'Vipassana' in context

‘Vipassana’ is a term that is burdened by the commentaries and Burmese meditation methods. In order to see its actual meaning in the suttas we have to forget the later developments and look back into older Indian texts and actual suttas in context.

The sanskrit equivalent vipaśyana is the noun of the the verb vipaśyati that appears already in the Rigveda. Monier Williams defines vipaśyati “to see in different places or in detail, discern, distinguish, to observe, perceive, learn, know”

vipaśyati in the vedas

We find vipaśyati in the Rigveda in three places

RV 3.62.9 He who looks at (vipaśyati) all creatures separately and sees (paśyati) them whole, that one, Pūṣan will become our helper.
RV 10.125.4 Through me he eats food—whoever sees (vipaśyati), whoever breathes, whoever hears what is spoken.
RV 10.187.4 Who looks at (vipaśyati) all creatures separately and sees (paśyati) them whole, he will carry us across hatreds.
Jamison, Brereton: The Rigveda (2014)

I compared Stiehl’s German translation and he translates accordingly vipaśyati as ‘look at’, ‘look after’, ‘see’. The contexts in the Rigveda are simple and don’t allow an understanding as a philosophically charged ‘insight’.

The Atharvaveda is of particular interest since it was at about the time of the Buddha that this collection became acknowledged as a veda. Along with the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad and Pāṇini’s works (where vipaśyati doesn’t appear) it probably features a semantics close to the understanding of the Buddha’s time.

AV 4.30.4 (is a copy of RV 10.125.4)
AV 4.5.5 The man who sits, the man who walks, whoever stands and clearly sees (vipaśyati), Of these we closely shut the eyes, even as we closely shut this house.
AV 6.34.4 He who beholds (vipaśyati) all creatures, who observes (paśyati) them with a careful eye…
AV 10.10.34 Both Gods and mortal men depend for life and being on the Cow. She hath become this universe: all that the Sun surveys (vipaśyati) is she.
AV 12.1.33 Long as, on thee, I look around (vipaśyāmi), possessing Sūrya as a friend, So long, through each succeeding year, let not my power of vision fail.
AV 19.32.8 Do thou, O Darbha, make me dear to Brāhman and Rājanya, dear to Sūdra, and to Arya dear, Yea, dear to every man we love, to every man with eyes to see (vipaśyate).
Griffith, Atharva Veda (1895)

Even though the translation might not satisfy modern needs, we can still see that again the context in which vipaśyati is used is not philosophical but more as a regular sense perception. Boiling it down to a common meaning we find “seeing clearly”.

The Apastamba Dharma Sutra is the earliest of the Darma Sutras - collections of regulations for brahmins. Olivelle tentatively places it at the beginning of the 3rd century BCE.

1.5.8 They point out, moreover, that when such a person thinks of anything, speaks about anything, or looks at (abhivipaśyati) anything with a will to accomplishing it, it will happen exactly as he wills.
Olivelle: Dharmasutras (1999)

Again we have a simple ‘looking at’ rather than a ‘looking into’.

vipassanā in the suttas

(For a detailed presentation of vipassanā in the suttas see Sujato: A Swift Pair of Messengers, and Piya Tan: Samatha & Vipassana)
When we forget the commentarial literature the term vipassanā is actually quite rare in the suttas, certainly rarer than other doctrinal terms concerned with meditation. This already should make us careful to put this term into a central position.

Mostly it isn’t explained at all and is just paired with samatha as an approach to develop the mind. Occasionally we get a hint of the result of vipassanā practice

When samatha is developed… the mind (citta) is developed… [and thus] lust (rāga) is abandoned.
When vipassanā is developed… understanding (paññā) is developed… [and thus] ignorance (avijjā) is abandoned. (AN 2.31)

So the culmination of vipassanā is paññā. This is probably the root of why interpreters started to read a mysterious activity into vipassanā. But to be clear, just because the lofty paññā is at its end, we don’t have to conclude that vipassanā is obscure in itself. In a similar way the advanced samādhi is developed by sīla - and we don’t assume that sīla is of mind-boggling complexity.

"[whoever] gains cetosamatha (mind-calmness) but not adhi-pañ­ñā-­dhamma-­vi­passa­nā should approach one who gains adhi-pañ­ñā-­dhamma-­vi­passa­nā and inquire of him: ‘How, friend, are saṅkhārā to be seen? How are saṅkhārā to be understood? How are saṅkhārā to be vipassitabbā (clearly seen)?’ (AN 4.94)

Here vipassanā is surrounded by other advanced doctrinal terms (adhi-pañ­ñā, dhamma) and thus, again, doesn’t need to point to a challenging procedure in itself. To ‘clearly see’ adhi-pañ­ñā-­dhamma is surely difficult enough, without creating a cloud of ‘insight’ around it.

Conclusion

I think it’s necessary to further de-mystify and simplify our understanding of vipassanā in the light of older Indian texts, but also looking at the suttas, completely leaving aside our biased understanding from commentaries and modern meditation teachings.

As I tried to show a sensible understanding of vipassanā is ‘clearly seeing’ or ‘overseeing’. To ‘simply see’ surely allows us to understand what is going on in the mind, especially when the mind is calm (i.e. samatha is developed). To clearly see and understand will naturally result in something that can be called ‘wisdom’.

As mentioned, vipassanā doesn’t appear too often in the suttas, especially not in a crucial doctrinal context. But after unburdening this term and reading it as ‘clearly seeing’ we are able to identify the semantically related terms that do appear in key doctrinal contexts: sampajañña (clear awareness) and especially upekkhā (‘dispassionate watching-over’, that has a verb for ‘seeing’ at its root). sampajañña appears in the 3rd jhāna, and upekkhā in the 3rd & 4th jhāna and as the last limb of the bojjanghas - clearly places where we would expect to find activities that are to culminate in pañ­ñā.

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Excellent! I enjoyed reading this.

Saw a few mentions of paśyati in the vicinity of vipaśyati within the brahmanical passages you quoted. I wonder if the equivalent Pāḷi word shows up in the suttas?

Another text in the extra-Buddhist traditions that might be interesting to investigate would be the Sāṃkhya Kārikā but I haven’t found any quality English translations…

I’d like to throw out another theory here. That perhaps the reason for the distinguished place vipassana seems to have taken — is for differentiating Buddhist meditation from other meditative traditions. Other systems may have talked similarly about jhāna, samādhi, and attainment of rarefied states. What would make Buddhist meditation unique then is it’s way of seeing (vipassana) that leads to wisdom, realizing selflessness.

Do you mean passati? That would be the equivalent to the vedic paśyati and indeed is a very normal verb, to see. A simple SC search gives +1000 results (including KN and abhidhamma of course). The noun form passanā or anupassanā hardly exists though.

I also think that is very probable. Sometimes it seems that spiritual seekers were very busy back then (as they are today) to find or create differences between traditions. Not just for a better understanding but also to strengthen a self-identity and -rightousness of their school.

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This quote appears to show where ‘vipassana’ fits in Buddhism:

Any view belonging to one who has come to be like this is his right view. Any resolve, his right resolve. Any effort, his right effort. Any mindfulness, his right mindfulness. Any concentration, his right concentration: just as earlier his actions, speech, & livelihood were already well-purified. Thus for him, having thus developed the noble eightfold path, the four frames of reference go to the culmination of their development. The four right exertions… the four bases of power… the five faculties… the five strengths… the seven factors for Awakening go to the culmination of their development. [And] for him these two qualities occur in tandem: tranquillity & insight (vipassana). MN 149

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Great post, thanks so much. It seems pretty clear we should reject the rendering “insight” for the EBTs. I know Brahmali has been saying this for years. So far, I’ve been using “discernment”, which I think works pretty well. Simply “clear seeing” is another option. (Since “insight” is then free, I have tried using it for abhiññā. But I’m not sure it will work.)

The more common noun form is dassana, an equivalent term from a different root. Anupassana is common, though; try a wildcard search anupass.

The first quote you give is curious:

RV 3.62.9 He who looks at (vipaśyati) all creatures separately and sees (paśyati) them whole, that one, Pūṣan will become our helper.
yo viśvābhi vipaśyati bhuvanā saṃ ca paśyati, sa naḥ pūṣāvitā bhuvat

My Vedic is almost non-existent, but I am wondering whether “separately” is not an over-interpretation. Sometimes, the vi- is read as meaning “divided”, which, as the many other examples you give show, is not appropriate for vipassanā. The older Griffith translation has:

May he who sees all living things, see them together at a glance,
May he, may Pusan be our help.

This seems to make more sense from a religious point of view. The savior sees all living beings clearly (vipaśyati), so let him see them together, i.e. let him not neglect any of them. Perhaps the German translation might help here? (Incidentally, my go-to source for these translations, http://www.sacred-texts.com/ is giving me a 403 forbidden message, and appears to be down in at least some places. I hope it’s not in any trouble!)

Given the interesting connection with the sun as revealed in the Arthavaveda quotes, I wonder if this is not a hymn to a solar deity, who sees all?

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It probably is, and the context doesn’t call for it either. Stiehl translates RV 3.62.9

yo viśvābhi vipaśyati bhuvanā sam ca paśyati sa nah pusāvitā bhuvat
Pusan, der nach allen Wesen ausschaut und sie überschaut, er sei unser Gönner.
Pusan, who looks for/at (or even after) all beings and looks over them, may he be our benefactor.

Still it makes sense to understand the passage as “looks out for every single being…” (maybe the ‘separately’ was intended in this way). Pusan might be taken as a solar deity here, but the passage is too short, just three lines, in which Jamison/Brereton introduce him as “the glowing God”.

But in general Pusan is a major Rigveda deity that is not a limited sun god but seems to be more of a benefactor and protector, one who sees everything, who grows plants as well, a mighty charioteer, gives riches, destroys enemies, etc.

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Thanks, that clears that up.

There’s some interesting recent work that establishes, to my mind, quite strongly that the Vedic deities are strongly connected with specific constellations or heavenly bodies. Of course they are strongly anthropomorphized, but the underlying patterns are there. I’m not sure if you’ve seen this?

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Could someone please compose a hymm to @Gabriel for his enlightening essay?

I have a question - does it sound as if the EBTs are admonishing us to apply discernment (eg see things within the 4 noble realities model), rather than to acquire discernment (the insight interpretation)?

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I’d be very grateful for the reference! I find it very interesting to get a bit more into the mindset of that time

“On the Nature of the Vedic Gods”, by Catalin Anghelina, on http://sino-platonic.org/

spp241_vedic_gods.pdf (2.0 MB)

Let us know what you think.

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Hi Sylvester,

The term Vipassana doesn’t dictate how Panna should be arrived at:

Vijja-bhagiya Sutta:
‘When Vipassana is developed, what purpose does it serve? Discernment is developed’.
http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/an/an02/an02.030.than.html

Tatiya­samā­dhi­sutta describes further re what should be done with dhammas in Vipassana:

‘kathaṃ nu kho, āvuso, saṅkhārā daṭṭhabbā? Kathaṃ saṅkhārā sammasitabbā? Kathaṃ saṅkhārā vipassitabbā’ti’?

It has been translated as the following by Thanissaro Bhikkhu:

1.daṭṭhabbā: regarded
2.sammasitabbā: investigated
3.vipassitabbā: seen with insight

I wondered if there was a parallel with

  1. Heard or ‘known’ (…of the existence of…) - saddhamasavana, of the factors of stream entry.
  2. Yonisomanasikara, or wise reflection the third factor of stream entry
  3. Dhammanudhammapatipada : practice according to the Dhamma, the fourth factor of stream entry.

The ‘voice of another’ and Yonisomanasikara has been said to give rise to Right view- another aspect of Discernment.

Satipatthana sutta finally talks about being mindful of arising and passing away of phenomena (dhammanudhammapatipada).

It also has some echoes in ‘Purifications’ (Visuddhi) and the scheme of Insight knowledges:

-Purification of View (ditthi-visuddhi)
-Knowledge by Comprehension (sammasana-ñana)
-Knowledge of Arising and Passing Away (udayabbaya-ñana) in its weak stage, involving the Ten Corruptions of Insight

With metta

Matheesha

I finally reviewed a bit Anghelina’s paper, and I’m afraid she’s pushing too much the idea of the constellations. There are many open questions / issues I would have with it. For example:

Literally the first thing we come to realize with stars is that they move across the sky no matter what. Through observation and learning we see that there is a pattern, seasons etc. I can curse the gods, pray to them, be an atheist etc. I don’t know if I go to hell/‘heaven’ due to that, but I can be sure that the stars don’t care and continue on their way. If the vedic gods are nothing but metaphors for astronomical bodies then why all the mantras in the first place? Why the basic premise of the vedas that the gods depend on sacrifice and soma and that through the formulas we have power over them?

Ok, the gods might have been associated with stars, sun, moon, winds etc., but this purely material and frighteningly unchangeable nature of the celestial bodies could not have been the dimension the vedic rishis were addressing. If it was a purely naturalistic approach they would have preyed to weather, harvest, battles, offspring… - phenomena I can at least imagine to have some magical influence over.

So, in short, it appears to me that while astronomical bodies were surely part of the imagery, they could have only been perceived as representations, emanations or ātmans of the more spiritual truths of the gods.

Relevant Suttas

Venerable sir, I have gained the knowledge of a trainer. May the Blessed One instruct me further,’ `Then Vaccha, you should develop two things further. Develop calm (samatha) and insight (vipassana). Vaccha, when calm and insight is developed, it conduces to experiencing the various elements.

“yāvatakaṃ, bhante, sekhena ñāṇena sekhāya vijjāya pattabbaṃ, anuppattaṃ taṃ mayā; uttari ca me bhagavā dhammaṃ desetū”ti.
“Tena hi tvaṃ, vaccha, dve dhamme uttari bhāvehi samathañca vipassanañca. Ime kho te, vaccha, dve dhammā uttari bhāvitā samatho ca vipassanā ca aneka dhātupaṭivedhāya saṃvattissanti.
MN 73


And what, bhikkhus, are the things to be developed by direct knowledge? Serenity and insight. These are the things to be developed by direct knowledge.

Katame ca, bhikkhave, dhammā abhiññā bhāvetabbā? Samatho ca vipassanā ca—ime, bhikkhave, dhammā abhiññā bhāvetabbā.
MN 149


These two things — serenity (samatha) and insight (vipassana) — occur in him yoked evenly together.

MN 149


Again Sāriputta, the bhikkhu should reflect is my calm and insight developed?
When reflecting if the bhikkhu knows my calm and insight is not developed, he should arouse effort to develop calm and insight. When reflecting if the bhikkhu knows calm and insight is developed, he should abide joyful and happy training in those thoughts day and night.

Puna caparaṃ, sāriputta, bhikkhunā iti paṭisañcikkhitabbaṃ: ‘bhāvitā nu kho me samatho ca vipassanā cā’ti? Sace, sāriputta, bhikkhu paccavekkhamāno evaṃ jānāti: ‘abhāvitā kho me samatho ca vipassanā cā’ti, tena, sāriputta, bhikkhunā samathavipassanānaṃ bhāvanāya vāyamitabbaṃ. Sace pana, sāriputta, bhikkhu pacca­vek­kha­māno evaṃ jānāti: ‘bhāvitā kho me samatho ca vipassanā cā’ti, tena, sāriputta, bhikkhunā teneva pītipāmojjena vihātabbaṃ ahorat­tā­nu­sikkhinā kusalesu dhammesu.
MN 151


"There is the case where a monk has developed insight preceded by tranquillity. As he develops insight preceded by tranquillity, the path is born. He follows that path, develops it, pursues it. As he follows the path, developing it & pursuing it — his fetters are abandoned, his obsessions destroyed.

"Then there is the case where a monk has developed tranquillity preceded by insight. As he develops tranquillity preceded by insight, the path is born. He follows that path, develops it, pursues it. As he follows the path, developing it & pursuing it — his fetters are abandoned, his obsessions destroyed.

"Then there is the case where a monk has developed tranquillity in tandem with insight. As he develops tranquillity in tandem with insight, the path is born. He follows that path, develops it, pursues it. As he follows the path, developing it & pursuing it — his fetters are abandoned, his obsessions destroyed.

Idha, āvuso, bhikkhu sama­tha­pubbaṅ­gamaṃ vipassanaṃ bhāveti. Tassa sama­tha­pubbaṅ­gamaṃ vipassanaṃ bhāvayato maggo sañjāyati. So taṃ maggaṃ āsevati bhāveti bahulīkaroti. Tassa taṃ maggaṃ āsevato bhāvayato bahulīkaroto saṃyojanāni pahīyanti, anusayā byantīhonti.

Puna caparaṃ, āvuso, bhikkhu vipassanāpubbaṅgamaṃ samathaṃ bhāveti. Tassa vipassanāpubbaṅgamaṃ samathaṃ bhāvayato maggo sañjāyati. So taṃ maggaṃ āsevati bhāveti bahulīkaroti. Tassa taṃ maggaṃ āsevato bhāvayato bahulīkaroto saṃyojanāni pahīyanti, anusayā byantīhonti.

Puna caparaṃ, āvuso, bhikkhu samatha­vi­passa­naṃ yuganaddhaṃ bhāveti. Tassa samathavipassanaṃ yuganaddhaṃ bhāvayato maggo sañjāyati. So taṃ maggaṃ āsevati bhāveti bahulīkaroti. Tassa taṃ maggaṃ āsevato bhāvayato bahulīkaroto saṃyojanāni pahīyanti, anusayā byantīhonti.
AN 4.170


Two qualities are of great help in the attainment of the cessation of perception & feeling: tranquillity & insight.

Saññāvedayita nirodhasamāpattiyā kho, gahapati, dve dhammā bahūpakārā samatho ca vipassanā cā”ti.
SN 41.6


knowing deeply that it is so,
and then having insight into this:
this is real knowedge for him,
for the brahmin who is accomplished.”

Evametaṃ abhiññāya,
Tato tattha vipassati;
Etaṃ ñāṇaṃ tathaṃ tassa,
Brāhmaṇassa vusīmato”ti.
snp 5.15


(The power of faith, the power of energy, the powers of moral shame and moral dread ;
the powers of mindfulness and concentration, and wisdom , the seventh powers; a powerful bhikkhu possessing these is wise and lives happily.)

He should carefully examine the Dhamma
and deeply see the meaning with wisdom (discernment).
Like the extinguishing of a lamp
is the emancipation of the mind.

Yoniso vicine dhammaṃ,
paññāyatthaṃ vipassati;
Pajjotasseva nibbānaṃ,
vimokkho hoti cetaso”ti.
AN 7.3 & 4


Not knowing what’s inside,
But discerning what’s outside;
They too, seeing only the external fruits of practice,
Are carried away by my voice.

Understanding what’s inside,
And discerning what’s outside;
They, seeing without obstacles,
Are not carried away by my voice.

Ajjhattañca na jānāti,
bahiddhā ca vipassati;
Bahiddhā phaladassāvī,
sopi ghosena vuyhati.

Ajjhattañca pajānāti,
bahiddhā ca vipassati;
Anāvaraṇadassāvī,
na so ghosena vuyhatī”ti.
Thag 7.2


SUMMARY:

VIPPASSANA:

  • is for the experiencing the various elements (Dhatu).
  • is the thing to be developed by direct knowledge (Abhiññā)
  • know deeply (abhiññā,) then have insight (vipassana).
  • is for the attainment of the cessation of perception & feeling.
  • and should be developed evenly with Samatha (serenity).
  • wisely discriminate the meanings in the teaching.

Vipassanā in Sanskrit:

विपश्यन vipaśyana only Buddhist.

विपश् vipaś [vi-paś]
to see in different places or in detail, discern, distinguish (RV., AV., AitBr., KaṭhUp.)

√ पश् paś [linked to dṛś]
sight or eye (RV.)

√ दृश् dṛś [var. paś]
to see, behold, look at, regard, consider (RV., AV., ŚBr.)
to be seen, become visible, appear (RV., AV., ŚBr.)
to see by divine intuition, think or find out (Br.)

Abhiññā “The Blessed One, friend, has declared: ‘This is suffering,’ and ‘This is the origin of suffering,’ and ‘This is the cessation of suffering, ’ and ‘This is the way leading to the cessation of suffering.’” “And why, friend, has the Blessed One declared this?” “Because, friend, this is beneficial, relevant to the fundamentals of the holy life, and leads to revulsion, to dispassion, to cessation, to peace, to direct knowledge, to enlightenment, to Nibbāna.

Atha kiñcarahāvuso, byākataṃ bhagavatā”ti? “Idaṃ ‘dukkhan’ti kho, āvuso, byākataṃ bhagavatā; ayaṃ ‘dukkhasamudayo’ti byākataṃ bhagavatā; ayaṃ ‘dukkhanirodho’ti byākataṃ bhagavatā; ayaṃ ‘dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā’ti byākataṃ bhagavatā”ti. “Kasmā cetaṃ, āvuso, byākataṃ bhagavatā”ti? “Etañhi, āvuso, atthasaṃhitaṃ etaṃ ādibrahmacariyakaṃ etaṃ nibbidāya virāgāya nirodhāya upasamāya abhiññāya sambodhāya nibbānāya saṃvattati.
SN 16.12


So too, bhikkhus, the things I have directly known but have not taught you are numerous, while the things I have taught you are few. And why, bhikkhus, have I not taught those many things? Because they are unbeneficial, irrelevant to the fundamentals of the holy life, and do not lead to revulsion, to dispassion, to cessation, to peace, to direct knowledge, to enlightenment, to Nibbāna. Therefore I have not taught them.
“And what, bhikkhus, have I taught? I have taught: ‘This is suffering’; I have taught: ‘This is the origin of suffering’; I have taught: ‘This is the cessation of suffering’; I have taught: ‘This is the way leading to the cessation of suffering.’ And why, bhikkhus, have I taught this? Because this is beneficial, relevant to the fundamentals of the holy life, and leads to revulsion, to dispassion, to cessation, to peace, to direct knowledge, to enlightenment, to Nibbāna. Therefore I have taught this.

“Evameva kho, bhikkhave, etadeva bahutaraṃ yaṃ vo mayā abhiññāya anakkhātaṃ. Kasmā cetaṃ, bhikkhave, mayā anakkhātaṃ? Na hetaṃ, bhikkhave, atthasaṃhitaṃ nādibrahmacariyakaṃ na nibbidāya na virāgāya na nirodhāya na upasamāya na abhiññāya na sambodhāya na nibbānāya saṃvattati; tasmā taṃ mayā anakkhātaṃ.
Kiñca, bhikkhave, mayā akkhātaṃ? ‘Idaṃ dukkhan’ti, bhikkhave, mayā akkhātaṃ, ‘ayaṃ dukkhasamudayo’ti mayā akkhātaṃ, ‘ayaṃ dukkhanirodho’ti mayā akkhātaṃ, ‘ayaṃ dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā’ti mayā akkhātaṃ.
Kasmā cetaṃ, bhikkhave, mayā akkhātaṃ? Etañhi, bhikkhave, atthasaṃhitaṃ etaṃ ādibrahmacariyakaṃ etaṃ nibbidāya virāgāya nirodhāya upasamāya abhiññāya sambodhāya nibbānāya saṃvattati; tasmā taṃ mayā akkhātaṃ.
SN 56.31
See also SN 56.41 - SN 56.7/8/9 (they tell what not to do, and instead think like the above).


I followed that path and by doing so I have directly known aging-and-death, its origin, its cessation, and the way leading to its cessation. I have directly known birth … existence … clinging … .craving … feeling … contact … the six sense bases … name-and-form … consciousness … volitional formations, their origin, their cessation, and the way leading to their cessation. Having directly known them, I have explained them to the bhikkhus, the bhikkhunīs, the male lay followers, and the female lay followers.

Ayaṃ kho so, bhikkhave, purāṇamaggo purāṇañjaso pubbakehi sammāsambuddhehi anuyāto, tamanugacchiṃ; tamanugacchanto jarāmaraṇaṃ abbhaññāsiṃ; jarāmaraṇasamudayaṃ abbhaññāsiṃ; jarāmaraṇanirodhaṃ abbhaññāsiṃ; jarāmaraṇanirodhagāminiṃ paṭipadaṃ abbhaññāsiṃ. Tamanugacchiṃ; tamanu­gacchanto jātiṃ abbhaññāsiṃ … pe … bhavaṃ abbhaññāsiṃ … upādānaṃ abbhaññāsiṃ … taṇhaṃ abbhaññāsiṃ … vedanaṃ abbhaññāsiṃ … phassaṃ abbhaññāsiṃ … saḷāyatanaṃ abbhaññāsiṃ … nāmarūpaṃ abbhaññāsiṃ … viññāṇaṃ abbhaññāsiṃ. Tamanugacchiṃ; tamanugacchanto saṅkhāre abbhaññāsiṃ; saṅkhārasamudayaṃ abbhaññāsiṃ; saṅkhāranirodhaṃ abbhaññāsiṃ; saṅkhāranirodhagāminiṃ paṭipadaṃ abbhaññāsiṃ. Tadabhiññāya ācikkhiṃ bhikkhūnaṃ bhikkhunīnaṃ upāsakānaṃ upāsikānaṃ. Tayidaṃ, bhikkhave, brahmacariyaṃ iddhañceva phītañca vitthārikaṃ bāhujaññaṃ puthubhūtaṃ yāva devamanussehi suppakāsitan”ti.
SN 12.65 (many parallels)


“Friend, Sāriputta (says Channa,) seeing the cessation of the eye, eye-consciousness, and things cognizable by eye-consciousness I realized, `eye, eye-consciousness, and things cognizable by eye consciousness are not me, I’m not in them, and they are not self.’ Friend Sāriputta, seeing the cessation of ear, … nose, … taste, … body, … mind, mind-consciousness, and things cognizable by mind-consciousness I realized, mind, mind-consciousness, and things cognizable by mind-consciousness are not me, I’m not in them and they are not self.”

“Cakkhusmiṃ, āvuso sāriputta, cakkhuviññāṇe cakkhuviññāṇaviññātabbesu dhammesu nirodhaṃ disvā nirodhaṃ abhiññāya cakkhuṃ cakkhuviññāṇaṃ cakkhuviññāṇaviññātabbe dhamme ‘netaṃ mama, nesohamasmi, na meso attā’ti samanupassāmi. Sotasmiṃ, āvuso sāriputta, sotaviññāṇe … ghānasmiṃ, āvuso sāriputta, ghānaviññāṇe … jivhāya, āvuso sāriputta, jivhāviññāṇe … kāyasmiṃ, āvuso sāriputta, kāyaviññāṇe … manasmiṃ, āvuso sāriputta, manoviññāṇe manoviññāṇaviññātabbesu dhammesu nirodhaṃ disvā nirodhaṃ abhiññāya manaṃ manoviññāṇaṃ manoviññāṇaviññātabbe dhamme ‘netaṃ mama, nesohamasmi, na meso attā’ti samanupassāmī”ti.

When this was said, the venerable Mahā Cunda said this to the venerable Channa:
“Therefore, avuso Channa, this teaching of the Blessed One should be constantly considered:
There is wavering in one who is dependent; there is no wavering in one who is independent.
When there is no wavering, there is tranquillity.
When there is tranquillity, there is no inclination.
When there is no inclination (habit, bias,) there is neither coming nor going.
When there is neither coming nor going, there is neither dying nor arising.
When there is neither dying nor arising, there is no here nor beyond nor in between.
—This is the end of suffering.”

Evaṃ vutte, āyasmā mahācundo āyasmantaṃ channaṃ etadavoca: “tasmātiha, āvuso channa, idampi tassa bhagavato sāsanaṃ, niccakappaṃ manasi kātabbaṃ: ‘nissitassa calitaṃ, anissitassa calitaṃ natthi. Calite asati passaddhi, passaddhiyā sati nati na hoti. Natiyā asati āgatigati na hoti. Āgatigatiyā asati cutūpapāto na hoti. Cutūpapāte asati nevidha na huraṃ na ubhayamantarena.
Esevanto dukkhassā’”ti.
MN 144
See also SN 35.87


Friends, the ascetic Gotama teaches the Dhamma to his disciples in such a way as this: ‘Come, bhikkhus, directly know all phenomena. Dwell having directly known all phenomena.’ We too teach the Dhamma to our disciples in such a way as this: ‘Come, friends, directly know all phenomena.

Samaṇo, āvuso, gotamo sāvakānaṃ evaṃ dhammaṃ deseti: ‘etha tumhe, bhikkhave, sabbaṃ dhammaṃ abhijānātha, sabbaṃ dhammaṃ abhiññāya viharathā’ti; mayampi kho, āvuso, sāvakānaṃ evaṃ dhammaṃ desema: ‘etha tumhe, āvuso, sabbaṃ dhammaṃ abhijānātha, sabbaṃ dhammaṃ abhiññāya viharathā’ti.
AN 10.27


Uttiya, having directly known it, I teach the Dhamma to my disciples for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of sorrow & lamentation, for the disappearance of pain & distress, for the attainment of the right method, & for the realization of Unbinding.

Abhiññāya kho ahaṃ, uttiya, sāvakānaṃ dhammaṃ desemi sattānaṃ visuddhiyā sokaparidevānaṃ samatikkamāya dukkhadomanassānaṃ atthaṅgamāya ñāyassa adhigamāya nibbānassa sacchikiriyāyā”ti
AN 10.95


“Again, with the destruction of the taints, the Tathāgata has realized for himself with direct knowledge, in this very life, the taintless liberation of mind, liberation by discernment, and having entered upon it, he dwells in it.
AN 10.21


“Having conquered the army of the pleasant and agreeable, meditating alone, I discovered bliss, the attainment of the goal, the peace of the heart.
Therefore I don’t form intimate ties with people, nor does intimacy with anyone get a chance with me.”

Atthassa pattiṃ hadayassa santiṃ, jetvāna senaṃ piyasātarūpaṃ; ekohaṃ jhāyaṃ sukhamanubodhiṃ,
Tasmā janena na karomi sakkhiṃ; sakkhī na sampajjati kenaci me’ti.

"Some ascetics and brahmins, sister, for whom the attainment of:
the earth kasiṇa …
the fire kasiṇa …
the water kasiṇa …
the air kasiṇa …
the blue kasiṇa …
the yellow kasiṇa …
the red kasiṇa …
the white kasiṇa …
the space kasiṇa …
the consciousness kasiṇa
is supreme, generated it as their goal.
The Blessed One directly knew to what extent the attainment of the consciousness kasiṇa is supreme.
Having directly known this, he saw the beginning, the danger, and the escape, and he saw the knowledge and vision of the path and the non-path.
By seeing the beginning, the danger, and the escape, and by seeing the knowledge and vision of the path and the non-path, he knew the attainment of the goal, the peace of the heart.

Āpokasiṇasamāpattiparamā kho, bhagini … pe … tejokasiṇasamāpattiparamā kho, bhagini … vāyokasiṇasamāpattiparamā kho, bhagini … nīlakasiṇasamāpattiparamā kho, bhagini … pītakasiṇasamāpattiparamā kho, bhagini … lohitakasiṇasamāpattiparamā kho, bhagini … odātakasiṇasamāpattiparamā kho, bhagini … ākāsakasiṇasamāpattiparamā kho, bhagini … viññāṇakasiṇasamāpattiparamā kho, bhagini, eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā ‘attho’ti abhinibbattesuṃ.
Yāvatā kho, bhagini, viññāṇakasiṇasamāpattiparamatā, tadabhiññāsi bhagavā. Tadabhiññāya bhagavā assādamaddasa … ādīnavamaddasa … nissaraṇamaddasa … maggāmaggañāṇadassanamaddasa … tassa assādadassanahetu ādīnavadassanahetu nissaraṇadassanahetu maggāmaggañāṇadassanahetu atthassa patti hadayassa santi viditā hoti.
AN 10.26


These seven factors of enlightenment, venerable sir, have been rightly expounded by the Blessed One; when developed and cultivated, they lead to direct knowledge, to enlightenment, to Nibbāna.

Sattime, bhante, bojjhaṅgā bhagavatā sammadakkhātā bhāvitā bahulīkatā abhiññāya sambodhāya nibbānāya saṃvattanti.
SN 46.16


“A man should not pursue sensual desires which are low, vulgar, coarse, ignoble and connected with harm; and he should not pursue self-mortification, which is painful, ignoble and connected with harm.
The Middle Way avoiding both these extremes has been discovered by the Perfect One (Tathāgata) giving sight, giving knowledge, which leads to peace, to direct knowledge, to enlightenment, to Nibbāna.

Na kāmasukhamanuyuñjeyya hīnaṃ gammaṃ pothujjanikaṃ anariyaṃ anatthasaṃhitaṃ, na ca attakilamathānuyogamanuyuñjeyya dukkhaṃ anariyaṃ anatthasaṃhitaṃ. Ete kho, bhikkhave, ubho ante anupagamma majjhimā paṭipadā tathāgatena abhisambuddhā, cakkhukaraṇī ñāṇakaraṇī upasamāya abhiññāya sambodhāya nibbānāya saṃvattati.
SN 56.11


Sisters, there are these seven enlightenment factors through the development and cultivation of which a bhikkhu, by realising for himself with direct knowledge, here and now enters upon and abides in the deliverance of mind and deliverance by wisdom that are taintless with the destruction of the taints.

Satta kho panime, bhaginiyo, bojjhaṅgā, yesaṃ bhāvitattā bahulīkatattā bhikkhu āsavānaṃ khayā anāsavaṃ cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharati.
MN 146


The series on:
Then there is the disciple of the noble ones — thus consummate in virtue, thus consummate in concentration, thus consummate in discernment — who, through the ending of the mental fermentations, enters & remains in the fermentation-free mind-release & discernment-release, having known & made them manifest for himself right in the here & now.

Sa kho so, xxx, ariyasāvako evaṃ sīlasampanno evaṃ samādhisampanno evaṃ paññāsampanno āsavānaṃ khayā anāsavaṃ cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharati.
AN 3.73/74/86/87/88/90 - AN 4.159


Good, Gotama, wait! Let alone bhikkhus. Is there a single bhikkhuni a disciple of Gotama, who has destroyed desires has released the mind from desires and released through wisdom, here and now, have realised?’ `Vaccha, not one, not one hundred, not two hundred, not three hundred, not four hundred, not five hundred. There are many, more bhikkhunis, disciples of mine, who have destroyed desires, the mind released from desires and released through wisdom, here and now realising abide’.

Tiṭṭhatu bhavaṃ gotamo, tiṭṭhantu bhikkhū. Atthi pana bhoto gotamassa ekā bhikkhunīpi sāvikā yā āsavānaṃ khayā anāsavaṃ cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharatī”ti? “Na kho, vaccha, ekaṃyeva sataṃ na dve satāni na tīṇi satāni na cattāri satāni na pañca satāni, atha kho bhiyyova yā bhikkhuniyo mama sāvikā āsavānaṃ khayā anāsavaṃ cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharantī”ti.
MN 73


On the occasion when a monk, through the ending of the mental fermentations, enters & remains in the fermentation-free mind-release & discernment-release, having known & verified them for himself right in the here & now, then any affection of his that is born of affection is abandoned, its root destroyed, made like a palmyra stump, deprived of the conditions of development, not destined for future arising. Any aversion of his that is born of affection… any affection of his that is born of aversion… any aversion of his that is born of aversion is abandoned, its root destroyed, made like a palmyra stump, deprived of the conditions of development, not destined for future arising.

Yasmiṃ, bhikkhave, samaye bhikkhu āsavānaṃ khayā anāsavaṃ cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharati,…
AN 4.200


“These I consider to be ascetics among ascetics and brahmins among brahmins, and these venerable ones, by realizing it for themselves with direct knowledge, in this very life enter and dwell in the goal of asceticism and the goal of brahminhood.”

Te kho me, bhikkhave, samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā samaṇesu ceva samaṇasammatā, brāhmaṇesu ca brāhmaṇasammatā. Te ca panāyasmanto sāmaññatthañca brahmaññatthañca diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharantī”ti.
SN 12.13/14 - SN 12.71


Then, dwelling alone, secluded, heedful, ardent, & resolute, he in no long time reached & remained in the supreme goal of the holy life for which clansmen rightly go forth from home into homelessness, knowing & realizing it for himself in the here & now. He knew: “Birth is ended, the holy life fulfilled, the task done. There is nothing further for the sake of this world.” And thus he became another one of the arahants.

Atha kho so bhikkhu eko vūpakaṭṭho appamatto ātāpī pahitatto viharanto nacirasseva—yassatthāya kulaputtā sammadeva agārasmā anagāriyaṃ pabbajanti, tadanuttaraṃbrahmacariyapariyosānaṃ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja vihāsi. “Khīṇā jāti, vusitaṃ brahmacariyaṃ, kataṃ karaṇīyaṃ, nāparaṃ itthattāyā”ti abbhaññāsi. Aññataro ca pana so bhikkhu arahataṃ ahosīti.
MN 86 - SN 12.17 - SN 35.64 - SN 35.95 - SN 41.9 - SN 47.15/16 - SN 7.1/2/10


Here, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu destroying desires and releasing the mind, and released through discernment, here now having realized abides.

Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu āsavānaṃ khayā anāsavaṃ cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharati.
AN 3.142 - AN 9.22


So after that, Ven. Sona determined the right pitch for his persistence, attuned the pitch of the [five] faculties [to that], and there picked up his theme. Dwelling alone, secluded, heedful, ardent, & resolute, he in no long time reached & remained in the supreme goal of the holy life for which clansmen rightly go forth from home into homelessness, knowing & realizing it for himself in the here & now.

Atha kho āyasmā soṇo aparena samayena vīriyasamathaṃ adhiṭṭhāsi, indriyānañca samataṃ paṭivijjhi, tattha ca nimittaṃ aggahesi. Atha kho āyasmā soṇo eko vūpakaṭṭho appamatto ātāpī pahitatto viharanto nacirassevayassatthāya kulaputtā sammadeva agārasmā anāgāriyaṃ pabbajanti, tadanuttaraṃ brahma­cariyapariyosānaṃ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja vihāsi.
AN 6.55


Here, with the destruction of the taints, some person has realized for himself with direct knowledge, in this very life, the taintless liberation of mind, liberation by discernment, and having entered upon it, he dwells in it.

Idha, bhikkhave, ekacco puggalo āsavānaṃ khayā anāsavaṃ cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharati.
SN 16.9/10/11


Now at that time Ven. Sariputta was sitting behind the Blessed One, fanning him. The thought occurred to him, “Indeed, it seems that the Blessed One speaks to us of the abandoning of each of these mental qualities through direct knowledge. Indeed, it seems that the One Well-gone speaks to us of the relinquishing of each of these mental qualities through direct knowledge.” As Ven. Sariputta was reflecting thus, his mind was released from fermentations through not-clinging. While in LongNails the wanderer there arose the dustless, stainless Dhamma eye: “Whatever is subject to origination is all subject to cessation.”

Tena kho pana samayena āyasmā sāriputto bhagavato piṭṭhito ṭhito hoti bhagavantaṃ bījayamāno. Atha kho āyasmato sāriputtassa etadahosi: “tesaṃ tesaṃ kira no bhagavā dhammānaṃ abhiññā pahānamāha, tesaṃ tesaṃ kira no sugato dhammānaṃ abhiññā paṭinissaggamāhā”ti. Iti hidaṃ āyasmato sāriputtassa paṭisañcikkhato anupādāya āsavehi cittaṃ vimucci. Dīghanakhassa pana paribbājakassa virajaṃ vītamalaṃ dhammacakkhuṃ udapādi: “yaṃ kiñci samudayadhammaṃ sabbaṃ taṃ nirodhadhamman”ti.
MN 74


So long as I did not directly know as they really are the five aggregates subject to clinging in four phases, I did not claim to have awakened to the unsurpassed perfect enlightenment in this world with its devas, Mara, and Brahma, in this generation with its ascetics and brahmins, its devas and humans.

Yāvakīvañcāhaṃ, bhikkhave, ime pañcu­pādā­nak­khan­dhe catuparivaṭṭaṃ yathābhūtaṃ nābbhaññāsiṃ, neva tāvāhaṃ, bhikkhave, sadevake loke samārake sabrahmake ­sassama­ṇab­rāhma­ṇiyā pajāya sade­va­manus­sāya anuttaraṃ sammāsambodhiṃ abhisam­buddhoti paccaññāsiṃ.

And how, bhikkhus, are there four phases? I directly knew form, its origin, its cessation, and the way leading to its cessation. I directly knew feeling … perception … volitional formations … consciousness, its origin, its cessation, and the way leading to its cessation.

Kathañca catuparivaṭṭaṃ? Rūpaṃ abbhaññāsiṃ, rūpasamudayaṃ abbhaññāsiṃ, rūpanirodhaṃ abbhaññāsiṃ, rūpanirodhagāminiṃ paṭipadaṃ abbhaññāsiṃ; vedanaṃ … saññaṃ … saṅkhāre … viññāṇaṃ abbhaññāsiṃ, viñ­ñāṇasamudayaṃ abbhaññāsiṃ, viñ­ñā­ṇa­nirodhaṃ abbhaññāsiṃ, viññāṇanirodhagāminiṃ paṭipadaṃ abbhaññāsiṃ.
SN 22.56
See also SN 22.57


… holds right view and has a correct perspective thus: ‘There is what is given … there are in the world ascetics and brahmins of right conduct and right practice who, having realized this world and the other world for themselves by direct knowledge, make them known to others.’ He does not creep along by body, speech, and mind. His bodily kamma is straight … His destination is straight; his rebirth is straight…. Thus a being is reborn from a being; one is reborn through one’s deeds. When one has been reborn, contacts affect one. It is in this way, I say, that beings are the heirs of their kamma.

… sammādiṭṭhiko hoti aviparītadassano: ‘atthi dinnaṃ … pe … ye imañca lokaṃ parañca lokaṃ sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā pavedentī’ti. So na saṃsappati kāyena, na saṃsappati vācāya, na saṃsappati manasā. Tassa uju kāyakammaṃ hoti, uju vacīkammaṃ, uju manokammaṃ, uju gati, ujupapatti.
AN 10.216 - AN 3.118


Cunda, what is the three ways of mental purity?
Does not covet. Seeing someone’s belongings does not think they should be mine.
Is not angry, is without defiled thoughts. Thinks may these beings be well and happy, may they maintain themselves with mental health.
Is with right view without a reversed vision-'There is good in giving, in a sacrifice and in an offering. There are results for good or evil actions. There is this world and other world, mother, father. There are spontaneously arisen beings. In this world there are recluses and Brahmins, who have come to the right path have realized this world and the other world by themselves and declare it. Thus Cunda, there is purity of the mind in three ways.

Sammādiṭṭhiko hoti aviparītadassano: ‘atthi dinnaṃ, atthi yiṭṭhaṃ, atthi hutaṃ, atthi sukaṭadukkaṭānaṃ kammānaṃ phalaṃ vipāko, atthi ayaṃ loko, atthi paro loko, atthi mātā, atthi pitā, atthi sattā opapātikā, atthi loke samaṇabrāhmaṇā sammaggatā sammāpaṭipannā ye imañca lokaṃ parañca lokaṃ sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā pavedentī’ti. Evaṃ kho, cunda, manasā tividhaṃ asoceyyaṃ hoti.
AN 10.176


Sāriputta, these five hundred bhikkhus too have no blame for any bodily or verbal activity. Sixty of them are endowed with the threefold knowledge. Sixty of them with deep six fold knowledge. Sixty are released both ways. The others are released wisely seeing.

Imesañhi, sāriputta, pañcannaṃ bhikkhusatānaṃ saṭṭhi bhikkhū tevijjā, saṭṭhi bhikkhū chaḷabhiññā, saṭṭhi bhikkhū ubhato­bhāga­vimuttā, atha itare paññāvimuttā”ti.
SN 8.7


.
“Having known the origin of nothingness, and that enjoyment is called a fetter,
knowing deeply that it is so, and then having insight into this:
this is real knowedge for him, for the brahmin who is accomplished.”

Ākiñcaññasambhavaṃ ñatvā, Nandī saṃyojanaṃ iti;
Evametaṃ abhiññāya, Tato tattha vipassati;
Etaṃ ñāṇaṃ tathaṃ tassa, Brāhmaṇassa vusīmato”ti.
Snp 5.15


But there comes a time when his mind grows steady inwardly, settles down, grows unified & concentrated. His concentration is calm & refined, has attained serenity & unity, and is no longer kept in place by the fabrication of forceful restraint.
"And then whichever of the higher knowledges he turns his mind to know & realize, he can witness them for himself whenever there is an opening.

Hoti so, bhikkhave, samayo yaṃ taṃ cittaṃ ajjhattaṃyeva santiṭṭhati sannisīdati ekodi hoti samādhiyati. So hoti samādhi santo paṇīto paṭippassaddhiladdho ekodibhāvādhigato na sasaṅkhāraniggayhavāritagato. Yassa yassa ca abhiññā sacchikaraṇīyassa dhammassa cittaṃ abhininnāmeti abhiññā sacchikiriyāya tatra tatreva sakkhibhabbataṃ pāpuṇāti sati satiāyatane.
AN 3.101/102


At one time the Blessed One lived in the forest of Icchānakala near the village Icchānakala. At that time many well-known brahmin householders lived in Icchānakala, such as the brahmins Chanki, Tārukkha, Pokkharasāti, Jānussoni, Todeyya and other well-known brahmin householders.

ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā icchānaṅgale viharati icchānaṅgalavanasaṇḍe. Tena kho pana samayena sambahulā abhiññātā abhiññātā brāhmaṇamahāsālā icchānaṅgale paṭivasanti, seyyathidaṃcaṅkī brāhmaṇo, tārukkho brāhmaṇo, pokkharasāti brāhmaṇo, jāṇussoṇi brāhmaṇo, todeyyo brāhmaṇo, aññe ca abhiññātā abhiññātā brāhmaṇamahāsālā.
MN 98


Both this world and the world beyond
Have been revealed by him who knows:
What’s within the reach of Mara,
And also what’s beyond his reach.

Fully knowing all of the world,
The wise one, by awakening,
Has opened the door to non-death,
Which safely reaches nibbana.

Ayaṃ loko paro loko,
jānatā suppakāsito;
Yañca mārena sampattaṃ,
appattaṃ yañca maccunā.

Sabbaṃ lokaṃ abhiññāya,
sambuddhena pajānatā;
Vivaṭaṃ amatadvāraṃ,
khemaṃ nibbānapattiyā.
MN 34


Why have I left that undeclared? Because it is unbeneficial, it does not belong to the fundamentals of the holy life, it does not lead to disenchantment, to dispassion, to cessation, to peace, to direct knowledge, to enlightenment, to Nibbāna. That is why I have left it undeclared.

Kasmā cetaṃ, mālukyaputta, mayā abyākataṃ? Na hetaṃ, mālukyaputta, atthasaṃhitaṃ na ādibrahmacariyakaṃ na nibbidāya na virāgāya na nirodhāya na upasamāya na abhiññāya na sambodhāya na nibbānāya saṃvattati.
MN 72


What’s to be known is known;
What’s to be developed is developed;
I’ve abandoned what’s to be abandoned;
Therefore, brahmin, I am a Buddha.

Abhiññeyyaṃ abhiññātaṃ,
bhāvetabbañca bhāvitaṃ;
Pahātabbaṃ pahīnaṃ me,
tasmā buddhosmi brāhmaṇa.
Thag 16.6


Dhātu “If he wants, he hears—by means of the divine ear-element, purified and surpassing the human—both kinds of sounds: divine and human, whether near or far. He can witness this for himself whenever there is an opening.

So sace ākaṅkhati: ‘dibbāya sotadhātuyā visuddhāya atikkantamānusikāya ubho sadde suṇeyyaṃ dibbe ca mānuse ca ye dūre santike cā’ti, tatra tatreva sakkhibhabbataṃ pāpuṇāti sati satiāyatane.
AN 3.101


.
What do you think, brahmin, is there an element or principle of initiating (ārabbhadhātū) or beginning an action?”
“Just so, Venerable Sir.”
“When there is an element of initiating, are initiating beings clearly discerned?”
“Just so, Venerable Sir.”
“So, brahmin, when there is the element of initiating, initiating beings are clearly discerned; of such beings, this is the self-doer, this, the other-doer.
“What do you think, brahmin, is there an element of exertion (nikkamadhātu) … is there an element of effort (parakkamadhātu) … is there an element of steadfastness (thāmadhātu) … is there an element of persistence (ṭhitidhātu ) … is there an element of endeavoring (upakkamadhātū)?”
“Just so, Venerable Sir.”
“When there is an element of endeavoring, are endeavoring beings clearly discerned?”
“Just so, Venerable Sir.”
“So, brahmin, when there is the element of endeavoring, endeavoring beings are clearly discerned; of such beings, this is the self-doer, this, the other-doer.

Taṃ kiṃ maññasi, brāhmaṇa, atthi ārabbhadhātū”ti? “Evaṃ, bho”. “Ārabbhadhātuyā sati ārabbhavanto sattā paññāyantī”ti? “Evaṃ, bho”. “Yaṃ kho, brāhmaṇa, ārabbhadhātuyā sati ārabbhavanto sattā paññāyanti, ayaṃ sattānaṃ attakāro ayaṃ parakāro.
Taṃ kiṃ maññasi, brāhmaṇa, atthi nikkamadhātu … pe … atthi parakkamadhātu … atthi thāmadhātu … atthi ṭhitidhātu … atthi upakkamadhātū”ti? “Evaṃ, bho”. “Upakkamadhātuyā sati upakkamavanto sattā paññāyantī”ti? “Evaṃ, bho”. “Yaṃ kho, brāhmaṇa, upakkamadhātuyā sati upakkamavanto sattā paññāyanti, ayaṃ sattānaṃ attakāro ayaṃ parakāro.
I have not, brahmin, seen or heard such a doctrine, such a view as yours. How, indeed, could one—moving forward by himself, moving back by himself—say ‘There is no self-doer, there is no other-doer’?”
Māhaṃ, brāhmaṇa, evaṃvādiṃ evaṃdiṭṭhiṃ addasaṃ vā assosiṃ vā. Kathañhi nāma sayaṃ abhikkamanto sayaṃ paṭikkamanto evaṃ vakkhati: ‘natthi attakāro natthi parakāro’”ti.
AN 6.38


.
“Friends, if he wanted to, a monk with psychic power (iddhimā), having attained mastery (vasippatta) of his mind (citta), could will that wood pile to be nothing but earth.
Why is that? There is earth-property in that wood pile, in dependence on which he could will that wood pile to be nothing but earth.
“If he wanted to, a monk with psychic power, having attained mastery of his mind, could will that wood pile to be nothing but water… fire… wind… beautiful… unattractive.
Why is that? There is the property of the unattractive in that wood pile, in dependence on which he could will that wood pile to be nothing but unattractive.”

“Ākaṅkhamāno, āvuso, bhikkhu iddhimā cetovasippatto amuṃ dārukkhandhaṃ pathavītveva adhimucceyya.
Taṃ kissa hetu? Atthi, āvuso, amumhi dārukkhandhe pathavīdhātu, yaṃ nissāya bhikkhu iddhimā cetovasippatto amuṃ dārukkhandhaṃ pathavītveva adhimucceyya. Ākaṅkhamāno, āvuso, bhikkhu iddhimā cetovasippatto amuṃ dārukkhandhaṃ āpotveva adhimucceyya … pe … tejotveva adhimucceyya … vāyotveva adhimucceyya … subhantveva adhimucceyya … asubhantveva adhimucceyya.
Taṃ kissa hetu? Atthi, āvuso, amumhi dārukkhandhe asubhadhātu, yaṃ nissāya bhikkhu iddhimā cetovasippatto amuṃ dārukkhandhaṃ asubhantveva adhimucceyyā”ti.
AN 6.41


.
Again, the Tathāgata understands the world how it has come to be, with its numerous and diverse elements.

Puna caparaṃ, bhikkhave, tathāgato anekadhātuṃ nānādhātuṃ lokaṃ yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti.
AN 10.21


.
Venerable sir, I have gained the knowledge of a trainer. May the Blessed One instruct me further,’ `Then Vaccha, you should develop two things further. Develop calm (samatha) and insight (vipassana). Vaccha, when calm and insight is developed, it conduces to experiencing the various elements.

“yāvatakaṃ, bhante, sekhena ñāṇena sekhāya vijjāya pattabbaṃ, anuppattaṃ taṃ mayā; uttari ca me bhagavā dhammaṃ desetū”ti.
“Tena hi tvaṃ, vaccha, dve dhamme uttari bhāvehi samathañca vipassanañca. Ime kho te, vaccha, dve dhammā uttari bhāvitā samatho ca vipassanā ca aneka dhātupaṭivedhāya saṃvattissanti.
MN 73


.
And the devatās from ten world systems had for the most part assembled in order to see the Blessed One and the Bhikkhu Saṅgha.
dasahi ca lokadhātūhi devatā yebhuyyena sannipatitā honti bhagavantaṃ dassanāya bhikkhusaṃghañca.
SN 1.37


.
This puppet is not made by itself, Nor is this misery made by another. It has come to be dependent on a cause, When the cause dissolves then it will cease.
As when a seed is sown in a field It grows depending on a pair of factors: It requires both the soil’s nutrients And a steady supply of moisture.
Just so the aggregates and elements, And these six bases of sensory contact, Have come to be dependent on a cause; When the cause dissolves they will cease.

Nayidaṃ attakataṃ bimbaṃ, nayidaṃ parakataṃ aghaṃ; hetuṃ paṭicca sambhūtaṃ, hetubhaṅgā nirujjhati.
Yathā aññataraṃ bījaṃ, khette vuttaṃ virūhati; pathavīrasañcāgamma, sinehañca tadūbhayaṃ.
Evaṃ khandhā ca dhātuyo, cha ca āyatanā ime; hetuṃ paṭicca sambhūtā, hetubhaṅgā nirujjhare”ti.
SN 5.9


.
The Blessed One sat cross-legged in the air above that brahma, having entered into meditation on the fire element.
Atha kho bhagavā tassa brahmuno upari vehāsaṃ pallaṅkena nisīdi tejodhātuṃ samāpajjitvā.
SN 6.5


.
"Whatever be the many desires and delights
That are always attached to the manifold elements,
The longings sprung from the root of unknowing:
All I have demolished along with their root.
“I am desireless, unattached, disengaged;
My vision of all things has been purified.
Having attained the auspicious supreme enlightenment­
Self-confident, brahmin, I meditate alone.”

“Yā kāci kaṅkhā abhinandanā vā,
Anekadhātūsu puthū sadāsitā;
Aññāṇamūlappabhavā pajappitā,
Sabbā mayā byantikatā samūlikā.
Svāhaṃ akaṅkho asito anūpayo,
Sabbesu dhammesu visuddhadassano;
Pappuyya sambodhimanuttaraṃ sivaṃ,
Jhāyāmahaṃ brahma raho visārado”ti.
SN 7.18


.
"Drunk on poetry, I used to wander
From village to village, town to town.
Then I saw the Enlightened One
And faith arose within me.
"He then taught me the Dhamma:
Aggregates, sense bases, and elements.
Having heard the Dhamma from him,
I went forth into homelessness.

“Kāveyyamattā vicarimha pubbe,
Gāmā gāmaṃ purā puraṃ;
Athaddasāma sambuddhaṃ,
Saddhā no upapajjatha.
So me dhammamadesesi,
khandhāyatanadhātuyo;
Tassāhaṃ dhammaṃ sutvāna,
pabbajiṃ anagāriyaṃ.
SN 8.12


.
And what, bhikkhus, is dependent origination?
‘With birth as condition, aging-and-death comes to be’: whether there is an arising of Tathagatas or no arising of Tathagatas, that element still persists, the stableness of the Dhamma, the fixed course of the Dhamma, specific conditionality.

Katamo ca, bhikkhave, paṭiccasamuppādo?
Jātipaccayā, bhikkhave, jarāmaraṇaṃ. Uppādā vā tathāgatānaṃ anuppādā vā tathāgatānaṃ, ṭhitāva sā dhātu dhammaṭṭhitatā dhammaniyāmatā idappaccayatā.
SN 12.20


.

Bhikkhu, the Venerable Sāriputta has thoroughly penetrated that element of the Dhamma by the thorough penetration of which, if I were to question him about that matter with various terms and with various methods for up to seven days and nights, for up to seven days and nights he would be able to answer me with various terms and with various methods.

Sā hi, bhikkhu, sāriputtassa dhammadhātu suppaṭividdhā, yassā dhammadhātuyā suppaṭividdhattā divasaṃ cepāhaṃ sāriputtaṃ etamatthaṃ puccheyyaṃ aññamaññehi padehi aññamaññehi pariyāyehi, divasampi me sāriputto etamatthaṃ byākareyya aññamaññehi padehi aññamaññehi pariyāyehi.
SN 12.32


.
And what, bhikkhus, is the diversity of elements?
The eye element, form element, eye-consciousness element; the ear element, sound element, ear-consciousness element; the nose element, odour element, nose-consciousness element; the tongue element, taste element, tongue-consciousness element; the body element, tactile-object element, body-consciousness element; the mind element, mental-phenomena element, mind-consciousness element.

Katamañca, bhikkhave, dhātunānattaṃ?
Cakkhudhātu rūpadhātu cakkhuviññāṇadhātu, sotadhātu saddadhātu sotaviññāṇadhātu, ghānadhātu gandhadhātu ghānaviññāṇadhātu, jivhādhātu rasadhātu jivhāviññāṇadhātu, kāyadhātu phoṭṭhabbadhātu kāyaviññāṇadhātu, manodhātu dhammadhātu manoviññāṇadhātu—idaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, dhātunānattan’ti.
SN 14.1 & SN 41.2


.
SN 14.2 to SN 14.25


.
Bhikkhus, to whatever extent I wish, with the divine ear element, which is purified and surpasses the human, I hear both kinds of sounds, the divine and human, those that are far as well as near. Kassapa too, to whatever extent he wishes, with the divine ear element, which is purified and surpasses the human, hears both kinds of sounds.

Ahaṃ, bhikkhave, yāvade ākaṅkhāmi dibbāya sotadhātuyā visuddhāya atikkantamānusikāya ubho sadde suṇāmi, dibbe ca mānuse ca, ye dūre santike ca. Kassapopi, bhikkhave, yāvade ākaṅkhati dibbāya sotadhātuyā … pe … dūre santike ca.
SN 16.9


.
It is not the earth element, Kassapa, that causes the true Dhamma to disappear, nor the water element, nor the heat element, nor the air element. It is the senseless people who arise right here who cause the true Dhamma to disappear.

Na kho, kassapa, pathavīdhātu saddhammaṃ antaradhāpeti, na āpodhātu saddhammaṃ antaradhāpeti, na tejodhātu saddhammaṃ antaradhāpeti, na vāyodhātu saddhammaṃ antaradhāpeti; atha kho idheva te uppajjanti moghapurisā ye imaṃ saddhammaṃ antaradhāpenti. Seyyathāpi, kassapa, nāvā ādikeneva opilavati; na kho, kassapa, evaṃ saddhammassa antaradhānaṃ hoti.
SN 16.13


.
I didn’t approach the Blessed One by means of spiritual power, friend, nor did the Blessed One approach me by means of spiritual power. Rather, the Blessed One cleared his divine eye and divine ear element to communicate with me, and I cleared my divine eye and divine ear element to communicate with the Blessed One.

Na khvāhaṃ, āvuso, bhagavantaṃ iddhiyā upasaṅkamiṃ; napi maṃ bhagavā iddhiyā upasaṅkami. Api ca me yāvatā bhagavā ettāvatā dibbacakkhu visujjhi dibbā ca sotadhātu. Bhagavatopi yāvatāhaṃ ettāvatā dibbacakkhu visujjhi dibbā ca sotadhātū”ti.
SN 21.3


.
The form element, householder, is the home of consciousness; one whose consciousness is shackled by lust for the form element is called one who roams about in a home. The feeling element is the home of consciousness … (idem for the rest of the khandhas).

And how, householder, does one roam about homeless? The desire, lust, delight, and craving, the engagement and clinging, the mental standpoints, adherences, and underlying tendencies regarding the form element: these have been abandoned by the Tathagata, cut off at the root, made like a palm stump, obliterated so that they are no more subject to future arising. Therefore the Tathagata is called one who roams about homeless. … (idem for the rest of the khandhas).

Rūpadhātu kho, gahapati, viññāṇassa oko. Rūpadhāturāgavinibandhañca pana viññāṇaṃ ‘okasārī’ti vuccati. Vedanādhātu kho, gahapati, …

Kathañca, gahapati, anokasārī hoti? Rūpadhātuyā kho, gahapati, yo chando yo rāgo yā nandī yā taṇhā ye upayupādānā cetaso adhiṭṭhānābhinivesānusayā te tathāgatassa pahīnā ucchinnamūlā tālāvatthukatā anabhāvaṃkatā āyatiṃ anuppādadhammā. Tasmā tathāgato ‘anokasārī’ti vuccati. Vedanādhātuyā kho, gahapati …
SN 22.3


.
Householder, through the destruction, fading away, cessation, giving up, and relinquishment of desire, lust, delight, craving, engagement and clinging, mental standpoints, adherences, and underlying tendencies towards the form element, the mind is said to be well liberated. … (idem for the rest of the khandhas).

Rūpadhātuyā kho, gahapati, yo chando yo rāgo yā nandī yā taṇhā ye upayupādānā cetaso adhiṭṭhānābhinivesānusayā, tesaṃ khayā virāgā nirodhā cāgā paṭinissaggā ‘cittaṃ suvimuttanti’ vuccati. … Vedanādhātuyā… Etc.
SN 22.4


.
If, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu’s mind has become dispassionate towards the form element, it is liberated from the taints by nonclinging. If his mind has become dispassionate towards the feeling element … (idem for the rest of the khandhas).

Rūpadhātuyā ce, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno cittaṃ virattaṃ vimuttaṃ hoti anupādāya āsavehi, vedanādhātuyā … etc.
SN22.45


.
Thus this way of regarding things and the notion ‘I am’ have not vanished in him. As ‘I am’ has not vanished, there takes place a descent of the five faculties - of the eye faculty, the ear faculty, the nose faculty, the tongue faculty, the body faculty. There is, bhikkhus, the mind, there are mental phenomena, there is the element of ignorance.

Iti ayañceva samanupassanā ‘asmī’ti cassa avigataṃ hoti. ‘Asmī’ti kho pana, bhikkhave, avigate pañcannaṃ indriyānaṃ avakkanti hoti - cakkhundriyassa sotindriyassa ghānindriyassa jivhindriyassa kāyindriyassa. Atthi, bhikkhave, mano, atthi dhammā, atthi avijjādhātu.
SN 22.47


.
Bhikkhus, if a bhikkhu has abandoned lust for the form element, with the abandoning of lust the basis is cut off: there is no support for the establishing of consciousness. If he has abandoned lust for the feeling element … (idem for the rest of the khandhas).

Rūpadhātuyā ce, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno rāgo pahīno hoti. Rāgassa pahānā vocchijjatārammaṇaṃ patiṭṭhā viññāṇassa na hoti. Vedanādhātuyā ce, bhikkhave … etc.
SN 22.53


.
And how, bhikkhus, is a bhikkhu a triple investigator? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu investigates by way of the elements, by way of the sense bases, and by way of dependent origination.
Kathañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu tividhūpaparikkhī hoti? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dhātuso upaparikkhati, āyatanaso upaparikkhati, paṭiccasamuppādaso upaparikkhati.
SN 22.57


.
"Bhikkhus, desire and lust for the earth element … for the water element … for the heat element … for the air element … for the space element … for the consciousness element is a corruption of the mind. When a bhikkhu has abandoned the mental corruption in these six cases … [his mind] becomes wieldy in regard to those things that are to be realized by direct knowledge.

“Yo, bhikkhave, pathavīdhātuyā chandarāgo, cittasseso upakkileso. Yo āpodhātuyā … yo tejodhātuyā … yo vāyodhātuyā … yo ākāsadhātuyā … yo viññāṇadhātuyā chandarāgo, cittasseso upakkileso. Yato kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno imesu chasu ṭhānesu cetaso upakkileso pahīno hoti, nekkhammaninnañcassa cittaṃ hoti. Nekkhammaparibhāvitaṃ cittaṃ kammaniyaṃ khāyati, abhiññā sacchikaraṇīyesu dhammesū”ti.
SN 27.9


.
Whatever, bhikkhus, is the extent of the aggregates, the elements, and the sense bases, he does not conceive that, does not conceive in that, does not conceive from that, does not conceive, ‘That is mine.’

Yāvatā, bhikkhave, khandhadhātuāyatanā tampi na maññeyya, tasmimpi na maññeyya, tatopi na maññeyya, taṃ meti na maññeyya.
SN 35.91


.
Householder, there exists the eye element, and forms that are agreeable, and eye-consciousness: in dependence on a contact to be experienced as pleasant, a pleasant feeling arises. There exists the eye element, and forms that are disagreeable, and eye-consciousness: in dependence on a contact to be experienced as painful, a painful feeling arises. There exists the eye element, and forms that are a basis for equanimity, and eye-consciousness: in dependence on a contact to be experienced as neither-painful-nor-pleasant, a neither- painful-nor-pleasant feeling arises.
(Idem for ear, …etc.)
It is in this way, householder, that the diversity of elements has been spoken of by the Blessed One.

Saṃvijjati kho, gahapati, cakkhudhātu, rūpā ca manāpā, cakkhuviññāṇañca sukhavedaniyaṃ. Phassaṃ paṭicca uppajjati sukhā vedanā. Saṃvijjati kho, gahapati, cakkhudhātu, rūpā ca amanāpā, cakkhuviññāṇañca dukkhavedaniyaṃ. Phassaṃ paṭicca uppajjati dukkhā vedanā. Saṃvijjati kho, gahapati, cakkhudhātu, rūpā ca manāpā upekkhāvedaniyā, cakkhuviññāṇañca adukkhamasukhavedaniyaṃ. Phassaṃ paṭicca uppajjati adukkhamasukhā vedanā … pe … saṃvijjati kho, gahapati, jivhādhātu, … etc.
SN 35.129


.
Venerable sir, it was said by the Blessed One: ‘It is in dependence on the diversity of elements that there arises the diversity of contacts; in dependence on the diversity of contacts that there arises the diversity of feelings.’ How is this so, venerable sir?”
“Here, householder, having seen a form with the eye, a bhikkhu understands an agreeable one thus: ‘Such it is!’ There is eye-consciousness, and in dependence on a contact to be experienced as pleasant there arises a pleasant feeling. Then, having seen a form with the eye, a bhikkhu understands a disagreeable one thus: ‘Such it is!’ There is eye-consciousness, and in dependence on a contact to be experienced as painful there arises a painful feeling. Then, having seen a form with the eye, a bhikkhu understands one that is a basis for equanimity thus: ‘Such it is!’ There is eye-consciousness, and in dependence on a contact to be experienced as neither-painful-nor-pleasant there arises a neither-painful-nor-pleasant feeling.
“Further, householder, having heard a sound with the ear … mind.

“Vuttamidaṃ, bhante, bhagavatā: ‘dhātunānattaṃ paṭicca uppajjati phassanānattaṃ; phassanānattaṃ paṭicca uppajjati vedanānānattan’ti. Kathaṃ nu kho, bhante, dhātunānattaṃ paṭicca uppajjati phassanānattaṃ; phassanānattaṃ paṭicca uppajjati vedanānānattan”ti? “Idha, gahapati, bhikkhu cakkhunā rūpaṃ disvā ‘manāpaṃ itthetan’ti pajānāti cakkhuviññāṇaṃ sukhavedaniyañca. Phassaṃ paṭicca uppajjati sukhā vedanā. Cakkhunā kho paneva rūpaṃ disvā ‘amanāpaṃ itthetan’ti pajānāti cakkhuviññāṇaṃ dukkhavedaniyañca. Phassaṃ paṭicca uppajjati dukkhā vedanā. Cakkhunā kho paneva rūpaṃ disvā ‘upekkhāṭṭhāniyaṃ itthetan’ti pajānāti cakkhuviññāṇaṃ adukkhamasukhavedaniyañca. Phassaṃ paṭicca uppajjati adukkhamasukhā vedanā.
Puna caparaṃ, gahapati, bhikkhu sotena saddaṃ sutvā … pe … manasā.
SN 35.130


.
I have made up this simile, bhikkhus, in order to convey a meaning. This is the meaning here: ‘The four vipers of fierce heat and deadly venom’: this is a designation for the four great elements—the earth element, the water element, the heat element, the air element.

Upamā kho myāyaṃ, bhikkhave, katā atthassa viññāpanāya. Ayañcettha attho - cattāro āsīvisā uggatejā ghoravisāti kho, bhikkhave, catunnetaṃ mahābhūtānaṃ adhivacanaṃ - pathavīdhātuyā, āpodhātuyā, tejodhātuyā, vāyodhātuyā.
SN 35.238


.
I have made up this simile, bhikkhu, in order to convey a meaning. This is the meaning here: ‘The city’: this is a designation for this body consisting of the four great elements, originating from mother and father, built up out of boiled rice and gruel, subject to impermanence, to being worn and rubbed away, to breaking apart and dispersal. ‘The six gates’: this is a designation for the six internal sense bases. ‘The gatekeeper’: this is a designation for mindfulness. ‘The swift pair of messengers’: this is a designation for serenity and insight. ‘The lord of the city’: this is designation for consciousness. ‘The central square’: this is a designation for the four great elements—the earth element, the water element, the heat element, the air element. ‘A message of reality’: this is a designation for Nibbāna. ‘The route by which they had arrived’: this is a designation for the Noble Eightfold Path; that is, right view … right concentration.”

Upamā kho myāyaṃ, bhikkhu, katā atthassa viññāpanāya. Ayañcettha attho: ‘nagaran’ti kho, bhikkhu, imassetaṃ cātumahābhūtikassa kāyassa adhivacanaṃ mātāpettikasambhavassa odanakummāsūpacayassa aniccucchādanaparimaddanabhedanaviddhaṃsanadhammassa. ‘Cha dvārā’ti kho, bhikkhu, channetaṃ ajjhattikānaṃ āyatanānaṃ adhivacanaṃ. ‘Dovāriko’ti kho, bhikkhu, satiyā etaṃ adhivacanaṃ. ‘Sīghaṃ dūtayugan’ti kho, bhikkhu, samathavipassanānetaṃ adhivacanaṃ. ‘Nagarassāmī’ti kho, bhikkhu, viññāṇassetaṃ adhivacanaṃ. ‘Majjhe siṅghāṭako’ti kho, bhikkhu, catunnetaṃ mahābhūtānaṃ adhivacanaṃ—pathavīdhātuyā, āpodhātuyā, tejodhātuyā, vāyodhātuyā. ‘Yathābhūtaṃ vacanan’ti kho, bhikkhu, nibbānassetaṃ adhivacanaṃ. ‘Yathāgatamaggo’ti kho, bhikkhu, ariyassetaṃ aṭṭhaṅgikassa maggassa adhivacanaṃ, seyyathidaṃ—sammādiṭṭhiyā … pe … sammāsamādhissā”ti.
SN 35.245


.
"Venerable sir, it is said, ‘the removal of lust, the removal of hatred, the removal of delusion.’ Of what now, venerable sir, is this the designation?”
“This, bhikkhu, is a designation for the element of Nibbāna: the removal of lust, the removal of hatred, the removal of delusion. The destruction of the taints is spoken of in that way.”

Rāgavinayo dosavinayo mohavinayo’ti, bhante, vuccati. Kissa nu kho etaṃ, bhante, adhivacanaṃ: ‘rāgavinayo dosavinayo mohavinayo’”ti? “Nibbānadhātuyā kho etaṃ, bhikkhu, adhivacanaṃ: ‘rāgavinayo dosavinayo mohavinayo’ti. Āsavānaṃ khayo tena vuccatī”ti.
SN 45.7


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And what, bhikkhus, is the nutriment for the arising of the unarisen enlightenment factor of energy and for the fulfilment by development of the arisen enlightenment factor of energy? There are, bhikkhus, the element of arousal, the element of endeavour, the element of exertion: frequently giving careful attention to them is the nutriment for the arising of the unarisen enlightenment factor of energy and for the fulfilment by development of the arisen enlightenment factor of energy.

Ko ca, bhikkhave, āhāro anuppannassa vā vīriyasambojjhaṅgassa uppādāya, uppannassa vā vīriyasambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya pāripūriyā? Atthi, bhikkhave, ārambhadhātu nikkamadhātu parakkamadhātu. Tattha yonisomanasikārabahulīkāro—ayamāhāro anuppannassa vā vīriyasambojjhaṅgassa uppādāya, uppannassa vā vīriyasambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya pāripūriyā.
SN 46.2 & SN 46.51


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"Bhikkhus, there may be alteration in the four great elements_ in the earth element, the water element, the heat element, the air element- but there cannot be alteration in the noble disciple who possesses confirmed confidence in the Buddha . Therein this is alteration: that the noble disciple who possesses confirmed confidence in the Buddha might be reborn in hell, in the animal realm, or in the domain of ghosts . This is impossible .

Siyā, bhikkhave, catunnaṃ mahābhūtānaṃ aññathattaṃ—pathavīdhātuyā, āpodhātuyā, tejodhātuyā, vāyodhātuyā—na tveva buddhe aveccappasādena samannāgatassa ariyasāvakassa siyā aññathattaṃ.
SN 55.17


DHĀTU in SANSKRIT:

The Sanskrit root is √ धा dhā.

  • To appoint, establish, constitute (Ṛg Veda - Śatapatha Br.).

  • To seize, take hold of, hold, bear, support (Ṛg Veda - Atharva veda).

  • To make, produce, generate, create, cause, effect, perform, execute (Ṛg Veda - Taittirīya Br - Śvetāśvatara Up).

  • to accept, obtain, conceive (especially in the womb), get, take (Ṛg Veda - Atharva veda - Brāhmaṇa).

Dhāman: the inmates of a house or members of a family, class, troop, band, host (Ṛg Veda).

Dhāman: manner, mode, tone, form, appearance (Ṛg Veda).

Dhāmaśas: according to place or order (Ṛg Veda).

Dhārāgraha a cup filled from flowing (Kātyāyana ṣrauta sūtra).

Dhāraka a receptacle or vessel for anything (Suśruta)

Dhāraṇa holding, bearing, keeping (in remembrance), retention, preserving, protecting, maintaining, possessing, having (Taittirīya Ar.).

Abhinidhāna placing upon (or into) (Kātyāyana ṣrauta sūtra - Śatapatha Br. - Ṛg V - Taittirīya S.).

Addhātama quite manifest (Aitareya Āraṇyaka.).

Ādhāna the place in which anything is deposited or rests (Śatapatha Br.).

Etc.

Dhātu:

  • constituent part, ingredient (Ṛg Veda).

  • layer, stratum (also dhāya) (Kātyāyana ṣrauta sūtra - Kauśika Sutras).

Tridhātu : the triple world (Ṛg Veda).

Sudhātu: well-founded, secure (Ṛg Veda).

Ayugdhātu: having an odd number of elements or component parts (Kātyāyana ṣrauta sūtra).

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√तु tu

to make strong or efficient (Ṛg Veda)

[ Zend tav,“to be able”]


Metta.
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