SuttaCentral

Can SC use Piya Tan's translations?


#1

Continuing the discussion from SuttaCentral i18n development:


#2

Piya’s translations are embedded in a complex of notes and commentary, so they are difficult to extract. Moreover he does not use a Unicode font, so they need to be converted to Unicode before being useful. However if someone does want to do this work we’d be happy to host them.


#3

It would certainly be good to have them as an alternative. Perhaps someone who knows him could see if he is willing to provide his source files, which would be a lot easier to work with.


#4

I’m happy to help anyone who’s interested, but it’s a big, messy, complicated job. I looked at doing it myself some time ago, and gave up. Piya uses a lot of complicated formatting in his presentations, and that makes extracting something usable very hard. Sure, it can be done by hand for a few suttas, but to do it over the whole corpus (he has hundreds of translations) is no trivial undertaking.


#5

What is the format of the originals? If you to automate this how can this be done?


#6

Can some one convince his to use Unicode or Compatible fonts?


#7

It can’t be automated. I tried. The documents are Word docs with lots of inline styles. Essentially you’d have to extract it all as plain text, convert it to Unicode, and rebuild the formatting from scratch.


#8

Even if he started using Unicode fonts now, there’s the hundreds of non-Unicode files that need converting.


#9

Can’t you make it easy to extract by changing the font types which will make it Unicode friendly?

Also there are software which you can use to convert docs to LaTeX. Since LaTeX is text base we can extract the text. Has any of theses tools been tried out?

Following are 2 free implementations:


#10

Like I said, I tried, it didn’t work The formatting is too complex and inconsistent, none of these tools will be of much use. The simple fact is that there is no automatic way of reformatting complex documents. Simple things, things that are highly consistent and can be configured, these can be done. But complex, inconsistent documents in closed formats, created by people with limited understanding of digital texts: these are a nightmare. In my opinion, having done exactly this job for tens of thousands of texts, it’s not worth it.


#11

But how important is all the formatting if you are able to get the actual translation? Why not convert his files to plain text and then convert to Unicode, and then leave it at that? I can imagine that Piya would not mind.


#12

Okay, fine, you’ve convinced me. Here you go, here’s one example of one of Piya’s files, a straight dump of plain text. You’re most welcome to go through this, and extract a usable translation, and format it it into HTML. As someone who has done exactly this task thousands of times, I would estimate it will take me maybe an hour. Not bad, huh? I have an incomplete file of Piya’s Sutta Discovery series, it has over 900 essays. When you’d done the 1000 hours work to extract, convert, clean, and format all these, I’ll be happy to post them on SC.

S 55.24/5:375-377 Saraki Sutta 1
SD 3.6
6
Sarakāni Sutta 1
Paṭhama Sarakāni Sutta The First Discourse on Sarakāni | S 55.24/5:375-377
Be Paṭhama Saraṇāni Sakka Sutta The First Discourse on Saraṇāni the Sakya
Theme: Even a drunkard can awaken
Translated by Piya Tan ©2003
1 Sarakāni is assured of liberation
There are two consecutive Sarakāni Suttas in the Sayutta (in the 55 th book, the Sotāpatti Sayutta). 1
In both of them, the Buddha tells Mahānāma that a lay disciple who has for a long time taken refuge in
the Three Jewels, as in the case of Sarakāni, would not go to the lower realms [the hells, the ghost realm,
the animal kingdom] [6]. The briefer Sarakāni Sutta 1 succinctly presents the case of Sarakāni the Sakya,
an erstwhile drunk who dies a streamwinner. Sarakāni Sutta 2 has the same thesis, but obliquely stating
that Sarakāni “was one who had failed to complete the training” 2 and includes the simile of the two fields
(one bad, one good) and of proper Dharma practice as “good seed” (S 5:379 f).
The two suttas each have a somewhat differently worded conclusion:
Sarakāni Sutta 1: Sarakāni Mahānāma sakko maraa,kāle sikkha samādiyî ti.
“Mahānāma, Sarakāni the Sakya kept the training (in moral virtue, concentration, and
wisdom) at the time of his death.”
Sarakāni Sutta 2: Sarakāni Mahānāma sakko maraa,kāle sikkhāya paripra,kārī ahosî ti,
“Mahānāma, Sarakāni the Sakya fulfilled the training at the time of his death.”
From the contexts of the two accounts, it is clear that these two sentences mean the same thing, that is,
Sarakāni becomes a streamwinner at the time of his death.
Analayo makes this helpful observation:
Since S 5:379 [10-11] has the same set of terms used in the definition of the “Dhamma-follower”
(dhammânusārī) and the “faith-follower” (saddhā’nusārī) at M 1:479 [Kīāgiri Sutta], 3 it seems
possible that he has been such a “follower” and was thus bound to realize stream-entry latest at
death (cf S 3:225 [Cakkhu Sutta] 4 which states that it is impossible for a Dhamma-follower or a
faith-follower to pass away without having realized the fruit of stream-entry).
(2003 255 n22; normalized and annotated)
As already mentioned in Analayo‟s note, the Cakkhu Sutta (S 25.1) 5 is closely connected with this sutta,
and should be studied together with it.
2 Six categories of saints
The Buddha goes on to list six categories of persons who are assured of liberation, 6 namely:
(1) arhats, [§7]
(2) non-returners, [§8]
(3) once-returners, [§9]
(4) streamwinners, [§10]
(5) (truth-followers) who accept the Dharma “only after pondering over it with wisdom”
(dhammā paññāya mattaso nijjhāna khamanti), who do not have quick and sharp wisdom
1
S 55.24-25/5:375-380. The Chinese Āgama versions are found in SĀ 936 = T2.239 & SĀ2 160 = T2.434.
S 55.25.5/5:378.
3
M 70.18-19/1:479 = SD 11.1.
4
S 25.1/3:115 = SD 16.1.
5
S 25.1/3:115 = SD 16.1.
6
For more details, see (Sekha) Uddesa S (A 4.85), SD 3.3(2).
2
62
http://dharmafarer.orgS 5.11.3.4
Sayutta Nikya 5, Mahā Vagga 11, Sotāpatti Saṁyutta 3, Sarakāni Vagga 4
and have not attained complete release, but who possess the 5 faculties (pañc’indriya) of
faith, energy, mindfulness, concentration and wisdom [§11]; and
(6) (faith-followers) who only possess the 5 faculties but who have mere faith (saddhā,matta) 7 in
and mere love (pema,matta) for the Buddha. [§12]
The elder monks of old (poraaka thera) call (5) and (6) “lesser streamwinners” (ca,sotāpanna) or
“maturing streamwinner” (bala,sotāpanna). 8
3 The 5 spiritual faculties
The 5 spiritual faculties (pañc’indriya) 9 —faith, effort, mindfulness, concentration, wisdom—are
traditionally said to be “the qualities of a leader” (from inda, Skt indra, meaning “leader”). However, as
spiritual faculties, they are the tools for personal development and spiritual leadership. When these spirit-
ual faculties become “unshakable” by their opposites, they are then known as “spiritual powers” (bala). 10
According to the Pañca Bala Sutta 2 (A 5.15), the faculties are transformed into powers in this way:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
faith,
effort,
mindfulness,
concentration,
wisdom,
seen in the 4 qualities of the streamwinner (sotāpannassa agāni); 11
seen in the 4 right exertions (samma-p,padhānāni); 12
seen in the 4 focusses of mindfulness (sati’pahāna); 13
seen in the 4 absorptions (jhāna);
seen in the understanding of the 4 noble truths.
(A 5.15/3:11 f)
7
“Faith,” saddh. There are 2 kinds of faith (saddh): (1) “rootless faith” (amlaka,saddh), baseless or irrational
faith, blind faith. (M 2:170); (2) “faith with a good cause” (kravati,saddh), faith founded on seeing (M 1:320,8
401,23); also called avecca-p,pasda (S 12.41.11/2:69). “Wise faith” is syn with (2). Amlaka = “not seen, not
heard, not suspected” (V 2:243 3:163 & Comy). Ledi Sayadaw speaks of 2 kinds of faith: “ordinary faith” (pakati
saddh) and “faith through cultivation” (bhvan saddh) (The Manuals of Buddhism, 1965:339 f). “Ordinary faith”
is mainly based on giving and pious acts (which can be either wholesome or unwholesome, depending on the inten-
tion). “Faith through cultivation” is founded on mindfulness practice and meditation. Gethin speaks of two kinds of
faith: the cognitive and the affective (eg ERE: Faith, & Jayatilleke, Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge, 1963:387):
“Faith in its cognitive dimension is seen as concerning belief in propositions or statements of which one does not—
or perhaps cannot—have knowledge proper (however that should be defined); cognitive faith is a mode of knowing
in a different category from that knowledge. Faith is its affective dimension is a more straightforward positive res-
ponse to trust or confidence towards something or somebody…the conception of saddh in Buddhist writings ap-
pears almost, if not entirely affective, the cognitive element is completely secondary” (Gethin 2001:207; my em-
phases).
8
MA 2:120; cf Vism 605/29.27. For further discussion on “lesser streamwinner,” see Laymen saints, SD 8.6-
(14b).
9
The 5 faculties (pañc’indriya): see Āpaṇa S (S 48.50/5:225 f), SD 10.4. For a traditional exposition, see eg, Ledi
Sayadaw, 1965:338-348.
10
The 5 powers (pañca bala): see Pañca bala, SD 10.5. For a traditional exposition, see eg, Ledi Sayadaw, 1965:
348-356.
11
The 4 qualities of a streamwinner: (1) unshakable faith in the Buddha, (2) in the Dharma, and (3) in the sangha;
and (4) moral virtue dear to the saints. See D 331.11(14); S 55.1. The qualities are known by various other names,
reflecting its importance: desirable states (kakhiya-,hna, S 5:356), the mirror of the Dharma (dhamm’dsa, D
2:93=S 5:357), the divine steps to the gods (devna deva,padni, S 55.34-35/5:392), the flood of meritorious and
of wholesome actions (puññâbhisanda kusalâbhisanda, S 55.31-32/5:391).
12
So called on their own. As part of the noble eightfold path (magga), the 4 right exertions are called “right ef-
fort” (samm,vyma), and they are: (1) the effort to avoid (unwholesome states) (savara,padhna); (2) the effort
to abandon (unwholesome states) (pahna,padhna); (3) the effort to cultivate (wholesome states) (bhavan,padh-
na); and (4) the effort to maintain (wholesome states) (anurakkhaa,padhna) (V 1:22; D 2:120; M 2:96, 3:296; S
1:105, 3:96; A 2:15, 16, 74, 4:13, 125).
13
The 4 focuses of mindfulness: (1) contemplation of the body (kyânupassan); (2) contemplation of feelings
(vedan’nupassan); (3) contemplation of the mind (cittânupassan); (4) contemplation of mind-objects (dhammâ-
nupassan). See Mah Satipahna S (D 22) or Satipahna S (M 10), SD 13.
http://dharmafarer.org
63SD 3.6
S 55.24/5:375-377 Saraki Sutta 1
The statement that even those with wise conviction in the Dharma can attain liberation means that
even one who regards himself as a “non-Buddhist,” but who has a deep understanding of the Dharma and
commitment to it, can reach awakening. Such a person, indeed, may not a Buddhist in name, but truly a
Buddhist in practice!
4 The lesser streamwinner
Like the Alagaddûpama Sutta 14 and the Bhaddāli Sutta, 15 the two Sarakāni Suttas, 16 close with the
remarkable statement that “even mere faith, mere love” in the Buddha (saddhā,matta pema,matta) 17 [sutta
§12] could lead one to liberation. The Commentary to the Alagaddûpama Sutta explains that this refers to
the insight practitioners (vipassaka,puggala) who have not attained any supramundane state, not gaining
even streamentry, they are reborn in a heaven, adding that the “early elders” (porāaka-t,thera) call them
“lesser streamwinners” (ca,sotāpanna). 18 On the other hand, we can take this passage as is, that is, any-
one who has “mere faith, mere love” in the Buddha are reborn in a heaven, without going against the
grain of early Buddhism. 19
We need to examine the two closing passages on the truth-follower (dhammânusārī) [sutta §11] and
the faith-follower (saddhā’nusārī) [sutta §12] more closely. The Suttas speaks of both these persons as
possessing the five spiritual faculties (indriya) [3]:
Here, Mahānāma, a certain person does not possess wise faith in the three jewels. He is not
one of joyous wisdom, nor of quick wisdom, and he has not attained liberation. However, he has
these five things [the five spiritual faculties]—the faculty of faith, the faculty of effort, the
faculty of mindfulness, the faculty of concentration, the faculty of wisdom. [§§11-12]
The truth-follower, however, is defined as one who “accepts the truths proclaimed by the Tathāgata
after only some pondering over it with wisdom” 20 [§11]. The faith-follower, on the other hand, only “has
mere faith in the Tathāgata, mere love for him” [§12]. Both are similarly said to be “freed from hell, the
animal kingdom, the ghost realm and the suffering states,” just like the other four kinds of saints.
In fact, both these persons are defined in the same terms in the Cakkhu Sutta. 21 The sutta opens with
a reflection on impermanence (anicca,saññā), that is, the six senses are “impermanent, changing, becom-
ing otherwise.” The sutta defines the two persons in relation to this reflection, thus:
…one who has faith thus, who firmly believes these truths [is convinced of these truths], is
called a faith-follower, he is descending into the certainty of rightness, 22 entered the plane of true
individuals, 23 gone beyond the plane of the worldlings.
…one who accepts these truths after pondering over them with some wisdom thus, 24 is called
a truth-follower, he is descending into the certainty of rightness, entered the plane of true indivi-
duals, gone beyond the plane of the worldlings.
14
M 22.4/1:141.
M 1:444/65.27.
16
S 55.24-25/5:375-380. The Chinese Āgama versions are found in SĀ 936 = T2.239 & SĀ2 160 = T2.434.
17
“Those who have mere faith in me and mere love for me” (yesa mayi saddhā,matta pema,matta) (M 22.4/-
1:141, 65.27/1:444).
18
MA 1:120.
19
See M:ÑB 2001:1212 n274.
20
C’assa dhamm paññya mattaso nijjhna khamanti. I render mattaso here as “only some.” See S:B 1099
n269.
21
S 25.1/3:225 = SD 16.7 (1.5).
22
On this phrase, see (Anicca) Cakkhu S (S 25.1), SD 16.7 (1.6.3).
23
“True individuals,” sappurisa, also “superior persons”; often syn with “noble disciple,” ariya,svaka, but here
clearly includes those, although not yet on the path, but assured of it, viz the faith-follower and the truth-follower.
15
64
http://dharmafarer.orgS 5.11.3.4
Sayutta Nikya 5, Mahā Vagga 11, Sotāpatti Saṁyutta 3, Sarakāni Vagga 4
The Cakkhu Sutta then says that these two types of person are of a high moral quality and have reached
the plane of the noble ones, and that although they have not yet realized the fruit of streamwinning, they
will certainly do so before they die:
He is incapable of doing any intentional deed by which he might be reborn in hell, or in the
animal world, or in the ghost realm. He is incapable of dying without attaining the fruit of stream-
winning.
(S 25.1/3:225 = SD 16.7)
This is in fact the sutta‟s key statement and clearly refers to what, after the Buddha‟s time, is referred to
as a “lesser streamwinner” (culla,sotāpanna, cullaka,sotāpanna). 25
The ease of entering the path to awakening as a streamwinner is broadly hinted at by the Buddha‟s
closing simile of the giant sal trees:
Even these great sal trees, Mahānāma, if they could understand what is well spoken and what is
ill spoken, I would declare them to be streamwinners, no longer bound to the lower world, of
fixed destiny, sure of awakening!
[§13]
The operative word here is of course “understand,” that is, even with a basic level of understanding if one
were to be able to distinguish good from evil, accepting the former and abandoning the latter, and to
direct one‟s mind to the perception of impermanence, one is already walking on the path to awakening.
— — —
The First Discourse on Sarakāni
S 55.24/5:375-377
[375]
1 Originating at Kapilavatthu. 26
A drunk becomes a streamwinner
2 Now at that time Sarakāni the Sakya had died and the Blessed One declared that he was a stream-
winner, no longer bound to the lower world, of fixed destiny, sure of awakening.
3 Thereupon a number of Sakyas, gathered together, angry, grumbling and annoyed by this, saying:
“It is amazing indeed, sirs! It is astonishing indeed, sirs!
Who now would not be a streamwinner when the Blessed One has declared Sarakāni the Sakya, after
he had died, to be a streamwinner, no longer bound to the lower world, of fixed destiny, sure of awaken-
ing?
Sarakāni the Sakya had failed in his training: 27 he took to intoxicating drinks!” 28
24
Yassa kho bhikkhave ime dhamm eva paññya mattaso nijjhna khamanti.
See Entering the stream, SD 3.3(6) & (Anicca) Cakkhu S (S 25.1), SD 16.7 Intro.
26
Kapilavatthu nidna, alt tr “Kapilavatthu was the occasion” (S:W).
27
It is possible that Saraki had been a monk and then left the order.
28
Sikkh,dubbalya pdi majja,pna apyi. The Sakyas thought that if Sarakni had breached the fifth precept
(against taking intoxicants), he would lack the fourth factor of the qualities of a streamwinner. On the 4 qualities of a
streamwinner (sotpannassa agni), see Intro above.
25
http://dharmafarer.org
65SD 3.6
S 55.24/5:375-377 Saraki Sutta 1
Mahānāma questions the Buddha
4 Then Mahānāma the Sakya approached the Blessed One, saluted him and then sat down at one
side.
Seated thus at one side, Mahanama the Sakyan said this to the Blessed One,
5 “Here, bhante, Sarakāni the Sakya has died and the Blessed One has declared that he was a
streamwinner, no longer bound to the lower world, of fixed destiny, sure of awakening.
Thereupon, bhante, a number of Sakyas, having gathered together, angry, grumbling and annoyed by
this, said:
„It is amazing indeed, sirs! It is astonishing indeed, sirs! Who now would not be a streamwinner when
the Blessed One has declared Sarakāni the Sakya, after he had died, to be a streamwinner, no longer
bound to the lower world, of fixed destiny, sure of awakening?
Sarakāni the Sakya had failed in his training: he took to intoxicating drinks!‟”
The benefits of refuge-going
6 “Mahānāma, when a layman has gone for refuge over a long time to the Buddha, to the Dharma
and to the sangha, how could he go to a lower world?
6.2 Mahānāma, one rightly speaking of a layman who has for a long time gone for refuge to the Bud-
dha, to the Dharma and to the sangha
would rightly speak of Sarakāni the Sakya [376] as a layman who has for a long time gone for refuge
to the Buddha, to the Dharma and to the sangha.
So how could he go to a lower world?
Those assured of liberation
7 (1) T HE ARHAT
T HE RECOLLECTION OF THE B UDDHA 29
Here, Mahānāma, a certain person is has [endowed with] wise faith 30 in the Buddha, thus:
„So, too, is he the Blessed One [the Lord]: for, he is
iti pi so bhagavā
arhat,
araha
fully self-awakened one,
sammā,sambuddho
accomplished in wisdom and conduct,
vijjā,caraa,sampanno
well-farer,
sugato
knower of worlds,
loka,vid
peerless guide of persons to be tamed,
anuttaro purisa,damma,sārathī
teacher of gods and humans,
satthā deva,manussāna
awakened,
buddho
blessed.‟
bhagavā ti
7.2 T HE RECOLLECTION OF THE D HARMA 31
He has wise faith in the Dharma, thus:
„Well-taught is the True Teaching of the Blessed One,
svākkhāto bhagavatā dhammo
visible here and now,
sandihiko
29
See Dhajagga S (S 11.3.11/1:219 = SD 15.5. The 9 virtues of the Buddha, commented on at Vism 7.1-67/197-

  1. For further detailed analysis, see Buddhânussati, SD 15.7 see also Sundarika Bhāra,dvāja S (Sn 3.4), SD
    15.7b.
    30
    “Wise faith,” avecca-p,pasda, ie faith or confidence through understanding. Pasda refers to a faith that is
    characterized by mental lucidity and serenity, and also a personal radiance. The early texts speak of 2 kinds of faith
    (saddh): (1) “rootless faith” (amlaka,saddh), baseless or irrational faith, blind faith (M 2:170); (2) “faith with a
    good cause” (kravati,saddh), faith founded on seeing or understanding (M 1:320, 8 , 401, 23 ). “Wise faith” is syn
    with (2). Amlaka = “not seen, not heard, not suspected” (V 2:243 3:163 & Comy).
    31
    For detailed analysis of terms here, see Dhammânussati, SD 15.9.
    66
    http://dharmafarer.orgS 5.11.3.4
    Sayutta Nikya 5, Mahā Vagga 11, Sotāpatti Saṁyutta 3, Sarakāni Vagga 4
    immediate [having nothing to do with time],
    akāliko
    inviting one to come and see,
    ehi,passiko
    accessible [to bring oneself up to it],
    opanayiko
    to be personally known by the wise.‟
    paccatta veditabbo viññhî ti
    7.3 T HE RECOLLECTION OF THE S ANGHA 32
    He has wise faith in the sangha, thus:
    „The Blessed One‟s community of disciples
    keeps to the good way;
    supaipanno bhagavato sāvaka,sagho
    the Blessed One‟s community of disciples
    keeps to the straight way;
    uju,paipanno bhagavato sāvaka,sagho
    the Blessed One‟s community of disciples
    keeps to the right way;
    ñāya,paipanno bhagavato sāvaka,sagho
    the Blessed One‟s community of disciples
    keeps to the proper way.
    sāmīci,paipanno bhagavato sāvaka,sagho
    These are the four pairs of persons,
    yad ida cattāri purisa,yugāni
    the eight individuals:
    aha,purisa,puggalā
    this Blessed One‟s community of disciples is
    esa bhagavato sāvaka,sagho
    worthy of offerings,
    āhuneyyo
    worthy of hospitality,
    pāhuneyyo
    worthy of gifts,
    dakkhieyyo
    worthy of salutation with the lotus-palms,
    añjali,karaīyo
    a supreme field of merit for the world.‟
    anuttara puñña-k,khetta lokassâ ti
    7.4 He is one with joyous wisdom, 33 of quick wisdom, 34 and liberated.
    7.5 By the destruction of the mental influxes, 35
    he attains and dwells here and now [in this life itself]
    in the influx-free liberation of mind and the liberation by wisdom, 36
    realizing them for himself with direct knowledge.
    7.6 This person, Mahānāma, is fully freed from hell, from the animal womb, from the ghost realm,
    fully freed from any woeful state, suffering state, or lower world. 37
    32
    See Dhajagga S (S 11.3.15/1:220 = SD 15.5. For detailed analysis of terms here, see Aṭṭha,puggala S (A 8.-
    59), SD 15.10a.
    33
    “Of joyous wisdom,” hsa,pañña, alt tr “of laughing wisdom” (from hasa, “laughter, mirth, joy”). “Here one
    with much joy [laughter], mirth, contentment and gladness perfects the virtues: this is joyous wisdom” (Pm 21.17/
    2:199 f). Comys mention hāsa,pa (joyous wisdom), javana,pa (quick wisdom) [see foll n], tikkha,pa
    (sharp wisdom, which cuts off all defilements) and nibbedhika,pa (penetrating wisdom, by which one maintains
    dispassion toward all formations) (DA 3:391-393, 4:84-86; MA 4:84; SA 1:120-123, 2:85 f; AA 2:85; ThaA 3:106 f;
    NmA 1:231 f; cf PmA 3:640 on hasa,pa).
    34
    “Of quick wisdom,” javana,pañña. This refers to one who quickly understands that the 5 aggregates are all
    impermanent, suffering and non-self (Pm 21.18/2:200). See prev n.
    35
    “Mental influxes,” sava, also tr as “cankers, corruptions.” The term sava (lit “inflow, outflow”) comes from
    -savati “flows towards” (ie either “into” or “out” towards the observer). It has been variously translated as taints
    (“deadly taints”, RD), corruptions, intoxicants, biases, depravity, misery, evil (influence), or simply left untranslat-
    ed. The Abhidhamma lists 4 sava: the influxes of (1) sense-desire (km’sava), (2) (desire for eternal) existence
    (bhav’sava), (3) wrong views (dih’sava), (4) ignorance (avijjâsava) (D 16.2.4, Pm 1.442, 561, Dhs §§1096-
    1100, Vbh §937). These 4 are also known as “floods” (ogh) and “yokes” (yog). The list of 3 influxes (omitting the
    influx of views) is probably older and is found more frequently in the Suttas (D 3:216, 33.1.10(20); M 1:55, 3:41; A
    3.59, 67, 6.63). The destruction of these sava is equivalent to arhathood. See BDict under sava.
    36
    The one liberated of mind has destroyed all the mental hindrances, and as such could attain dhyana at will. The
    one liberated by wisdom “may not have reached the 8 liberations (vimokkha = jhna) in his own body, but through
    seeing with wisdom, his mental influxes are destroyed” (M 70.16/ 1:478): see SD 11.1 (5.2) for details; also Mahā
    Suññata S (M 122), SD 11.4 (3.3).
    http://dharmafarer.org
    67SD 3.6
    S 55.24/5:375-377 Saraki Sutta 1
    8 (2) T HE NON - RETURNER
    T HE RECOLLECTION OF THE B UDDHA
    Here, Mahānāma, a certain person has wise faith in the Buddha, thus:
    „So too, is he the Blessed One [the Lord]: for, he is arhat, fully self-awakened one, accomplished in
    wisdom and conduct, well-farer, knower of worlds, peerless guide of persons to be tamed, teacher of gods
    and humans, awakened, blessed.‟
    8.2 He has wise faith in the Dharma, thus:
    T HE RECOLLECTION OF THE D HARMA . „Well-taught is the True Teaching of the Blessed One, visible
    here and now, immediate [having nothing to do with time], inviting one to come and see, accessible [to
    bring oneself up to it], to be personally known by the wise.‟
    8.3 He has wise faith in the Sangha, thus:
    T HE RECOLLECTION OF THE S ANGHA . „The Blessed One’s community of disciples keeps to the good
    way; the Blessed One’s community of disciples keeps to the straight way; the Blessed One’s community of
    disciples keeps to the right way; the Blessed One’s community of disciples keeps to the proper way.
    These are the four pairs of persons, the eight individuals: this Blessed One’s community of disciples
    is worthy of offerings, worthy of hospitality, worthy of gifts, worthy of salutation with the lotus-palms, a
    supreme field of merit for the world.‟
    8.4 He is one of joyous wisdom, of quick wisdom, but he has not attained liberation.
    8.5 However, with the utter destruction of the 5 lower fetters, 38
    he becomes one spontaneously born (in the Pure Abodes), 39
    due to attain nirvana without returning from that world.
    8.6 This person, too, Mahānāma, is fully freed from hell, from the animal womb, from the ghost
    realm, fully freed from any woeful state, suffering state, or lower world.
    9 (3) T HE ONCE - RETURNER
    T HE RECOLLECTION OF THE B UDDHA . Here, Mahānāma, a certain person has wise faith in the Bud-
    dha, thus:
    „So too, is he the Blessed One [the Lord]: for, he is arhat, fully self-awakened one, accomplished in
    wisdom and conduct, well-farer, knower of worlds, peerless guide of persons to be tamed, teacher of gods
    and humans, awakened, blessed.‟
    9.2 He has wise faith in the Dharma, thus:
    T HE RECOLLECTION OF THE D HARMA . „Well-taught is the True Teaching of the Blessed One, visible
    here and now, immediate [having nothing to do with time], inviting one to come and see, accessible [to
    bring oneself up to it], to be personally known by the wise.‟
    9.3 He has wise faith in the sangha, thus:
    T HE RECOLLECTION OF THE S ANGHA . „The Blessed One’s community of disciples keeps to the good
    way; the Blessed One’s community of disciples keeps to the straight way; the Blessed One’s community of
    disciples keeps to the right way; the Blessed One’s community of disciples keeps to the proper way.
    These are the four pairs of persons, the eight individuals: this Blessed One’s community of disciples
    37
    Ayam pi kho, mahānāma, puggalo parimutto nirayā parimutto tiracchāna,yoniyā parimutto petti,visayā pari-
    mutto apāya,duggati,vinipātā.
    38
    “The 5 lower fetters” (oram,bhāgiya). The 10 fetters (sayojan) are: (1) Personality view (sakkya,dihi), (2)
    spiritual doubt (vicikicch), (3) attachment to rules and rites (sla-b,bata,parmsa), (4) sensual lust (kma,rga),
    (5) repulsion (paigha), (6) greed for form existence (rpa,rga), (7) greed for formless existence (arpa,rga), (8)
    conceit (mna), (9) restlessness (uddhacca), (10) ignorance (avijj) (S 5:61, A 5:13, Vbh 377). The first “3 fetters,”
    when broken, lead to streamwining. In some places, no. 5 (paigha) is replaced by illwill (vypda). The first 5 are
    the lower fetters (orambhgiya), and the rest, the higher fetters (uddhambhgiya).
    39
    “Spontaneously born,” opaptika, ie, reborn as a deva in the Pure Abodes (suddh’vsa), the five highest hea-
    vens of the form world (rūpa,loka) inhabited only by non-returners who assume their last birth to become arhats and
    attain nirvana. These worlds are viha (“Non-declining”), tappa (“Unworried”), Sudassā (“Clearly Visible”), Su-
    dassī (“Clear-visioned”) and Akaihā (“Highest”) (D 3:237, M 3:103, Vbh 425, Pug 42-46).
    68
    http://dharmafarer.orgS 5.11.3.4
    Sayutta Nikya 5, Mahā Vagga 11, Sotāpatti Saṁyutta 3, Sarakāni Vagga 4
    is worthy of offerings, worthy of hospitality, worthy of gifts, worthy of salutation with the lotus-palms, a
    supreme field of merit for the world.‟
    9.4 He is not one of joyous wisdom, nor of quick wisdom, and he has not attained liberation.
    9.5 However, with the utter destruction of the 3 fetters, 40
    and with the diminishing of greed, hate and delusion,
    he becomes a once-returner
    who, after returning to this world only one more time, will make an end to suffering.
    9.6 This person, too, Mahānāma, is fully freed from hell, from the animal womb, from the ghost
    realm, fully freed from any woeful state, suffering state, or lower world. [377]
    10 (4) T HE STREAMWINNER
    T HE RECOLLECTION OF THE B UDDHA
    Here, Mahānāma, a certain person has wise faith in the Buddha, thus:
    „So too, is he the Blessed One [the Lord]: for, he is arhat, fully self-awakened one, accomplished in
    wisdom and conduct, well-farer, knower of worlds, peerless guide of persons to be tamed, teacher of gods
    and humans, awakened, blessed.‟
    10.2 He has wise faith in the Dharma, thus:
    T HE RECOLLECTION OF THE D HARMA . „Well-taught is the True Teaching of the Blessed One, visible
    here and now, immediate [having nothing to do with time], inviting one to come and see, accessible [to
    bring oneself up to it], to be personally known by the wise.‟
    10.3 He has wise faith in the sangha, thus:
    T HE RECOLLECTION OF THE S ANGHA . „The Blessed One’s community of disciples keeps to the good
    way; the Blessed One’s community of disciples keeps to the straight way; the Blessed One’s community of
    disciples keeps to the right way; the Blessed One’s community of disciples keeps to the proper way.
    These are the four pairs of persons, the eight individuals: this Blessed One’s community of disciples
    is worthy of offerings, worthy of hospitality, worthy of gifts, worthy of salutation with the lotus-palms, a
    supreme field of merit for the world.‟
    10.4 He is not one of joyous wisdom, nor of quick wisdom, and has not attained liberation.
    10.5 However, with the utter destruction of the three fetters, 41
    he becomes a streamwinner,
    not bound for a lower world, 42 sure of liberation, destined for awakening .
    10.6 This person, too, Mahānāma, is freed from hell, the animal kingdom, the ghost realm, he is fully
    released from woeful states, from suffering states, from the lower worlds.
    11 (5) T HE TRUTH - FOLLOWER 43
    Here, Mahānāma, a certain person does not have wise faith in the Buddha, thus:
    „So too, is he the Blessed One [the Lord]: for, he is arhat, fully self-awakened one, accomplished in
    wisdom and conduct, well-farer, knower of worlds, peerless guide of persons to be tamed, teacher of gods
    and humans, awakened, blessed.‟
    11.2 He does not have wise faith in the Dharma, thus:
    40
    “The (first) 3 fetters” (ti saṁyojana): see §8.2 n The 5 lower fetters.
    The (first) 3 fetters: see §8.2 n The 5 lower fetters.
    42
    Avinīpāta, alt tr “not fated for birth in a suffering state”; opp of vinīpāta, “the world of suffering”, another name
    for the 4 woeful courses (duggati) or the 4 lower worlds (apāya) (Vism 13.92 f). Sometimes 5 woeful courses (pañ-
    ca,gati) (D 3:234=33.2.1, A 11.68) are mentioned: the hells (niraya), the animal kingdom (tirachāna,yoni), the
    ghost realm (pitti,visaya), the human world (manussa) and the heavenly world (deva). Of these, the first three are
    woeful, with the asura-demons (asura,kāya) as the fourth woeful course. The remaining two are “happy courses”
    (sugati). For a discussion, see Nyanaponika & Bodhi (tr), Numerical Discourses of the Buddha, 1999:14-19.
    43
    “Truth-follower,” dhammânusrī, also “Dharma-follower.” Although not mentioned here, this section de-
    scribes the truth-follower, while the next section describes the faith-follower (saddh’nusrī). They are defined in
    Kīgiri S (M 70.20-21/1:479). According to (Anicca) Cakkhu S (S 25.1/3:225 = SD 16.7), these two types of
    persons have reached the plane of the noble ones but have not yet realized the fruit of streamwinning, and will do so
    before they die. See S:B 1098 nn268-269.
    41
    http://dharmafarer.org
    69SD 3.6
    S 55.24/5:375-377 Saraki Sutta 1
    „Well-taught is the True Teaching of the Blessed One, visible here and now, immediate [having
    nothing to do with time], inviting one to come and see, accessible [to bring oneself up to it], to be
    personally known by the wise.‟
    11.3 He does not have wise faith in the Sangha, thus:
    „The Blessed One’s community of disciples keeps to the good way; the Blessed One’s community of
    disciples keeps to the straight way; the Blessed One’s community of disciples keeps to the right way; the
    Blessed One’s community of disciples keeps to the proper way.
    These are the four pairs of persons, the eight individuals: this Blessed One’s community of disciples
    is worthy of offerings, worthy of hospitality, worthy of gifts, worthy of salutation with the lotus-palms, a
    supreme field of merit for the world.‟
    11.4 He is not one of joyous wisdom, nor of quick wisdom, and he has not attained liberation.
    11.5 However, he has these things [the five spiritual faculties]
    —the faculty of faith, the faculty of effort, the faculty of mindfulness, the faculty of concentration,
    the faculty of wisdom. 44
    11.6 And he accepts the truths proclaimed by the Tathāgata
    after only some pondering over it with wisdom. 45
    11.7 This person, too, Mahānāma, is fully freed from hell, from the animal womb, from the ghost
    realm, fully freed from any woeful state, suffering state, or lower world.
    12 (6) T HE FAITH - FOLLOWER 46
    Here, Mahānāma, a certain person does not have wise faith in the Buddha, thus:
    „So too, is he the Blessed One [the Lord]: for, he is arhat, fully self-awakened one, accomplished in
    wisdom and conduct, well-farer, knower of worlds, peerless guide of persons to be tamed, teacher of gods
    and humans, awakened, blessed.‟
    12.2 He does not have wise faith in the Dharma, thus:
    „Well-taught is the True Teaching of the Blessed One, visible here and now, immediate [having
    nothing to do with time], inviting one to come and see, accessible [to bring oneself up to it], to be
    personally known by the wise.‟
    12.3 He does not have wise faith in the Sangha, thus:
    „The Blessed One’s community of disciples keeps to the good way; the Blessed One’s community of
    disciples keeps to the straight way; the Blessed One’s community of disciples keeps to the right way; the
    Blessed One’s community of disciples keeps to the proper way.
    These are the four pairs of persons, the eight individuals: this Blessed One’s community of disciples
    is worthy of offerings, worthy of hospitality, worthy of gifts, worthy of salutation with the lotus-palms, a
    supreme field of merit for the world.‟
    12.4 He is not one of joyous wisdom, nor of quick wisdom, and he has not attained liberation.
    12.5 However, he has these things [the five spiritual faculties]
    —the faculty of faith, the faculty of effort, the faculty of mindfulness, the faculty of concentration,
    the faculty of wisdom.
    12.6 And he has mere faith in the Tathāgata, mere love for him. 47
    12.7 This person, too, Mahānāma, is fully freed from hell, from the animal womb, from the ghost
    realm, fully freed from any woeful state, suffering state, or lower world.
    44
    The 5 spiritual faculties, see Intro above.
    C’assa dhamm paññya mattaso nijjhna khamanti. I render mattaso here as “only some.” See S:B 1099
    n269.
    46
    “Faith-follower,” saddh’nusrī. See 11 n on Truth-follower.
    47
    “Mere faith…mere love,” saddh,mata hoti pema,matta. The “mere” here emphasizes the quality it quali-
    fies. See Intro (4).
    45
    70
    http://dharmafarer.orgS 5.11.3.4
    Sayutta Nikya 5, Mahā Vagga 11, Sotāpatti Saṁyutta 3, Sarakāni Vagga 4
    The sal trees
    13 Even these great sal trees, 48 Mahānāma, if they could understand what is well spoken and what is
    ill spoken,
    I would declare these great trees to be streamwinners,
    no longer bound to the lower world, of fixed destiny, sure of awakening!
    How much more, then, of Sarakāni the Sakya.
    13.2 Mahānāma, Sarakāni the Sakya kept to the training at the time of his death.” 49
    — eva —
    Bibliography
    Ledi Sayadaw
    1965 The Manuals of Buddhism: The expositions of the Buddha-Dhamma. Tr & ed The English
    Editorial Board, Union Buddha Sāsana Council, Kaba-Aye, Rangoon, 1965:338-356.
    050309; rev 060225; 080206; 091031; 100503a; 110325 ct; 120301a; 130611
    48
    49
    Comy says that the Buddha was pointing to 4 sal trees nearby (Shorea robusta) (AA 3:288).
    Sarakni Mahnma sakko maraa,kle sikkha samdiyî ti. See Intro (1).
    http://dharmafarer.org
    71

#13

@brahmali

Maybe you can also try save as HTML in MS Word.

Also has anybody tried Pandocs on this file or convert to OpenOffice format and Writer2latex?

In addition there is commercial product also: http://www.wordtolatex.com/


#14

bhante, with this long S post you just effectively ruined the thread :laughing:


#15

Thank you. I do my best.


#16

Maybe you can directly use the PDFs and render them using: https://mozilla.github.io/pdf.js/. No need of any conversion. Here is a demo of this: https://mozilla.github.io/pdf.js/web/viewer.html which seams to handle many complex formatting if this is the issue.


#17

I stumbled on this also this seams to do a great job at PDF to HTML5 convertion without loosing formatting: https://github.com/coolwanglu/pdf2htmlEX. Look at the sample documents which were converted.

Also: http://viewerjs.org/


#19

The Walpola Rahula Institute is working with Mr. Piya Tan to convert his works into web friendly formats. It will be slow, but hopefully many hands will make it light. Please contact me if you are interested in helping with this.


#20

Wow, fantastic, that’s great news, and thanks so much for sharing it with us.

Can you explain a little about exactly what you’re doing?


#21

@Kaveenga

It would be great if it can be in LaTeX (https://www.latex-project.org/). Also make sure all the characters are Unicode.

This way SC can extract the text from the LaTeX files. In addition there are formats like: http://docbook.org/, http://asciidoctor.org/

I might be able to help on this but not sure.

Also many of the Web Links in the SD series are dead. I think a mechanism to archive this content would also be great value. Perhaps they can be located into: https://archive.org/index.php

Also better the website be in: https://pages.github.com/ and / or https://pages.gitlab.io/ because anyway the site is static. Also then all the old version of the files will be also available.

Also see: http://asciidoctor.org/docs/migrating-from-msword/