How big was the Sakyan kingdom?

Was it a duchy? A county? Or even smaller? Was it ever mentioned in the suttas? Are there books or sources regarding this?

You can check out this map to get some idea.

Sākya is a bit below the word ‘Nepal’ on the map and as you can see it is located in Kosala. It was a vassal state of Kosala.

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Here is another collection of maps that might be helpful:

https://www.ancient-buddhist-texts.net/Maps/MP-index.htm

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I read that sakya was a republic? Was Kosala also a republic?

Kosala was a kingdom . Though the Sakyans were very proud which led to their downfall when the offered a slave girl to the ķing. When the king found out he attaked the Sakyans a d dextroyed them.