How does the practice of reflection feature in self cultivation in Buddhism?


Is it a Buddhist practice to reflect upon one’s actions? If so, are there any specific teachings or Suttas related to self-reflection?


May be AN 5.57.
With Metta

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What do you think, Rāhula? What is the purpose of a mirror?”

“It’s for checking your reflection, sir.” MN

Memory is one of the components of mindfulness, where it puts events in the present into a frame of dhamma principles. This may be done after the event as a strengthening of the mindfulness process.

“Just as a royal frontier fortress has a gatekeeper—wise, experienced, intelligent—to keep out those he doesn’t know and to let in those he does, for the protection of those within, and to ward off those without; in the same way, a disciple of the noble ones is mindful, endowed with excellent proficiency in mindfulness, remembering & recollecting what was done and said a long time ago. With mindfulness as his gatekeeper, the disciple of the noble ones abandons what is unskillful, develops what is skillful, abandons what is blameworthy, develops what is blameless, and looksafter himself with purity.” — AN 7:63

“ (mindfulness) remembers lessons drawn from right view in the past—both lessons from reading and listening to the Dhamma, as well as lessons from reading the results of your own actions—that can be used to shape this activity in a more skillful direction: to act as the path to the end of suffering, which—as we noted at the end of Chapter One—is also a form of fabrication. This means that right mindfulness doesn’t simply observe fabrications, nor is it disinterested. It’s motivated by the aim of right view: to put an end to suffering. It’s a fabrication that helps to supervise the intentional mastery of the processes of fabrication so that they can form the path of the fourth noble truth.”—-“Right Mindfulness”, Thanissaro