Pāli Word Yodha. What kind of?

Warm greetings,
I would like to pose one question about the Pāli word yodha, if that is ok.

In the sentence: "yodha sītañca uṇhañca, tinā bhiyyo maññati", I am confused about the meaning of yodha and why it is rendered in every transaltion as who and what it is about the -dha ending.

I was unable to find this form (no suffixes which seem to fit with ya [who] etc.) and would like to ask how you would analyze it. Thank you very much!



Is this relevant?

YODDHA/WARRIOR-meaning-in-hindi.words)(noun) उदाहरण : इन नावों को नदी के दोनों ओर दो सौ घुड़सवार योद्धाओं द्वारा संरक्षित किया गया|
Usage : these boats were protected by two hundred mounted warriors on each side of the river.

This guy may know?


The PTS Pali dictionary has:

a warrior, soldier, fighter, champion Vin.i.73 (yodhā yuddh’ âbhinandino… pabbajjaṃ yāciṃsu); Ja.i.180; Mil.293.

  • -ājīva one who lives by battle or war, a soldier SN.iv.308 = AN.iii.94; AN.i.284; AN.ii.170, AN.ii.202; AN.iii.89 sq. (five kinds); Snp.617, Snp.652; Pp.65, Pp.69.
  • -hatthin a war elephant Dhp-a.i.168.
    cp. Vedic yodha; fr. yudh

In the context of the suttas, “noble spiritual warrior” would seem to apply. But that would be wearisome to hear repeatedly. A simple “one” or “who” makes perfect sense for the reader on the spiritual path and allows the reader to cut to the chase and focus on the message itself rather than the identity of the reader. However, it is really great to know the true definition and the Jedi connection. Thank you for the new insight!


Possibly there’s a textcritical issue here: a quick websearch returns results for yo ca… (‘and who…’) however, I don’t know if this variant reading is supported by any good manuscripts.

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In Sinhalese Yodha means a strong man.


Thanks for that hint. Interesting to find almost identical verses. Sorry, I did not mention that the verses I quoted were from the Siṅgālasutta (DN 31). I found the similar verses starting as you said with yo ca in the Theragāthā, is that where you found them too?

I think I have resolved the verse in the Sngls. by now however. It must be yo (who) + idha (here) …

Mettā and thanks again.

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Thanks for the perspective. I was considering warrior for yodha in our context too actually, but grammatically it doesn’t seem to fit really. It should read yodho and not yodha. I don’t know if we can be so free in verse as to allow yodha for nominative singular …

I think more likely now: yo + idha (here).

Much mettā


Mātaṅgaputtattheragāthā 232 (PTS):

Yo ca sītañca uṇhañca,
tiṇā bhiyyo na maññati;
Karaṃ purisakiccāni,
so sukhā na vihāyati