Question about Brahma-Viharas?

Can we attain second and third Jhana by practicing Brahma-Viharas?
Can we practice Brahama Vihara without a living being as a meditation object?

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The four immeasurables are explained in The Path of Purification (Visuddhimagga), written in the fifth century CE by the scholar and commentator Buddhaghoṣa. They are often practiced by taking each of the immeasurables in turn and applying it to oneself (a practice taught by many contemporary teachers and monastics that was established after the Pali Suttas were completed), and then to others nearby, and so on to everybody in the world, and to everybody in all universes

This sutta suggests the fourth jhana is possible: AN 8.63.

I don’t think it is mentioned in the EBTs.

With metta

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How do you practice Brahma Viharas in second Jhana, if you do not have Vitakka and Vicara?

By using the feeling of metta to focus on.


The way I understand you can’t focus on Brahma Viharas in the second Jhana.
However, you keep the attention on Piti arose as a result of first Jhana.
I believe this is what you meant on above answer.

I think it is possible otherwise it won’t be jhana based on metta. It will be jhana based on piti, which is probably too transient to develop a jhana on.

With metta