What is the difference between satipaṭṭhāna and ānāpānasati?

You are right that many different themes of meditation were given due to individual’s affinity, circumstances and consciousness.

A monk who is gravely illed but has past experiences of fading away and non-fabrication would be different from a layman who has plentiful of faith and generosity.

Ultimately, they are the tools to calm the mind from circling around body and mental processes. Thereby allowing bliss, samadhi and uppekkha to arise resulting in letting go of the five clinging aggregates.

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Looks like you are onto the good teaching.

There is also vaci sankhara (vittaka-vicara) which is speech activity on mental level.

This will only be known once you are at 1st jhana, vaci sankhara ceases at 2nd jhana, then kaya sankhara (in and out breathing) ceases at 4th jhana. Citta sankhara ceases at sanna-vedayita nirodha( people refer as “9th jhana”, which is not, it is just a stopping of brain activity).

But the question is: do you know and ready to calm these sankharas?

Hint: You need Right View and Good Morality in your daily life (24/7), and detached from this senses world especially your senses stimulation (eye, ear, tongue, nose, body touch and mind).

So Anapanasati is to realized Anatta as you describe, but you need to progress into Jhana to understand. If not at least 4th jhana. If possible up to Ayatana jhana (“arupa” jhana).

Not only undirected, but whole reorientation of life from existential to experiencial. (I.e. full development of Upekkha)

Also refer to DN 9 for better insight how Anatta is described by Buddha.

Hope this help.

Note: This samadhi (sati, vayama, and samadhi) practice is high level, I recommend start from hearing more dhamma and reflect on it. And understand why one needs to keep precepts.

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Thank you for the very good advice. Establishing right view and then circling the mind around morality, effort, mindfulness is taught in the Great Forty Sutta indeed.

On the note of Jhana, do you have any idea about the difference between what Buddha learnt from Alara Kalama and Udakka Ramaputa versus what he used to attain enlightenment? Why did his previous attempts failed? Why did he rely on his distant childhood experience instead of the more recent practice from the two teachers which presumably were even higher states of consciousness? Were his childhood experience very different from and not being practiced by the two teachers? Were there fundamental flaws in those two Teachings? How did he correct it?

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Yes, MN 117 Great Forty. But don’t worry about it too much yet. Once you have Right view, everything will go automatically. That means you just need effort to develop and identify which is path or not.

This mean Right view will lead to right orientation, right speech, right conducts, … , right Samadhi. Then the Right knowledge and Right freedom.

How can one get a right view?

2 conditions for Right view to arises per MN 43Mahāvedalla Sutta:

  1. the words of another (from an Ariya) – when Ariya speak about dhamma you need to pay attention with your ear.
  2. Focus attention to the source (yoniso manasikara)

Also, SN 55.5 2nd Sariputta Sutta

Sir, the factors of stream-entry are: associating with good people, listening to the true teaching, focus attention to the source, and practicing in line with the teaching.”

Also, an Ariya will be able to identify another Ariya. But a Phutujjana (common worldling) can’t identify/see any Ariya. See MN 2 Sabbāsavasutta:

… Take an uneducated common worldling who has not seen the noble ones, and is neither skilled nor trained in the teaching of the noble ones. They’ve not seen good persons, and are neither skilled nor trained in the teaching of the good persons. …

… But take an educated noble devotee who has seen the other noble devotees, and is skilled and trained in the teaching of the noble ones. They’ve seen good persons, and are skilled and trained in the teaching of the good persons.

Also Read MN 56 Upali Sutta, how Upali, a householder, attained a Right view:

Then the Buddha taught the householder Upāli step by step, with a talk on giving, ethical conduct, and heaven. He explained the drawbacks of sensual pleasures, so sordid and corrupt, and the benefit of renunciation.

And when he knew that Upāli’s mind was ready, pliable, rid of hindrances, elated, and confident he explained the special teaching of the Buddhas: this is dukkha, this is source of dukkha, this is the cessation of dukkha, and this is the path that lead to cessation of dukkha.

Just as a clean cloth rid of stains would properly absorb dye, in that very seat the stainless, immaculate vision of the Dhamma arose in Upāli:

“yaṁ kiñci samudayadhammaṁ sabbaṁ taṁ nirodhadhamman”ti.

Then Upāli saw, attained, understood, and fathomed the Dhamma. He went beyond doubt, got rid of indecision, and became self-assured and independent of others regarding the Teacher’s instructions.

Short answer: No Right View and They haven’t broken any of the 10 fetters. Long Answer, I can provide a long list. But it is not important.

Buddha mentioned it in many Sutta such as MN 26 Pasarasi Sutta:

For Alara Kalama:

But it occurred to me: ‘This Dhamma does not lead to disenchantment, to dispassion, to cessation, to peace, to direct knowledge, to awakening, to Nibbāna, but only to reappearance in the base of nothingness. Not being satisfied with that Dhamma, disappointed with it, I left.’

For Udaka Ramaputta:

But it occurred to me: This Dhamma does not lead to disenchantment, to dispassion, to cessation, to peace, to direct knowledge, to awakening, to Nibbāna, but only to reappearance in the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception.’ Not being satisfied with that Dhamma, disappointed with it, I left.

He reached 1st Jhana which is an Ariya Jhana (Samma Samadhi). There is no suppression in Ariya Jhana. Knowledge can arise in an Ariya Jhana. One who has Strong Sati can remember past events easily.

How can he reached 1st Jhana? then look at MN 81 Ghatikara Sutta and SN 1.50 Ghatikara Sutta, you will understand Buddha Gotama was a devotee of Buddha Kassapa in the past. He was an Ariya. His old friend, Ghatikara, visited him.

Such was the meeting that took place
Between those friends from the past,
Both now inwardly developed,
Bearers of their final bodies.

God of Ghatikara was a non-returner in Pure Abodes, and Buddha Gotama was an Arahant/ Samma SamBuddha. Both has their final bodies.

As described before, An Ariya who has Right view is independent of others. No need teacher to teach them. So, a Bodhisatta on his way to reach Arahanta-Phala, they don’t need anyone to tell them. They will reach the freedom independently once the conditions have been met.

Also read AN 4.127 1st Tathāgata Acchariya Sutta, A Bodhisatta is fully aware of one existence after another.

… When the being intent on awakening passes away from the host of Joyful Gods, he’s conceived in his mother’s womb, mindful and aware.

… Furthermore, the being intent on awakening emerges from his mother’s womb, mindful and aware.

One who has Right view has a mind which slope towards Nibbana as described in many Sutta. He know Nibbana, but he needs to fully develop the complete path (Ariyan 8fold path).

Then, He basically let go of everythings. Then, his mind calm right away. Then, he verified with his previous knowledges from Buddha Kassapa etc.

Right view is understanding SN 56.11 or MN 9 Samma Ditthi Sutta. It looks easy, but not many people penetrate these Sutta.

All Buddha Teaching relate to 4 Noble Truth and/or Dependent of Origination.

Hope this help!

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Yes, I agree that the most crucial step is to establish right view.

Does craving or Self view arises first? How do you see the sequence for which they cease?

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Then, one needs to understand the SN 56.11 and Dependent of origination SN 12. All are based on conditions. There is no single cause.

When feeling (vedana) arises, then craving (tanha) arises
When Craving arises, then clinging (upadana) arises
When clinging arises, then existence/concept of self (bhava) arises.
When bhava arise, then birth of being (in the past) arises.
When birth of being arises, then aging(current)/death(future) arises.
That is how the mass suffering arises.

For ceasing, look for the same formula.

Ceasing is a gradual process for one who has a right view.

Is existence/concept of self (bhava) the same as self view? If so, how is it possible that self view is already abandoned as the first of ten fetters?

Check SN 22.155 Sakkāyadiṭṭhi Sutta and other sutta about Sakkayaditthi term.

Sakkayaditthi is identity view. This is abandoned by a stream enterer. But the self itself is still present, one need to abandon the 10 fetters to completely free. Only an Arahant has free of self (i.e. selfless).

There is still Avijja (ignorance), Mana (conciet) for other Ariya.

Thanks. Maybe I’ll understand it in this way. A stream enterer knows how the process works and how self view brings about dukkha. However, stream enterer is still under the influence of craving and habitual tendencies. When situation arises, inclination to grasp onto five clinging aggregates exists.

Take smoker as an analogy.
Puthujjana are like smokers who think that smoking is good for health.
Stream enterer are smokers who know that smoking leads to lung cancer. However, they smoke when mindfulness lapse and, under the influence of craving for the smell, adrenaline high and habitual tendencies.
Arahant are those who give up the cravings and habitual tendencies completely.

“It can be so simple.”—Analayo

Sort off. But not quite accurate.

Stream enterer only has the view that is straight. So they need to develop good orientation/thoughts, good speech, good conducts, etc. These can be done by reviewing the knowledge/ buddha teaching in Sutta. Depending on their wisdom, they can review it quickly. If not, it will take until end of life.

Stream enterer hasn’t developed Sati (“mindfulness”). So no need any special meditation yet. If there is, just to calm body first. Without calming the body (calm conduct), no one can get into samadhi. It is just impossible to reach sati/samadhi. And maintain sati/samadhi for 24/7.

It is very easy to be stream enterer if you follow the formula in Sutta.
Smart/wise person can be quick to become one if they know the conditions. Buddha always looks for smart person first to convert, because there is only little dust on their eyes. Their minds already very focus.

As Buddha said:

Paccatam veditabo vinuhitti
Can be realized by a wise person (each person) through practice

Study more SN 55 and SN 56.11 or Dependent of Origination. Look for person who only talk about these Buddha teaching first. The rest of path can be fast if you put lot of efforts.

As Buddha said in satipatthana Sutta, let alone 7 years… 1 week is possible to become Arahant. If there is something leftover, A non returner. Of course with right view as the lead.

Majority stream enterer become one just by listening/reflecting/reciting/contemplating to buddha teaching (Sutta/discourse). Rarely one become stream enterer through meditation. I haven’t seen any in Sutta. If you find any, please let me know.

If possible, stay with Sutta only.

Puthujjana don’t even know what good and not good is. They don’t even know how to keep the precepts especially the speech.

Stream enterer hasn’t developed Sati as I mentioned. But their mind will slope toward Nibbana. They also have 4 factors such as unshakable confidence in triple gems and morality that lead to samadhi.

All Ariya will love to talk about dhamma. If they don’t, then one needs to questions why not.

They completely aware of their conducts because they have become Vijja(no more ignorance). Let just say whatever they do, speak, think, they really mean it.

Their conducts are in unison with their knowledge/understanding

This is a very good exposition about mindfulness of breathing.