The way i understand it is that Kamma (in the context of action leading to suffering) is ignorant will/volition. Ignorance here refers to the way things are.
In my opinion, the main difficulty is not with finding the more accurate translation of Kamma, but with the nature of the construct itself. When the will is taken as a link of a larger construct, then the accuracy of its true meaning is bound by the extent of which the meaning of other links is understood. From that perspective, the true meaning can be found in action itself and whether the action leads to suffering or cessation of suffering. It has little to do with the presence or absence of will per se.
There can be a wise will and there can be an ignorant will.
In other words, if:
1- the old philosophical debate of free will vs determinism is taken as the two extremes, and if
2- The law of dependent origination is the middle way, which is still describing ignorant action, then
3- The meaning of the will is not context free, hence an act of betrayal would necessitate unskillful use of the will.
Considering the above, does the following describe the presence of will? the absence of will? neither? or both?
“Bhikkhus, for a virtuous person, one whose behavior is virtuous, no volition need be exerted: ‘Let non-regret arise in me.’ It is natural that non-regret arises in a virtuous person, one whose behavior is virtuous.
“Thus, bhikkhus, (9)–(10) the knowledge and vision of liberation is the purpose and benefit of disenchantment and dispassion; (8) disenchantment and dispassion are the purpose and benefit of the knowledge and vision of things as they really are; (7) the knowledge and vision of things as they really are is the purpose and benefit of concentration; (6) concentration is the purpose and benefit of pleasure; (5) pleasure is the purpose and benefit of tranquility; (4) tranquility is the purpose and benefit of rapture; (3) rapture is the purpose and benefit of joy; (2) joy is the purpose and benefit of non-regret; and (1) non-regret is the purpose and benefit of virtuous behavior.
“Thus, bhikkhus, one stage flows into the next stage, one stage fills up the next stage, for going from the near shore to the far shore.”