatasāvakaṃ labhati dassanāya. Tassa tathāgatasāvako dhammaṃ deseti ādikalyāṇaṃ majjhekalyāṇaṃ pariyosānakalyāṇaṃ sātthaṃ sabyañjanaṃ, kevalaparipuṇṇaṃ parisuddhaṃ brahmacariyaṃ pakāseti. Tassa taṃ dhammadesanaṃ sutvā pañcahi orambhāgiyehi saṃyojanehi cittaṃ vimuccati. Ayaṃ, ānanda, dutiyo ānisaṃso kālena dhammassavane. (2)
Next, take the case of another mendicant whose mind is not freed from the five lower fetters. At the time of death they don’t get to see the Realized One, but they get to see a Realized One’s disciple. The Realized One’s disciple teaches them Dhamma … When they hear that teaching their mind is freed from the five lower fetters. This is the second benefit of listening to the teaching.

(3. Has 5 lower fetters → after using V&V&U on memorized dhamma → rid of 5 lower fetters )

Puna caparaṃ, ānanda, bhikkhuno pañcahi orambhāgiyehi saṃyojanehi cittaṃ avimuttaṃ hoti. So tamhi samaye maraṇakāle na heva kho labhati tathāgataṃ dassanāya, napi tathāgatasāvakaṃ labhati dassanāya; api ca kho yathāsutaṃ yathāpariyattaṃ dhammaṃ cetasā anu-vitakketi anu-vicāreti manas-ānu-pekkhati. Tassa yathāsutaṃ yathāpariyattaṃ dhammaṃ cetasā anu-vitakkayato anu-vicārayato manas-ānu-pekkhato pañcahi orambhāgiyehi saṃyojanehi cittaṃ vimuccati. Ayaṃ, ānanda, tatiyo ānisaṃso kālena atthupaparikkhāya. (3)
Next, take the case of another mendicant whose mind is not freed from the five lower fetters. At the time of death they don’t get to see the Realized One, or to see a Realized One’s disciple. But they think about and consider the teaching in their heart, examining it with the mind as they learned and memorized it. As they do so their mind is freed from the five lower fetters. This is the third benefit of listening to the teaching.

(4. Rid of 5 lower fetters → after Buddha talk → becomes arahant )

Idhānanda, bhikkhuno pañcahi orambhāgiyehi saṃyojanehi cittaṃ vimuttaṃ hoti, anuttare ca kho upadhisaṅkhaye cittaṃ avimuttaṃ hoti. So tamhi samaye maraṇakāle labhati tathāgataṃ dassanāya. Tassa tathāgato dhammaṃ deseti ādikalyāṇaṃ majjhekalyāṇaṃ … pe … brahmacariyaṃ pakāseti. Tassa taṃ dhammadesanaṃ sutvā anuttare upadhisaṅkhaye cittaṃ vimuccati. Ayaṃ, ānanda, catuttho ānisaṃso kālena dhammassavane. (4)
Next, take the case of a mendicant whose mind is freed from the five lower fetters, but not with the supreme ending of attachments. At the time of death they get to see the Realized One. The Realized One teaches them Dhamma … When they hear that teaching their mind is freed with the supreme ending of attachments. This is the fourth benefit of listening to the teaching.

(5. Rid of 5 lower fetters → after Buddha’s disciple talk → becomes arahant )

Puna caparaṃ, ānanda, bhikkhuno pañcahi orambhāgiyehi saṃyojanehi cittaṃ vimuttaṃ hoti, anuttare ca kho upadhisaṅkhaye cittaṃ avimuttaṃ hoti. So tamhi samaye maraṇakāle na heva kho labhati tathāgataṃ dassanāya, api ca kho tathāgatasāvakaṃ labhati dassanāya. Tassa tathāgatasāvako dhammaṃ deseti ādikalyāṇaṃ … pe … parisuddhaṃ brahmacariyaṃ pakāseti. Tassa taṃ dhammadesanaṃ sutvā anuttare upadhisaṅkhaye cittaṃ vimuccati. Ayaṃ, ānanda, pañcamo ānisaṃso kālena dhammassavane. (5)
Next, take the case of another mendicant whose mind is freed from the five lower fetters, but not with the supreme ending of attachments. At the time of death they don’t get to see the Realized One, but they get to see a Realized One’s disciple. The Realized One’s disciple teaches them Dhamma … When they hear that teaching their mind is freed with the supreme ending of attachments. This is the fifth benefit of listening to the teaching.

(6. Rid of 5 lower fetters → after using V&V&U on memorized dhamma → becomes arahant )

Puna caparaṃ, ānanda, bhikkhuno pañcahi orambhāgiyehi saṃyojanehi cittaṃ vimuttaṃ hoti, anuttare ca kho upadhisaṅkhaye cittaṃ avimuttaṃ hoti. So tamhi samaye maraṇakāle na heva kho labhati tathāgataṃ dassanāya, napi tathāgatasāvakaṃ labhati dassanāya; api ca kho yathāsutaṃ yathāpariyattaṃ dhammaṃ cetasā anu-vitakketi anu-vicāreti manas-ānu-pekkhati. Tassa yathāsutaṃ yathāpariyattaṃ dhammaṃ cetasā anu-vitakkayato anu-vicārayato manas-ānu-pekkhato anuttare upadhisaṅkhaye cittaṃ vimuccati. Ayaṃ, ānanda, chaṭṭho ānisaṃso kālena atthupaparikkhāya. (6)
Next, take the case of another mendicant whose mind is freed from the five lower fetters, but not with the supreme ending of attachments. At the time of death they don’t get to see the Realized One, or to see a Realized One’s disciple. But they think about and consider the teaching in their heart, examining it with the mind as they learned and memorized it. As they do so their mind is freed with the supreme ending of attachments. This is the sixth benefit of listening to the teaching.
Ime kho, ānanda, cha ānisaṃsā kālena dhammassavane kālena atthupaparikkhāyā”ti.
These are the six benefits to hearing the teaching at the right time and examining the meaning at the right time.”

AN 6.56 Phagguna attained arahantship listening to Dhamma but not in jhāna?
#2

This shows that being an Arahant requires more than just the removal of the five lower fetters.