Are there any suttas besides SN 47.10 that explain directed and undirected samādhi development?

All I could find is SN 47.10

directed, panidhāya, development uses V&V (vitakka and vicara). Un-directed, no longer needs V&V to get into passadhi and samadhi bojjhanga.

(Undirected, ap-panidhāya, development)
:diamonds: “kathañ-c-ānanda,
“And-how-,-Ānanda,
ap-paṇidhāya bhāvanā hoti?
{is there} un-directed development?

(4sp #1: kāya)
bahiddhā, ānanda, bhikkhu
externally, ******, (a) monk’s
cittaṃ ap-paṇidhāya
mind (is) not-directed [there].
‘ap-paṇihitaṃ me bahiddhā cittan’ti
’not-directed ** externally (is) {my} mind’;
pajānāti.
(this he) understands.
atha pacchā-pure
Then, [regarding] afterwards-&-before,
‘a-saṃkhittaṃ vimuttaṃ ap-paṇihitan’ti
’un-constricted, liberated, un-directed.’;
pajānāti.
(this he) understands.

atha ca pana
Then, and furthermore:
‘kāye kāy-ānupassī viharāmi
’body (as) body-contemplating (I) abide (in).
ātāpī sampajāno satimā,
ardent, clearly-comprehending, mindful,
sukham-asmī’ti
happy-I (am).'
pajānāti.
(this he) understands.

1 Like

It should be a synonym to the more frequent “appaṇihito samādhi”. Actually SN 47.10 suggests this itself.
And it always appears in the triplet suññato samādhi, animitto samādhi, appaṇihito samādhi (DN33, MN 44, SN 41.6, SN 43.4, SN 43.11, SN 47.10, AN 3.183).

5 Likes

Thanks for that tip. I looked through all of those passages yesterday, here are my notes. I don’t think they’re the same though. There’s may be some relationship, but SN 47.10 is showing how to calm V&V (vitakka & vicara) via the 7sb (awakening factors) to get to the un-directed samadhi (no V&V), whereas the other sutta references are talking about a higher level of samadhi on par with animitta and sunnata, nirvana, and the first contact from emerging from samadhi attainment #an9.11::tag

Table of Contents

Ap-paṇihita (un-directed) samādhi

.
.

CPED Ap-paṇihita

Appaṇihita (adj.) [a + paṇihita] aimless, not bent on anything, free from desire, usually as nt. aimlessness combd. w. animittaŋ Vin iii.92, 93 = iv.25; Dhs 351 508, 556. See on term Cpd. 67; Dhs trsl. 93, 143 cp. paṇihita.;

CPED Paṇihita

Paṇihita [pp. of paṇidahati] applied, directed, intent, bent on, well directed, controlled S iv.309 (dup˚); A i.8 v.87; Dh 43; (sammā ˚ŋ cittaŋ); Sn 154 (su˚ mano suṭṭhu ṭhapito acalo SnA 200); Ps ii.41 (vimokkha) Miln 204, 333; 413. -- appaṇihita in connection with samādhi & vimokkha seems to mean "free from all longings," see Vin iii.93=iv.25; S iv.295, 309, 360 Ps ii.43 sq., 100; Miln 337.

CPED Paṇidahati

Paṇidahati [pa+ni+dhā] to put forth, put down to, apply, direct, intend; aspire to, long for, pray for S v.156 (atthāya cittaŋ paṇidahiŋ). ger. paṇidhāya S i.42=Sn 660 (vācaŋ manañ ca pāpakaŋ); S i.170 (ujuŋ kāyaŋ); A iii.249 (deva -- nikāyaŋ p.); iv.461 sq (id.); Vbh 244 (ujuŋ kāyaŋ p.)=DA i.210. Also lit (as prep with acc.) "in the direction of, towards M i.74 (angārā -- kāsuŋ). -- pp. paṇihita (q. v.).

SN 43.12 Two types of "undirected samādhi"

SN 4, 9. asaṅkhatasaṃyuttaṃ, 2. dutiyavaggo, 1. asaṅkhatasuttaṃ (SN 43.12), para. 4 ⇒

first type is using V&V, no vitakka + some vicara, no V&V

♦ “katamo ca, bhikkhave, asaṅkhatagāmimaggo? savitakko savicāro samādhi. ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, asaṅkhatagāmimaggo ... pe ... katamo ca, bhikkhave, asaṅkhatagāmimaggo? avitakko vicāramatto samādhi. ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, asaṅkhatagāmimaggo ... pe ... katamo ca, bhikkhave, asaṅkhatagāmimaggo? avitakko avicāro samādhi. ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, asaṅkhatagāmimaggo ... pe ....

second type is part of a list of sunnata, animitta, appanihito

♦ “katamo ca, bhikkhave, asaṅkhatagāmimaggo? suññato samādhi. ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, asaṅkhatagāmimaggo ... pe ... katamo ca, bhikkhave, asaṅkhatagāmimaggo? animitto samādhi. ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, asaṅkhatagāmimaggo ... pe ... katamo ca, bhikkhave, asaṅkhatagāmimaggo? appaṇihito samādhi. ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, asaṅkhatagāmimaggo ... pe ....

type 1: V&V, no vitakka + some vicara, no V&V

SN 47.10 leads you from 4sp to jhāna

SN 5, 3. satipaṭṭhānasaṃyuttaṃ, 1. ambapālivaggo, 10. bhikkhunupassayasuttaṃ (SN 47.10), para. 8 ⇒

(Buddha then elaborates on what they did in 4sp to get those good results)

(While in 4sp, how to ward off hindrances)

♦ “katamesu catūsu?
“Which four?
idh'-ānanda, bhikkhu
Here, *******, (a) monk, {dwells like this:}
kāye kāy-ānupassī viharati
(the) body (as a) body-(he)-contemplates ********,
ātāpī sampajāno satimā,
ardent, clearly-comprehending, mindful,
vineyya loke abhijjhā-domanassaṃ.
(having) removed worldly greed-&-distress.
tassa kāye kāy-ānupassino viharato
while {dwelling in} body (as) body-contemplating, *******
kāy-ārammaṇo vā uppajjati kāyasmiṃ
(some) body-issues ** arise (from) the-body,
pariḷāho,
(such as) burning-fever,
cetaso vā līnattaṃ,
mental ** sluggishness,
bahiddhā vā cittaṃ vikkhipati.
(towards the) external, ** mind (is) distracted.

(7sb bodhi-anga derived sequence)

ten'-ānanda, bhikkhunā
then-******** (that) monk,
kismiñcideva pasādanīye nimitte
(towards) some inspiring sign.
cittaṃ paṇidahitabbaṃ.
(his) mind (he) should-direct.
tassa kismiñcideva pasādanīye nimitte
while (towards) some inspiring sign
cittaṃ paṇidahato
(his) mind (is) directed (at),
pāmojjaṃ jāyati.
gladness (is) born.
pamuditassa pīti jāyati.
(while) gladdened, rapture (is) born.
Pīti-manassa kāyo passambhati.
(with) en-raptured-mind, body (is) tranquil.
Passaddha-kāyo sukhaṃ vedayati.
(One) tranquil-in-body, happiness (he) experiences.
sukhino cittaṃ samādhiyati.
(one who is of) happy mind, becomes-concentrated.

(no more need for V&V, passed from first to second jhāna)

so iti paṭisañcikkhati —
He then reflects:
‘yassa khvāhaṃ atthāya
‘The purpose (for the) sake (of which)
cittaṃ paṇidahiṃ,
(my) mind (was) directed,
so me attho abhinipphanno.
that I have accomplished.
handa, dāni paṭisaṃharāmī’ti.
Let me now withdraw it.’
so paṭisaṃharati ceva
(So) he withdraws that (mind)
na ca vitakketi na ca vicāreti.
{and} doesn’t think {and} doesn’t examine.
‘a-vitakkomhi a-vicāro,
‘Without-thought (and) without-examination,
ajjhattaṃ satimā sukham-asmī’ti
internally mindful, happy-I (am).
pajānāti”.
(that, he) understands.”

(remaining 3 parts of 4sp ellided)

(Starting with the line “[1] kāye kāy-ānupassī viharati”, and line [4] & [5] relative to that, substitute in kya with vedana, citta, dhamma for the remaining 4sp)
♦ “puna ca-paraṃ, ānanda,
"Again, and-furthermore, Ananda,
bhikkhu vedanāsu ... pe ...
(a) monk does [... 2nd 4sp on vedana ...]
citte ...pe ...
(a) monk does [... 3nd 4sp on citta ...]
dhamma ...pe ...
(a) monk does [... 4th 4sp on dhamma ...]
evaṃ kho, ānanda,
Thus indeed, Ananda,
paṇidhāya bhāvanā hoti.
{is} directed development ****.

(Undirected, ap-panidhāya, development)

♦ “kathañ-c-ānanda,
“And-how-,-Ānanda,
ap-paṇidhāya bhāvanā hoti?
{is there} un-directed development?

(4sp #1: kāya)

bahiddhā, ānanda, bhikkhu
externally, ******, (a) monk's
cittaṃ ap-paṇidhāya
mind (is) not-directed [there].
‘ap-paṇihitaṃ me bahiddhā cittan’ti
'not-directed ** externally (is) {my} mind';
pajānāti.
(this he) understands.
atha pacchā-pure
Then, [regarding] afterwards-&-before,
‘a-saṃkhittaṃ vimuttaṃ ap-paṇihitan’ti
'un-constricted, liberated, un-directed.';
pajānāti.
(this he) understands.
atha ca pana
Then, and furthermore:
‘kāye kāy-ānupassī viharāmi
'body (as) body-contemplating (I) abide (in).
ātāpī sampajāno satimā,
ardent, clearly-comprehending, mindful,
sukham-asmī’ti
happy-I (am).'
pajānāti.
(this he) understands.

(remaining 3 parts of 4sp ellided)

(only one line differs in repetition: where “‘kāye kāy-ānupassī viharāmi”, replace with vedana, citta, dhamma)
evaṃ kho, ānanda,
“Thus indeed, Ananda,
ap-paṇidhāya bhāvanā hoti.
un-directed development (this) is.

(conclusion: jhāyatha! You must practice jhāna!)

♦ “iti kho, ānanda,
"Thus indeed, Ananda,
...pe…
etāni, ānanda, rukkha-mūlāni,
These, Ānanda, (are) tree-roots,
etāni suññ-āgārāni!
These, (are) empty-huts!
Jhāyath-ānanda,
Practice-Jhāna-, -Ānanda,
mā pamādattha;
don't (be) negligent;
mā pacchā vippaṭisārino ahuvattha!
don't later {become} regretful ******** !
ayaṃ vo amhākaṃ anusāsanī”ti.
This (for) you (is) our instruction."

see article on samadhi in 3 ways

For other sutta references on samadhi with no vitakka, no vicara. Those are not called "directed development", but clearly they are referring to the same stage of practice bringing one from 4sp to 2nd jhāna.

type 2: list of sunnata, animitta, appanihito

MN 44 un-directed contact upon emerging from samadhi #9

MN 1, 5. cūḷayamakavaggo, 4. cūḷavedallasuttaṃ (MN 44.1), para. 30 ⇒
“saññāvedayitanirodhasamāpattiyā vuṭṭhitaṃ kho, āvuso visākha,
"When a monk has emerged from the cessation of perception & feeling, friend Visakha,
bhikkhuṃ tayo phassā phusanti —
three contacts make contact:
suññato phasso,
contact with emptiness,
animitto phasso,
contact with the signless, &
appaṇihito phasso”ti.
contact with the undirected."[2]

Thanissaro cmy

Emptiness, the signless, & the undirected are names for a state of concentration that lies on the threshold of Unbinding. They differ only in how they are approached. According to the commentary, they color one's first apprehension of Unbinding: a meditator who has been focusing on the theme of inconstancy will first apprehend Unbinding as signless; one who has been focusing on the theme of stress will first apprehend it as undirected; one who has been focusing on the theme of not-self will first apprehend it as emptiness.

bodhi translates appaṇihito phasso as "desireless contact"

DN 3 has 3 samadhis from MN 44, no explanation.

DN 3, 10. saṅgītisuttaṃ, tikaṃ (DN 33.6), para. 52 ⇒
“aparepi tayo samādhī — suññato samādhi, animitto samādhi, appaṇihito samādhi.

SN 41.6 same as MN 44

Only difference is the speaker is a monk instead of nun.
SN 4, 7. cittasaṃyuttaṃ, 6. dutiyakāmabhūsuttaṃ (SN 41.6), para. 8 ⇒
sādhu . pe . uttariṃ pañhaṃ apucchi — “saññāvedayitanirodhasamāpattiyā vuṭṭhitaṃ pana, bhante, bhikkhuṃ kati phassā phusanti”? “saññāvedayitanirodhasamāpattiyā vuṭṭhitaṃ kho, gahapati, bhikkhuṃ tayo phassā phusanti — suññato phasso, animitto phasso, appaṇihito phasso”ti.

SN 43.4 those 3 samadhis lead to unconditioned, asaṅkhata

SN 4, 9. asaṅkhatasaṃyuttaṃ, 1. paṭhamavaggo, 4. suññatasamādhisuttaṃ (SN 43.4), para. 1 ⇒
369. “katamo ca, bhikkhave, asaṅkhatagāmimaggo?
… “And what, bhikkhus, is the path leading to the unconditioned?
suññato samādhi,
The emptiness concentration,
animitto samādhi,
the signless concentration,
appaṇihito samādhi —
the undirected concentration:
ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, asaṅkhatagāmimaggo . pe .
this is called the path leading to the unconditioned….”

AN 3.184 part of lust (rāga) repetition series

Bhikkhus, for direct knowledge of lust, three things are to be developed. What three? Emptiness concentration, markless concentration, and wishless concentration. For direct knowledge of lust, these three things are to be developed.”
AN 3, 3. tatiyapaṇṇāsakaṃ, (18) 8. rāgapeyyālaṃ (AN 3.184), para. 1 ⇒
184. “rāgassa, bhikkhave, abhiññāya tayo dhammā bhāvetabbā. katame tayo? suññato samādhi, animitto samādhi, appaṇihito samādhi — rāgassa, bhikkhave, abhiññāya ime tayo dhammā bhāvetabbā. ( )
AN 3, 3. tatiyapaṇṇāsakaṃ, (18) 8. rāgapeyyālaṃ (AN 3.184), para. 14 ⇒
suññato animitto ca, appaṇihito ca tayo.
4 Likes

Perhaps ap-panihita samadhi is the same as:
na sa-saṅkhāra-niggayha-vārita-gato: not using-- fabrications (to) – restrain – (and) block [defilements] – ****

There’s very little description of these in the EBT, and they usually only appear in the context of nibbana, animitta, etc.

1 Like

Is it worth to put so much work into it when there is so little meat in the EBT to substantiate?
I tend to agree that they are not the same, SN 47.10 has the most details, the others don’t make that connection and ‘feel’ different in that triad. But you know how the EBT are, especially the content that was not “chosen” for mass production. Some terms are mentioned here and there without clear differentiation against other concepts. Kasinas are another example in this category.

2 Likes

I don’t understand your question. If I didn’t put the work into checking each reference carefully for detail, then how would I be able to come to the conclusion that there doesn’t seem to be any suttas in the EBT other than SN 47.10 that do have some explanation?

2 Likes

Isn’t it clearly stated?

‘‘Kathañcānanda, appaṇidhāya bhāvanā hoti? Bahiddhā, ānanda, bhikkhu cittaṃ appaṇidhāya ‘appaṇihitaṃ me bahiddhā citta’nti pajānāti.

“And how, Ananda, is there development without direction?
Not directing his mind outwardly, a bhikkhu understands:
‘My mind is not directed outwardly.’”

Two forms of the same verb.

“mind directed outwardly” from other suttas such as SN 51.20 probably means distracted by 5 hindrances or drawn towards 5 cords of sense pleasure.

So my point of saying appanihita having 2 different contexts -

  1. not being distracted by 5niv
  2. in the list of the 3 with animitta, sunnata, appanihita, seems to be implying a much higher samadhi than case 1.

You’re saying that ap-paṇidhāya bhāvana, and
appaṇihito samādhi
share the same verb and are referring to the same pali word,

or are you saying they’re the same pali word AND they are referring to the exact same samadhi ?

1 Like

They are referring to the same practice, bhāvana to process, samādhi to composure attained in the process, and appaṇihita cetovimutti to liberation attained henceforth.

2 Likes