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K.L Dhammajoti (2008). The Sixteen-mode Mindfulness of Breathing


#1

KL Dhammajoti has written a most informative comparative study of the 16 modes of anapanasati as it appears in most of the available textual traditions, including the Sarvastivada, Theravada, and the Sariputrabhidharma tradition.


#2

Just realized that this is not easily available to everyone, especially without a Scribd account. Anyways, here is the key section which is a comparative compilation of the sixteen modes in various texts:

0. General remark.
Thera: Mindful, he breathes in. Mindful, he breathes out.
Śāri: With understanding (智慧), mindful, he breathes out, mindful, he breathes in.
SĀ: The ārya-śrāvaka, mindful breathing in trains thus as he breathes in; mindful breathing out trains thus as he breathes out.
MSV: With the force of understanding of the citta, mindful on the breathing, breathing in, he understands: “[I] breathe in.”, breathing out, he understands: “[I] breathe out”.
Sarv: Mindful, breathing in and out, he understands: “Mindful, I breathe in and out” (我已念入出息,了知我已念入出息).
AVN: Here, O bhikṣus, a bhikṣu, mindful, breathing in, understands truly: (yathābhūtaṃ prajānāti): “Mindful, I breathe in.” Mindful, breathing out, understands truly:: “Mindful, I breathe out.”
ŚrBh: Mindful breathing in, he trains thus: “Mindful, I breathe in.” Mindful breathing out, he trains thus: “Mindful, I breathe out.”

1
Thera: Breathing in long, he understands “I breathe in long”. Breathing out long, he understands: “I breathe out long”.
Śāri: A bhikṣu, breathing out long, understands: “[I] breathe out long.” Breathing in long, he understands: “[I] breathe in long”
SĀ: Mindful breathing in long, [he trains properly…]MSV: Breathing in long, he understands: “[I] breathe in long.” Breathing out long, he understands: “[I] breathe out long”
Sarv: Mindful, breathing in and out short, he understands: “Mindful, I breathe in and out short.”
DDS: Breathing out and in long.
SatŚ: Breathing out and in short.
AVN: Breathing in long, he understands truly: “I breathe in long”. And, breathing out long, he understands truly: “I breathe out long”.
ŚrBh: Mindful, breathing in long, he trains thus: “Mindful, I breathe in [long].” Mindful, breathing out [long], he trains thus: “Mindful, I breathe out [long].”.

2
Thera: Breathing in short, he understands: “I breathe in long”. Breathing out short, he understands: “I breathe out short”.
Śāri: Breathing out short, he understands: “[I] breathe out short.” Breathing in short, he understands: “[I] breathe in short.”
SĀ: Mindful, breathing in short, [he trains properly…]
MSV: Breathing in short, he understands: “[I] breathe in short.” Breathing out short, he understands: “[I] breathe out short.
Sarv: Mindful, breathing in and out long, he understands: “Mindful, I breathe in and out long.”
DDS: Breathing out and in short.
SatŚ: Breathing out and in long.
AVN: Breathing in short, he understands truly: “I breathe in short”. And, breathing out short, he understands truly: “I breathe out short”.
ŚrBh: [Mindful, breathing in] short, [he trains thus: “Mindful, I breathe in short.” Mindful, breathing out short, he trains thus: “Mindful, I breathe out short

3
Thera: He trains thus: “I shall breathe in experiencing the whole body”. He trains thus: “I shall breathe out experiencing the whole body”.
Śāri: He trains: “[I] breathe in experiencing the whole body”. He trains: “[I] breathe out experiencing the whole body.”
SĀ: Breathing in experiencing the whole body, he trains thus as he breathes in and he trains thus as he breathes out .
MSV: Breathing in experiencing the whole body, he understands: “[I] breathe in experiencing the whole body.” Breathing out experiencing the whole body, he understands: “[I] breathe out experiencing the whole body.”
Sarv: Breathing in and out experiencing the whole body, he understands: “I breathe in and out experiencing the whole body.”
DDS: Breathing out and in experiencing the whole body.SatŚ: Mindful of the breath permeating the whole body (念息遍身).
AVN: Breathing in experiencing all the bodily activities, he understands truly: “I breathe in experiencing all the bodily activities”. Breathing out experiencing all the bodily activities, he understands truly: “I breathe out experiencing all the bodily activities”.
ŚrBh: Breathing in experiencing the whole body, he trains thus: ”Experiencing the whole body I breathe in”. Breathing out experiencing the whole body, he trains thus: ”Experiencing the whole body I breathe out”.

4
Thera: He trains thus: “I shall breathe in calming (passambhayaṃ) the bodily activities”. He trains thus: “I shall breathe out calming the bodily activities”.
Śāri: He trains: “[I] breathe out eliminating (除 *pratiprasrambhayan) the bodily activities”. He trains: “[I] breathe in eliminating the bodily activities.”
SĀ: Calming the bodily activities, breathing in, he trains thus as he calms the bodily activities. Calming the bodily activities, breathing out, he trains thus as he calms the bodily activities.
MSV: Breathing in relinquishing (捨) the bodily activities, he understands: “[I] breathe in relinquishing the bodily activities.” Breathing out relinquishing the bodily activities, he understands: “[I] breathe out relinquishing the bodily activities.”
MVŚ: Breathing in and out calming the bodily activities, he understands: “I breathe in and out calming the bodily activities.”
DDS: Breathing out and in gradually putting to rest (漸休息) the bodily activities.
SatŚ: Eliminating (除) the bodily activities.
AVN: Breathing in experiencing joy (prīti), he understands truly:“I breathe in experiencing joy”. Breathing out experiencing joy, he understands truly: “I breathe out experiencing joy”.
ŚrBh: Having calmed (prasrabhya) the bodily activities, breathing in, he trains thus: “Having calmed the bodily activities, I breathe in.” Having calmed (prasrabhya) the bodily activities, breathing out, he trains thus: “Having calmed the bodily activities, I breathe out.”

5.
Thera: He trains thus: “I shall breathe in experiencing joy”. He trains thus: “I shall breathe out experiencing joy”.
SĀ: [Breathing in] experiencing joy, [he trains thus as he is experiencing joy. Breathing out experiencing joy, he trains thus as he is experiencing joy.]
MSV: Breathing in [experiencing] joy, he understands: “[I] breathe in [experiencing] joy.” Breathing out [experiencing] joy, he understands: “[I] breathe out [experiencing] joy.”
Śāri: He trains: “[I] breathe out experiencing joy”. He trains: “[I] breathe in experiencing joy.”
MVŚ: Breathing in and out experiencing joy, he understands: “I breathe in and out experiencing joy.”
DDS: Breathing out and in experiencing joy.
SatŚ: Experiencing joy.
AVN: Breathing in experiencing happiness (sukha), he understands truly: “I breathe in experiencing happiness”. Breathing out experiencing happiness, he understands truly: “I breathe out experiencing happiness”.
ŚrBh: [Breathing in] experiencing joy, he trains thus: [“I breathe in experiencing joy”. Breathing out experiencing joy, he trains thus: “I breathe out experiencing joy”.]

6.
Thera: He trains thus: “I shall breathe in experiencing happiness”. He trains thus: “I shall breathe out experiencing happiness”.
Śāri: He trains: “[I] breathe out experiencing happiness”. He trains: “[I] breathe in experiencing happiness.”
SĀ: [Breathing in] experiencing happiness, [he trains thus as he is experiencing happiness. Breathing out experiencing happiness, he trains thus as he is experiencing happiness.]
MSV: Breathing in [experiencing] happiness, he understands: “[I] breathe in [experiencing] happiness.” Breathing out [experiencing] happiness, he understands: “[I] breathe out [experiencing] happiness.”
Sarv: Breathing in and out experiencing happiness, he understands: “I breathe in and out experiencing happiness.”
DDS: Breathing out and in experiencing happiness.
SatŚ: Experiencing happiness.
AVN: Breathing in calming (pratiprasrambhayan) the bodily activities, he understands truly: “I breathe in calming the bodily activities”. Breathing out calming the bodily activities, he understands truly: “I breathe out calming the bodily activities”.
ŚrBh: [Breathing in] experiencing happiness, he trains thus: [“I breathe in experiencing happiness”. Breathing out experiencing happiness, he trains thus: “I breathe out experiencing happiness”.]

7.
Thera: He trains thus: “I shall breathe in experiencing the mental activities (citta-saṃkhāra)”. He trains thus: “I shall breathe out experiencing the mental activities”. Śāri: He trains: “[I] breathe out experiencing the mental activities.” He trains: “[I] breathe in experiencing the mental activities.”
SĀ: [Breathing in] experiencing the mental activities, [he trains thus as he is experiencing the mental activities. Breathing out experiencing the mental activities, he trains thus as he is experiencing the mental activities.]
MSV: Breathing in [experiencing] mental activities, he understands: “[I] breathe in [experiencing] mental activities.” Breathing out [experiencing] mental activities, he understands: “[I] breathe out [experiencing] mental activities.”
Sarv: Breathing in and out experiencing the mental activities, he understands: “I breathe in and out experiencing the mental activities.”
DDS: Breathing out and in applying effort [to experience] mental activities.
SatŚ: Experiencing mental activities.
AVN: Breathing in experiencing all the mental activities, he understands truly: “I breathe in experiencing all the mental activities”. Breathing out experiencing all the mental activities, he understands truly: “I breathe out experiencing the mental activities”.
ŚrBh: Breathing in experiencing the mental activities, [he trains thus: “I breathe in experiencing the mental activities”. Breathing out experiencing the mental activities, he trains thus “I breathe out experiencing the mental activities.”]

8.
Thera: He trains thus: “I shall breathe in calming the mental activities”. He trains thus: “I shall breathe out calming the mental activities”.
Śāri: He trains: “[I] breathe out eliminating the mental activities”. He trains: “[I] breathe in eliminating the mental activities.”
SĀ: Breathing in experiencing the calming of the mental activities (心行息覺知), he trains thus [as he is experiencing the calming of the mental activities. Breathing out experiencing the calming of the mental activities, he trains thus as he is experiencing the calming of the mental activities.
MSV: Breathing in relinquishing mental activities, he understands: “[I] breathe in relinquishing mental activities.” Breathing out relinquishing mental activities, he understands: “[I] breathe out relinquishing mental activities.”
Sarv: Breathing in and out calming the mental activities, he understands: “I breathe in and out calming the mental activities.”
DDS: Breathing out and in stopping/restraining (制) the mental activities.
SatŚ: Eliminating mental activities.
AVN: Breathing in calming the mental activities, he understands truly:“I breathe in calming the mental activities”. And breathing out calming the mental activities, he understands truly: “I breathe out calming the mental activities”.
ŚrBh: [Breathing in] calming the mental activities, he trains thus: “I breathe in calming the mental activities”. Breathing out calming the mental activities, he trains thus: “I breathe out calming the mental activities”.

9.
Thera: He trains thus: “I shall breathe in experiencing the citta”. He trains thus: “I shall breathe out experiencing the citta”.
Śāri: He trains: “[I] breathe out experiencing the citta”. He trains: “[I] breathe in experiencing the citta.”
SĀ: [Breathing in] experiencing the citta, [he trains thus as he is experiencing the citta. Breathing out experiencing the citta, he trains thus as he is experiencing the citta.]
MSV: Breathing in experiencing the citta, he understands: “[I] breathe in experiencing the citta”. Breathing out experiencing the citta, he understands: “[I] breathe out experiencing the citta.”
Sarv: Breathing in and out experiencing the citta, he understands: “I breathe in and out experiencing the citta.”
DDS: Breathing out and in discerning the citta.
SatŚ: Experiencing the citta.
AVN: Breathing in experiencing the citta, he understands truly: “I breathe in experiencing the citta”. Breathing out experiencing the citta, he understands truly: “I breathe out experiencing the citta”.
ŚrBh: [Breathing in] experiencing the citta, he trains thus: “I breathe in experiencing the citta”. Breathing out experiencing the citta, he trains thus: “I breathe out experiencing the citta”.

10.
Thera: He trains thus: “I shall breathe in gladdening (abhippamodayaགྷ) the citta”. He trains thus: “I shall breathe out gladdening the citta”.
Śāri: He trains: “[I] breathe out gladdening the citta”. He trains: “[I] breathe in gladdening the citta.”
SĀ: [Breathing in] gladdening the citta, [he trains thus as he is gladdening the citta. Breathing out gladdening the citta, he trains thus as he is gladdening the citta.]
MSV: Breathing in gladdening the citta, he understands: “[I] breathe in gladdening the citta”. Breathing out gladdening the citta, he understands: “[I] breathe out gladdening the citta.”
Sarv: Breathing in and out gladdening the citta, he understands: “I breathe in and out gladdening the citta.”
DDS: Breathing out and in gladdening the citta.
SatŚ: Gladdening the citta.
AVN: Breathing in, thinking “I am gladdening my citta”, he understands truly: “I breathe in gladdening my citta”. Breathing out thinking “I am gladdening my citta”, he understands truly: “I breathe out gladdening my citta”.
ŚrBh: [Breathing in] gladdening the citta, [he trains thus: “I breathe in gladdening the citta”. Breathing out experiencing the citta, he trains thus: “I breathe out experiencing the citta”.]

11.
Thera: He trains thus: “I shall breathe in concentrating (samādahaṃ) the citta”. He trains thus: “I shall breathe out concentrating”.
Śāri: He trains: “[I] breathe out concentrating the citta”. He trains: “[I] breathe in concentrating the citta.”
SĀ: [Breathing in] concentrating the citta, [he trains thus as he is concentrating the citta. Breathing out concentrating the citta, he trains thus as he is concentrating the citta.]
MSV: Breathing in concentrating the citta, he understands: “[I] breathe in concentrating the citta.” Breathing out concentrating the citta, he understands: “[I] breathe out concentrating the citta.”
Sarv: Breathing in and out concentrating the citta, he understands: “I breathe in and out concentrating the citta.”
DDS: Breathing out and in concentrating the citta.
SatŚ: Concentrating the citta.
AVN: Breathing in concentrating the citta, he understands truly: “I breathe in concentrating the citta”. Breathing out concentrating the citta, he understands truly: “I breathe out concentrating the citta”.
ŚrBh: [Breathing in] concentrating the citta, [he trains thus: “I breathe in concentrating the citta”. Breathing out concentrating the citta, he trains thus: “I breathe out concentrating the citta”.]

12.
Thera: He trains thus: “I shall breathe in liberating (vimocayaṃ) the citta”. He trains thus: “I shall breathe out liberating the citta.”
Śāri: He trains: “[I] breathe out liberating the citta”. He trains: “[I] breathe in liberating the citta.”
SĀ: Breathing in experiencing the liberating of citta, he trains thus [as he is liberating the citta.] Breathing out liberating the citta, he trains thus as he is liberating the citta.
MSV: Breathing in liberating the citta, he understands: “[I] breathe in liberating the citta”. Breathing out liberating the citta, he understands: “[I] breathe out liberating the citta.”
Sarv: Breathing in and out liberating the citta, he understands: “I breathe in and out liberating the citta.”
DDS: Breathing out and in liberating the citta.
SatŚ: Liberating the citta.
AVN: Breathing in thinking “I am liberating my citta”, he understands truly: “I breathe in liberating my citta”. Breathing out thinking “I am liberating my citta”, he understands truly: “I breathe out liberating my citta.”
ŚrBh: Breathing in liberating the citta, he trains thus: “I breathe in liberating the citta”. Breathing out liberating the citta, he trains thus: “I breathe out liberating the citta”.

13.
Thera: He trains thus: “I shall breathe in contemplating impermanence”. He trains thus: “I shall breathe out contemplating impermanence.”
Śāri: He trains: “[I] breathe out contemplating impermanence”. He trains: “[I] breathe in contemplating impermanence.”
SĀ: [Breathing in] contemplating impermanence, [he trains] thus as [he is contemplating] impermanence (如無常). [Breathing out contemplating impermanence, he trains thus as he is contemplating impermanence.]
MSV: Breathing in contemplating impermanence, he understands: “[I] breathe in contemplating impermanence.” Breathing out contemplating impermanence, he understands: “[I] breathe out contemplating impermanence.”
Sarv: Breathing in and out] contemplating impermanence, [he understands: “I breathe in and out contemplating impermanence.”
DDS: Breathing out and in contemplating impermanence.
SatŚ: Contemplating impermanence.
AVN: Breathing in contemplating impermanence, he understands truly: “I breathe in contemplating impermanence”. Breathing out contemplating impermanence, he understands truly: “I breathe out contemplating impermanence.”
ŚrBh: Breathing in contemplating impermanence (anityānudarśī), [he trains thus: “I breathe in contemplating impermanence”. Breathing out contemplating impermanence, he trains thus: “I breathe out contemplating impermanence.”]

14.
Thera: He trains thus: “I shall breathe in contemplating detachment (virāga)”. He trains thus: “I shall breathe out contemplating detachment.”
Śāri: He trains: “[I] breathe out contemplating detachment”. He trains: “[I] breathe in contemplating detachment.”
SĀ: [Breathing in] contemplating abandonment (*prahāṇānudarśī), [he trains] thus as [he is contemplating] impermanence. [Breathing out contemplating abandonment, he trains thus as he is contemplating abandonment.]
MSV: Breathing in contemplating abandonment, he understands: “[I]breathe in contemplating abandonment.” Breathing out contemplating abandonment, he understands: “[I] breathe out contemplating abandonment.”
Sarv: Breathing in and out] contemplating abandonment, [he understands: “I breathe in and out contemplating abandonment.”
DDS: Breathing out and in contemplating abandonment.
SatŚ: Contemplating abandonment.
AVN: Breathing in contemplating detachment, he understands truly: “I breathe in contemplating detachment”. Breathing out contemplating detachment, he understands truly: “I breathe out contemplating detachment.”
ŚrBh: [Breathing in] contemplating abandonment (prahāṇānudarśī), [he trains thus: “I breathe in contemplating abandonment”. Breathing out contemplating abandonment, he trains thus: “I breathe out contemplating abandonment.”]

15.
Thera: He trains thus: “I shall breathe in contemplating cessation (nirodha)”. He trains thus: “I shall breathe out contemplating cessation.”
Śāri: He trains: “[I] breathe out contemplating cessation”. He trains: “[I] breathe in contemplating cessation.”
SĀ: [Breathing in] contemplating detachment (無欲, *virāga), [he trains] thus as [he is contemplating] detachment. [Breathing out contemplating detachment, he trains thus as he is contemplating detachment.]
MSV: Breathing in contemplating detachment, he understands: “[I] breathe in contemplating detachment.” Breathing out contemplating detachment, he understands: “[I] breathe out contemplating detachment.”
Sarv: Breathing in and out contemplating detachment, [he understands: “I breathe in and out contemplating detachment.”
DDS: Breathing out and in contemplating detachment.
SatŚ: Contemplating detachment.
AVN: Breathing in contemplating cessation, he understands truly:“I breathe in contemplating cessation”. Breathing out contemplating cessation, he understands truly: “I breathe out contemplating cessation.”
ŚrBh: [Breathing in] contemplating detachment (virāgānudarśī), [he trains thus: “I breathe in contemplating detachment”. Breathing out contemplating detachment, he trains thus: “I breathe out contemplating detachment.”]

16.
Thera: He trains thus: “I shall breathe in contemplating renunciation (paṭinissagga)”. He trains thus: “I shall breathe out contemplating renunciation.”
Śāri: He trains: “[I] breathe out contemplating renunciation/escape (出世, *pratiniḥsarga)”. He trains: “[I] breathe in contemplating renunciation/escape.”
SĀ: Breathing in contemplating cessation, he trains thus as he is contemplating cessation. Breathing out contemplating cessation, he trains thus as he is contemplating cessation.
MSV: Breathing in contemplating cessation, he understands: “[I] breathe in contemplating cessation.” Breathing out contemplating cessation, he understands: “[I] breathe out contemplating cessation.”
Sarv: Breathing in and out contemplating cessation, [he understands: “I breathe in and out contemplating cessation.”
DDS: Breathing out and in contemplating cessation
SatŚ: Contemplating cessation.
AVN: Breathing in contemplating relinquishment (pratiniḥsarga), he understands truly: “I breathe in contemplating relinquishment”. Breathing out contemplating relinquishment, he understands truly: “I breathe out contemplating relinquishment.”
ŚrBh: Breathing in contemplating cessation (nirodhānudarśī), he trains thus: “I breathe in contemplating cessation”. Breathing out contemplating cessation, he trains thus: “I breathe out contemplating cessation.”

Abbreviations
AVN = Arthaviniścaya-sūtra-nibandhana. Ed.,Samtani, NH. (Patna, 1971)
AVS = Ārya-vasumitra-saṃgṛhīta 尊婆須蜜菩薩所集論 T28, no.1549.
DDS = Dharmatrāta-dhyāna-sūtra 達磨多羅禪經 T15, no.618.
MSV = Mahāsāṃghika-vinaya 摩訶僧伽律 T22, no.1425.
SĀ = Saṃyuktāgama 雜阿含經 T2, no.99.
Śāri = Śāriputrābhidharma 舍利弗阿毗曇論 T28, no.1548.
Sarv = The Sarvāstivāda textual tradition: MVŚ, Ny.
SarV = Sarvāstivāda Vinaya 十誦律 T23, no.1435.
SatŚ = Satyasiddhi-śāstra 成實論 T32, no.1646.
ŚrBh = Śāvakabhūmi, the Second Chapter, revised Sanskrit Text and Japanese Translation. Śrāvakabhūmi Study group, The Institute for Comprehensive Studies of Buddhism (Tokyo, 2007).Study = Yin Shun, 說一切有部為主論書與論師之研究 (Taipei, 1968).
Thera = The Theravāda/Sthaviravāda textual tradition