Parallels Dhammapada

I have uploaded a new file with the dhp parallels as well as its json equivalent. Note that these use the new numbering system that is not on SuttaCentral but on Staging. The file now contains over 3500 parallels between the various Dhammapada versions in Pali, Chinese, Sanskrit, Prakrit and Gandari.

Sources are

  1. Ven. Anandajoti’s work on This includes parallels with various Pali and Sanskrit Suttas, Vinaya and Vbhidhamma texts as well as the Patna and Gandari Dharmapadas .

  2. The work of Ken Yifertw of the Āgama research group:, which includes parallels of the pali Dhammapada with Taisho T210, T212, T213 and the Sanskrit Udānavarga.

With much gratitude to both for this great contribution to parallel research and for allowing us to use this work on SuttaCentral.

Now it will take some time before these lists are actually visible on SuttaCentral in a meaningful form. We are working hard to restructure our backend.


Sadhu! Sadhu! This is a great achievement, Ayya. I believe this is the first time that such a comprehensive set of Dhammapada parallels has been assembled, and in addition in a useful data format. We have wanted to expand our coverage of verses for a long time, and this is the first major step towards that.

This set of texts encompasses virtually all of the major Dhammapada materials. There are still some texts absent. There’s a Tibetan version of the Udanavarga, and two recently published partial Gandhari texts. Hopefully these can be added at some stage.

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Where are these texts and can I put them on SC? Do you mean these ones:

Is this part of Ven. Dhammadinna’s work on the Upāyikā?

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Yes, that’s them. Sure, why not put them on SC? They’re pretty fragmentary and complex texts, with a lot of text-critical apparatus and so on, but if you have time, go for it.

No, it’s a completely different text. the Tibetan and English is here:

There is a more modern English translation, but it is locked up in the dead hand of copyright.

The Tibetan is Romanized, unfortunately, so if we are to put it on SC we should use the Tibetan source. This is available here

Note that as per usual there is a discrepancy in the “derge” numbers on this site. The correct number is D 326, for some reason they are out of sync. According to the reference here there is a second Udanavarga in Tibetan. It is recorded as Tengyur 4100. But tengyur is commentary, so this seems very odd. Perhaps it’s actually a commentary on D 326, or something like that.

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Good point. I seem to be picking up more and more lately so maybe I will just first concentrate on the crossreferences first, which will still take me a lot of time.
Will put it on Github as a to-do.

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OK. I have prepared those texts. Just two text-critical signs I don’t know: ◊ and ○ (the latter is not the same as )
What span class do those need?
Also, on some of these texts there are numbers from which I do not know what they mean. For instance on, line 69 there is this number 10 4 1.

Have a look now at

I have used the numbers on but maybe I should have used the numbers in grey instead … let me know.

In the menu they are now under Gandari Fragments.

They look great, thanks. Wow, I think we’ve done it, now: all the Dhammapadas, am I right. no wait, Tibetan? Do we have the tibetan?

As for the unknown signs, let’s just leave it for now, it’s such a specialized thing. they are planning to upgrade their website, as you know, and maybe it will all become clear then.

I’ll do Tibetan one of these days … no, I haven’t done it yet.

As part of our updates, we still need to revise our overall tibetan system, so I would say no hurry …

As an appendix to this, just to note that the Tibetan translation of the Udanavarga by William Rockhill in 1883, is available on the internet archive.

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The Victorious one^ spoke these verses (udana"*); Hearken unto me while I tell them; what I say is to dispel sleep and torpor, and to bring gladness to the mind.

How wonderfully archaic!
But this is an English translation of a Tibetan text we do not have yet?
The epub has everything in html! Might need some revision but easy enough to code.

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Yes, I believe it is a Tibetan text that we don’t have. But it would be great to have it. From the few verses I checked, it looks identical to the Sanskrit Udanavarga. But I fear that a closer look would reveal the usual sorts of inconsistencies! In any case, the Tibetan was clearly translated from something very like the Sanskrit Udanavarga that we have.

It’s so old, the referencing system is quite different to what we use today. So if we wanted to add the Tibetan text we’d have to first identify the text in the Derge edition.

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So I suppose the best thing to do is wait for Ven. Dhammadinna to come out of retreat and ask her?

Just in case I upload the epub here: (1.0 MB)

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