Sorry for taking so long to get back to this.
You are right, of course, that it’s complicated. But I also think the perception of differences is often greater than actual differences. Take the discussion you mention between Ajahn Thanissaro and Bhikkh Bodhi. It only concerns a sub-aspect of the first precept, an aspect that most of us - hopefully! - never will be confronted with. The areas where the two of them agree are likely to be much greater than the areas of discrepancy. It is the nature of discussion and debate, however, that we focus on differences.
We have umbrella organisations for Buddhism here in Australia. When they make official statements on behalf of the Buddhist community, they are normally able to find compromises that everyone can live with. This shows that we are often not very far apart. So far as I can see, the Buddhist community is normally able to provide consensus responses to issues that are important in contemporary society.
It’s not livelihood, because you are not making a living from it. In the case of fortunetelling, you will often get something in return for your services.
It is the duty of monastics to give advice on spiritual matters and there is no exact cut-off between the spiritual and the worldly. Say a new law on abortion is being considered and the Buddhist position is sought. Such a case straddles the spiritual, the worldly, and the political. I cannot see why there would be any problem with a monastic giving advice in such a situation.
You have used quotes, as if I said those specific words. By expert, rather, I meant expert on Buddhism, or even more specifically the Dhamma.
I am not sure why you think I am advocating for a socially-engaged Buddhism for monastics. That was certainly not my intention with what I have said above.
This is exactly the point. Buddhist input is often sought, especially in pluralistic societies, such as Australia.
Let me give you an example. The Buddhist community was recently asked about its position on voluntary assisted dying. A reasonable position on this can be derived from core Buddhist principles. But you need to know these principles well in order to implement them in specific instances. This is where monastic understanding comes in very handy. I personally advised the lay Buddhist umbrella organisation that was dealing with the government on this issue.
Most of the other things you mention are unlikely to come up in this way.
By the very fact of being a Buddhist monastic you will “place yourself in direct opposition to some segment of society”. Does this mean we should not be monastics?