Similar words based on "Jhāyati", Jhāna

In another thread, Bhante Sujato noted:

there is a pun on jhāyaka and ajjhāyaka. Ajjhāyaka is a completely different word, meaning “reciter”.

I’m assuming the meditator is meant in the comparison, not the fire-maker.

CPED has: jhāyaka: one who meditates. (m.)
PTS: Jhāyaka (adj.) one who makes a fire D iii.94.

For Ajjhāyaka, we have

CPED: ajjhāyaka: an instructor; teacher. (m.)

PTS: Ajjhāyaka [cp. Sk. adhyāyaka, cp. ajjhayana] (a brahmin) engaged in learning the Veda (mantajjhāyaka J vi.209 SnA 192), a scholar of the brahmanic texts, a studious learned person D i.88, 120; iii.94; A i.163; iii.223; Sn 140 (˚kula: thus for ajjhāyakula Fsb.); Th 1, 1171; J i.3 vi.201, 498; DA i.247.

Reciter could be referring to either of the two types of definitions.

But here’s my question: Is meditator and reciter really completely different in meaning?

Ajjhayana (nt.) [adhi + i] study (learning by heart) of the Vedas Miln 225. See also ajjhena.

So the way I see it, adhi-jhayaka is a meditator with an emphasis on the oral tradition hearing, memorizing, and reciting aspect of meditation that’s used in the SN 46.3 awakening factors, corresponding to the first two factors of sati and dhamma-vicaya.

The second question I had is whether the adhi-jhayaka has a similar meaning, or an opposite meaning to on of these words:

jhāyati paj-jhāyati nij-jhāyati apaj-jhāyati

That combination of words gets used several times in the EBT, as a criticism of a "wrong " type of jhāna to practice. The words themselves don’t indicate a “wrong” type of jhana, but I could never figure out what the fine nuances of each of those words mean. Below I quote B.Bodhi in one of the passage. Thanissaro uses something like “absorbs, resorbs, supersorbs”, and I seem to remember Bhante Sujato using something like “ruminate, meditate, cogitate”.

The jhayaka and adhi-jhayaka distinction was an interesting revelation to me, I wonder if there are passages that reveal similar intricate types of jhayaka for those 3 words above.

26.“The Blessed One, brahmin, did not praise every type of meditation, nor did he condemn every type of meditation. What kind [14] of meditation did the Blessed One not praise? Here, brahmin, someone abides with his mind obsessed by sensual lust, a prey to sensual lust, and he does not understand as it actually is the escape from arisen sensual lust. While he harbours sensual lust within, he meditates, premeditates, out-meditates, and mismeditates.1035 "" He abides with his mind obsessed by ill will, a prey to ill will…with his mind obsessed by sloth and torpor, a prey to sloth and torpor…with his mind obsessed by restlessness and remorse, a prey to restlessness and remorse…with his mind obsessed by doubt, a prey to doubt, and he does not understand as it actually is the escape from arisen doubt. While he harbours doubt within, he meditates, premeditates, out-meditates, and mismeditates. The Blessed One did not praise that kind of meditation.
84. “na ca kho, brāhmaṇa, so bhagavā sabbaṃ jhānaṃ vaṇṇesi, napi so bhagavā sabbaṃ jhānaṃ na vaṇṇesīti. kathaṃ rūpañca, brāhmaṇa, so bhagavā jhānaṃ na vaṇṇesi? idha, brāhmaṇa, ekacco kāmarāgapariyuṭṭhitena cetasā viharati kāmarāgaparetena, uppannassa ca kāmarāgassa nissaraṇaṃ yathābhūtaṃ nappajānāti; so kāmarāgaṃyeva antaraṃ karitvā jhāyati pajjhāyati nijjhāyati apajjhāyati. byāpādapariyuṭṭhitena cetasā viharati byāpādaparetena, uppannassa ca byāpādassa nissaraṇaṃ yathābhūtaṃ nappajānāti; so byāpādaṃyeva antaraṃ karitvā jhāyati pajjhāyati nijjhāyati apajjhāyati. thinamiddhapariyuṭṭhitena cetasā viharati thinamiddhaparetena, uppannassa ca thinamiddhassa nissaraṇaṃ yathābhūtaṃ nappajānāti; so thinamiddhaṃyeva antaraṃ karitvā jhāyati pajjhāyati nijjhāyati apajjhāyati. uddhaccakukkuccapariyuṭṭhitena cetasā viharati uddhaccakukkuccaparetena, uppannassa ca uddhaccakukkuccassa nissaraṇaṃ yathābhūtaṃ nappajānāti; so uddhaccakukkuccaṃyeva antaraṃ karitvā jhāyati pajjhāyati nijjhāyati apajjhāyati. vicikicchāpariyuṭṭhitena cetasā viharati vicikicchāparetena, uppannāya ca vicikicchāya nissaraṇaṃ yathābhūtaṃ nappajānāti; so vicikicchaṃyeva antaraṃ karitvā jhāyati pajjhāyati nijjhāyati apajjhāyati. evarūpaṃ kho, brāhmaṇa, so bhagavā jhānaṃ na vaṇṇesi.
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Well, practically, they are related of course. But etymologically, they are completely different words, which just happen to appear similar. The root of ajjhāyaka is i, while the root of jhāyaka is dhī.

The pun is forced all the way through this passage. The normal word for “meditator” is jhāyin, and it seems the non-standard form jhāyaka, which I think appears only here, was invented to make the pun work.

And no, these terms don’t appear in the multiple prefixed forms.