Book of Analysis, the jhānas (Vb 12): translator's introduction

By Waltham St. Lawrence

(12) Analysis Of Jhāna (Jhānavibhaṅga).

When, as the Buddha so strongly advocates, a student takes up the practice of those Four Foundations of Mindfulness which are directed toward his ultimate release from suffering, by the breaking of the continuity of Causal Relations, he is, from the very nature of the root structure of his being, beset by a great many undesirable qualities which interfere with whatever attempt he makes to concentrate firmly and undeviatingly on his task. Throughout the whole Tipiṭaka many groups of these damaging qualities are spoken of in terms of the adverse functions they perform in preventing a being from understanding the nature of things as they really are, The groups mentioned include such obstacles as, the Defilements (āsavā), the Fetters (saṃyojanā), the Ties (ganthā), the Floods (oghā), the Bonds (yogā), the Corruptions (kilesā), the Attachments (upādānā), the Latent Tendencies (anusayā) and the Hindrances (nīvaraṇā). In the actual matter of obstacles to the arising of the Enlightenment Factors, and thereby of their equivalent Path Constituents, or for that matter to any serious form of concentration, a most troublesome and thwarting example of states needing to be inhibited—and of course eventually eradicated—is that of the Hindrances (nīvaraṇā). This group consists of five factors (sometimes six when the implicit ignorance is separately included) each of which can be recognized as a barrier which will stand in the way, which will severely hinder any attempt at progress. The Five Hindrances, which are described fully in Dhammasaṅgaṇī, are; Wish for sense pleasure (kāmacchanda), Illwill (byāpāda), Sloth and Torpor (thinamiddha), Distraction and Remorse (uddhaccakukkucca) and Doubt (vicikicchā). In the ordinary way these Five Hindrances, being most strongly associated with the mental aggregates, are exceedingly difficult to put on one side or to inhibit. As a special kind of exercise, therefore, a very strict and difficult form of exercise from the nature of its purpose [liii] for the strengthening of the processes of consciousness against their easy association with these Hindrances, the Buddha recommended to the serious student the cultivation of a deliberate and distinct practice directed specifically to the attaining of particular states of consciousness, the factorial structure of which completely inhibits these Five Hindrances. These particular states of consciousness are known as Jhāna.

The practice of the attainment of Jhāna is not of exclusively Buddhist origin, as is clearly indicated by the fact that the Buddha, before the time of his Enlightenment while he was yet a Bodhisatta, visited and studied with four great teachers of jhānic practice, each of whom believed that his particular degree of attainment was the final solution to the problem of the ultimate release from suffering. The Buddha saw clearly that their claims were not at all justified, so thereafter he sought out and accomplished by means of his own supreme ability and wisdom that particular and true Path leading to Release which is the unique and cardinal characteristic of his Teaching. This accomplishment placed the system of Jhāna in its proper perspective and demonstrated on the one hand that it could be followed as an end in itself, whereby it endowed the practiser with the special qualities, attributes and resultant conditions which such a development can give; on the other hand, and this is the important point, the Buddha showed that in addition to these special benefits it could be used as an extremely effective and powerful tool with which the student of its practice could learn most adequately how to control his mind and thereby put on one side those other qualities inimical to his proper goal.

The fundamentals of jhānic training are detailed in a great many places throughout the Buddhist Scriptures at very great lengths in the appropriate Commentaries and in Buddhaghosa's Visuddhimagga. At this point, however, it cannot be emphasized too strongly that in the cultivation of Jhāna, as with all other aspects of mental development (bhāvanā), it is of the utmost importance that practice should be undertaken only with the direct and proper guidance of a truly skilled and knowledgeable teacher.

In this the twelfth vibhaṅga the whole process is stated in one lengthy paragraph explaining the requisites and basic mode of practice. This is followed by a most valuable word analysis to [liv] show the meaning of what should be understood to take place at each stage. This is In Analysis According to the Discourses. In Analysis According to Abhidhamma, each of the possible levels of Jhāna, actual and resultant, both mundane and supramundane, are dealt with factorially and in some detail. The section of Interrogation relates these jhānic states to the Triplets and CoupIets of Dhammasaṅgaṇī, thereby stating the ultimate values ascribable to their existence, However, to return to the cultivaion of Jhāna as a tool for the inhibiting of the Five Hindrances: in the texts and commentaries there are listed forty different objects, the purpose of which is that they should be made use of individually by the student as objects upon which his attention is to be focussed to the exclusion of everything else. As to the choice of object which a particular student should use for this purpose, this depends entirely on his own particular temperament and characteristics. Here it is that the skill of a wise and knowledgeable teacher is of paramount importance, for on his decision as to which is the correct object will largely depend the success the student will have in stimulating with interest and with smooth and steady certainty those factors so desirable for the inhibiting of the Hindrances.

As mentioned earlier, there are five of these Hindrances to put on one side. It is also to be observed that in the attaining of the lowest category of Jhāna, i.e., first Jhāna (or five constituent Jhāna), there are five mental factors (cetasikā) which become particularly strong. The five are: Initial Application (vitakka), Sustained Application (vicāra), Zest (pīti), Pleasure (sukha) and One-pointedness of Consciousness (cittassekaggatā). If one should now equate these constituents of Jhāna with the Five Hindrances it will be readily appreciated that each individual constituent has a particular part to play in inhibiting an individual Hindrance. Thus, where there is stimulated sufficient energy and determination to mentally "pick up" the chosen object of concentration, at that time Initial Application is being exerted. Where this is present the Hindrance of Sloth and Torpor is fading. Where this Initial Application is coupled with Sustained Application by which the object is "considered", the Hindrance of Doubt is falling away, for here Doubt (vicikiccha) only means "absence of thinking about" (vigatā cikicchā. VSM 471), Where there is success in this thinking, Zest for the object and activity concerning it [lv] arises naturally. Where there is Zest how can the Hindrance of Illwill be present? Where there is Zest there also will there be Pleasure. If Pleasure is present the Hindrance of Distraction and Remorse cannot be. Finally, where concentration of consciousness becomes so one-pointed that there is no room for any other object than the chosen one, the Hindrance that is Wish for Sense Pleasure is put on one side.

As in each of the Jhānas of the fivefold system the five factors seen to arise strongly in the first Jhāna become successively dominant, and pass away with the arising of the subsequent Jhāna, so also the Hindrances, in the order given, become completely inhibited by this factorial dominance not to return until the student by the falling away of mindfulness allows them once more to hinder the efficiency of his conscious states.

In this way the development of jhānic states contributes towards providing tools which eventually are to be used for the final task of breaking the system of Causal Relations. It should therefore be emphasized once again that the practice of Jhāna is not one which in itself will lead to final release from Suffering. It is, however, of the greatest importance in inhibiting those Hindrances which are inimical to the realization of the three characteristics of Suffering (dukkha), Impermanence (anicca) and Absence of Soul (anatta).


The five hindrances have to be inhibited prior entering jhana in order for gladness, piti and then sukha to emerge. The five hindrances reappear once the practitioner comes out of meditation. Medidation does not eradicate all the “damaging qualities”.

So the eradication of, in particular, sensual desires and ill-will is done outside meditation practice by a transformative process similar to what modern psychology offers or better by using the 1st 7 components of the 8foldPath to tackle one damaging quality after another.

Jhana becomes useful for the elimination of the last five fetters as clearly explained in SN53.54.
I found it quite significant that the SN jhanasamyutta is very specific about the use of jhanas for the last five fetters and not for the 1st five.
Are there suttas anywhere that talk about using the jhanas to eliminate the first five fetters?
Which means to me that we have to be really interested in jhanas once we are a non-returner, may be once-returner as Bhikkhu Bodhi says in his essay (The Jhānas and the Lay Disciple According to the Pāli Suttas).


This is a very relevant claim! Makes sense and may help us make sense of what should / could come first! I really would like to know if anyone else comes to a similar conclusion based on the EBTs.

Have you ever come across any sort of study which tackles this peculiarity of the relationship between the role of samma-samadhi (jhanas) in the context of the gradual dispelling of the fetters?

Could you point any particular sutta of the aforementioned Jhana Samyutta (SN53) in which the linkage between jhanas and fetters is made?

P.S.: It is noteworthy that apparently virtually none of the suttas in the Jhana Samyutta are available on SC in English yet! :anguished:

1 Like

The Venerable Analayo comes to the same conclusion.

1 Like

That’s a good sign! Links, references, dhamma talks, etc … please!? :slight_smile:

Here it is : :slight_smile:

1 Like

Actually, I believe Ven Anālayo’s argument is that jhāna is also necessary for non-return, the eradication of the 4th and 5th fetters of sensual desire and ill-will.

I’ve seen this in various places in his work but I’m afraid I can’t come up with specific references at the moment other than a brief mention in his book Satipaṭṭhāna: The Direct Path to Realization, p.p. 81–82. I think he also talked about it in one of the lectures in his 2013 e-learning course.


Yes, Linda, you are absolutely right.

I didn’t read carefully and therefore misrepresented Analayo’s argument. His argument is that you need jhana when moving from once-returner to non-returner. He talks about this in his Dhamma talk series Purification, Ethics and Karma in Early Buddhist Discourse. I cannot open your link, so I am not sure if you refer to the same lectures.


HI @Florian

The link I posted was for his 3nd course (2013): Tranquility and Insight I think the one you mentioned is the first year’s series (2011). He probably mentioned this topic in various places in all those lectures.

Hmmm, wonder why the link didn’t work. I just tried and it did. Here is the full name: I think somewhere on SC there are also links to his past courses. @ Brenna has the links here.

1 Like

No no, this was just lost in translation. The Oghavagga of Jhānasaṃyutta actually contains the information that the four jhānas lead to the eradication of the five lower fetters as well as the five higher fetters.

The Ogha Vagga in the Jhana Samyutta is a summary, which means that relevant information is omitted. You need to be careful about ven. Sujāto’s little endnote “To be expanded as in the Linked Discourses on the Path at SN 45.171–180.” If you expand it accordingly, you will actually see the hidden Orambhāgiyasuttaṃ, like in the Maggasamyutta’s Oghavagga, where we learn that the lower five fetters are removed by the Eightfold Noble Path and then the Uddhambhāgiyasuttaṃ, which says that the Eightfold Noble Path is used to remove the higher five fetters. In the same way in this Jhanasaṃyutta, there is one sutta Orambhāgiya (no.53), which points to the lower five fetters removed by the four jhānas and Uddhambhāgiya (no.54), which is translated by ven. Sujāto and which points to the higher five fetters removed by the four jhānas.

That’s why I’d suggest that translations are always available in the expanded version also, to prevent funny misunderstandings for those who do not read (or understand) endnotes…


Thanks so much for pointing this out. This clarifies and settles this matter.

However, it’s not really accurate to say this is “lost in translation”. The translation at this point follows quite closely the original text as found in the Mahasangiti edition. Perhaps other editions might spell it out more clearly (I investigate this below).

The idea that SN 53.45-54 supports a case that jhanas are only needed for the five higher fetters is a misinterpretation, if not a malinterpretation. Obviously the jhanas are taught throughout the texts for abandoning defilements and realizing the noble truths.

For those interested, the specific text referenced by Ven Sarana is here:

This says that the eightfold path (which of course includes jhana) should be developed for abandoning the five lower fetters.

The relevant passage, the so-called Oghavagga or “Chapter on Floods”, is one part of a much longer series of passages that essentially repeat throughout the Mahavagga. These cycle through the various practice dhammas and the opposing defilements. The final set of defilements in the series is the so-called uddhambhāgiya fetters, translated as “higher” fetters.

They are spelled out in the most detail in the first occurrence, namely the Maggasamyutta (SN 45). Even the next samyutta greatly abbreviates them. You can see SN 46 here:

The Oghavagga in SN 46 is, in our presentation, divided into just two texts. The first abbreviates all of the Oghavagga texts except the last one. Then SN 46.130 presents just the last text of the series, the “higher fetters”. This is 100% an artefact of the redaction process and has no doctrinal significance.

SN 47 then omits the starting texts and just has the final one.

Thus by the third samyutta that has this series, we have already arrived at the abbreviation method employed in the Jhanasamyutta. The third samyutta, coincidentally, is the Satipatthana Samyutta, so applying the same logic that was applied above, one would not need to practice mindfulness in order to realize the ending of the five lower fetters, only the five higher ones. Oddly enough, no-one makes this argument!

That the Jhanasamyutta is meant to be expanded to include the “lower” fetters is therefore implicit in the textual structure. It is not left merely implicit, though, as it is explicitly indicated in the uddāna or summary verse at the end of the section, which I have translated. It says (in both MS and PTS editions):

khandhā oruddhambhāgiyāti
aggregates, and fetters high and low.

The commentary is silent on this point. However there is no doubt that the consensus of the textual tradition means to include both lower and higher fetters. The correct reading is explicitly indicated in text and translation.

Unfortunately there is no “the” expanded version. There are multiple versions, which are sometimes expanded to a greater or lesser degree. Let us take this case as an example.

Of the widely available texts, the one that normally expands to the greatest degree is the Buddhajayanthi (BJT). I suspect that this is purely an editorial policy of the BJT, but it would be interesting to see whether it is supported by their manuscripts. I only have access to the digital text on GRETIL, which is highly imperfect.

The BJT text for the Jhanasamyutta begins by spelling out each sutta in full, making complete if laborious reading. However, it only has the Gangapeyyala, and later chapters are omitted entirely. I am not sure why this is. It may be just an omission in the digital text. The digital text here notes text missing vvv. I have no idea what this is referring to, but perhaps these pages were not digitized?

In any case this is not helpful, but it would be interesting to consult the printed edition

The PTS edition is similar to the MS, and only spells out the uddhambhāgiya fetters. However the uddāna, like the MS edition, notes the inclusion of both lower and higher fetters.

Creating “fully expanded” translations is a useful approach in certain limited contexts, such as for teaching particular texts, for detailed study, or for chanting. However it is a difficult and dubious process, and is practically impossible to achieve at a large scale. My friend Ven Anandajoti created a fully-expanded edition of the Satipatthana Vibhanga, and even such an accomplished scholar as he regarded it as one of the hardest jobs he had done. And that’s just one moderately-complex chapter.

At the end of the day, a “fully expanded” translation must of necessity be a speculative reconstruction without manuscript basis. I’d be much more interested to look at what the manuscripts actually contain and try to understand why they do things the way they do.


Yes, see the pages from the electronic version of Sinhalese Buddha Jayanti attached to this message. See also my romanized transcription below -

BJT SN 5-2 p.86

  1. Appamādavaggo
    9.2. 1-10
    3647-3656. Yāvatā bhikkhave, sattā apadā vā dipadā vā catuppadā vā bahuppadā vā -pe- bahulīkarotīti.
    Appamādavaggo dutiyo.

Tathāgataṃ padaṃ kūṭaṃ mūlaṃ sārena vassikaṃ,
rājā candimasuriyā ca vatthena dasamaṃ padanti.

  1. Balakaraṇiyavaggo
    9.3. 1-12
    3657-3668. Seyyathāpi bhikkhave, ye keci balakaraṇīyā kammantā kayiranti -pe- bahulīkarotīti.
    Balakaraṇīyavaggo tatiyo.

Balaṃ bījañca nāgo ca rukkhaṃ kumbhena sūkinaṃ
ākāsena ca dve meghā nāvā āgantukā nadīti.

  1. Esanāvaggo
    9.4. 1-40
    3669-3708. Tisso imā bhikkhave, esanā. Katamā tisso?
    Kāmesanā bhavesanā brahmacariyesanā -pe- bhāvetabbāni.
    Esanāvaggo catuttho.

Esanā vidhā āsavo bhavo dukkhatā ca tisso
khīlaṃ malañca nīgho ca vedanā taṇhāhi cāti.

BJT SN 5-2 p.88

  1. Oghavaggo
    9.5. 1-39
    3709-3747. Cattāro’me bhikkhave, oghā. Katame cattāro? Kāmogho bhavogho diṭṭhogho avijjogho -pe- bhāvetabbāni.

3748. Pañcimāni bhikkhave uddhambhāgiyāni saṃyojanāni. Katamāni pañca: rūparāgo arūparāgo māno uddhaccaṃ avijjā. Imāni kho bhikkhave, pañcuddhambhāgiyāni saṃyojanāni. Imesaṃ kho bhikkhave, pañcannaṃ uddhambhāgiyānaṃ saṃyojanānaṃ pahānāya cattāro jhānā bhāvetabbā. Katame cattāro: idha bhikkhave, bhikkhu vivicceva kāmehi -pe- paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ -pe- dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ -pe- tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ -pe- catutthaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati. Imesaṃ kho bhikkhave pañcannaṃ uddhambhāgiyānaṃ saṃyojanānaṃ pahānāya ime cattāro jhānā bhāvetabbāti.
Oghavaggo pañcamo.

Ogho yogo upādānaṃ gantho anusayena ca,
kāmaguṇā nīvaraṇā khandhā oruddhambhāgiyāni.
Jhānasaṃyuttaṃ samattaṃ.

Gaṅgāpeyyāloppamādo balakaraṇīyesanā
oghoti pañceva vaggā jhānasaṃyuttakā siyunti.

BJT SN 5-2 p.90*

  1. Ekadhammavago

  2. Sāvatthiyaṃ:
    Ekadhammo bhikkhave, bhāvito bahulīkato mahapphalo hoti mahānisaṃso. Katamo ekadhammo: ānāpānasati.[1] Kathaṃ bhāvitā ca bhikkhave, ānāpānasati kathaṃ bahulīkatā mahapphalā hoti, mahānisaṃsā: idha bhikkhave, bhikkhu araññagato vā rukkhamūlagato vā suññāgāragato vā nisīdati pallaṅkaṃ ābhujitvā ujuṃ kāyaṃ paṇidhāya parimukhaṃ satiṃ upaṭṭhapetvā. So sato’va assasati. Sato passasati. Dīghaṃ vā assasanto dīghaṃ assasāmīti pajānāti. Dīghaṃ vā passasanto dīghaṃ passasāmīti pajānāti. Rassaṃ vā assasanto rassaṃ assasāmīti pajānāti. Rassaṃ vā passasanto rassaṃ passasāmīti pajānāti. Sabbakāyapaṭisaṃvedī assasissāmīti sikkhati. Sabbakāyapaṭisaṃvedī passasissāmīti sikkhati. Passambhayaṃ kāyasaṅkhāraṃ assasissāmīti sikkhati. Passambhayaṃ kāyasaṅkhāraṃ passasissāmīti sikkhati. Pītipaṭisaṃvedī assasissāmīti sikkhati. Pītipaṭisaṃvedī passasissāmīti sikkhati. Sukhapaṭisaṃvedī assasissāmīti sikkhati. Sukhapaṭisaṃvedī passasissāmīti sikkhati. Cittasaṅkhārapaṭisaṃvedī assasissāmīti sikkhati. Cittasaṅkhārapaṭisaṃvedī passasissāmīti sikkhati. Passambhayaṃ cittasaṅkhāraṃ assasissāmīti sikkhati. Passambhayaṃ cittasaṅkhāraṃ passasissāmīti sikkhati. Cittapaṭisaṃvedī assasissāmīti sikkhati. Cittapaṭisaṃvedī passasissāmīti sikkhati. Abhippamodayaṃ cittaṃ assasissāmīti sikkhati. Abhippamodayaṃ cittaṃ assasissāmīti sikkhati. Abhippamodayaṃ cittaṃ passasissāmīti sikkhati. Samādahaṃ cittaṃ assasissāmīti sikkhati. Samādahaṃ cittaṃ passasissāmīti sikkhati. Vimocayaṃ cittam assasissāmīti sikkhati. Vimocayaṃ cittaṃ passasissāmīti sikkhati. Aniccānupassī assasissāmīti sikkhati. Aniccānupassī passasissāmīti sikkhati.

  1. ānapānassati - syā.

I inferred this from MN44, which explains the three practices. Paths are sequential and the Noble Eight Fold path’s eight steps are in this order (even when the path is circular):

  1. Wisdom MN44:11.5: Right view and right thought: these things are included in the category of wisdom.”

  2. Ethics MN44:11.3: Right speech, right action, and right livelihood: these things are included in the category of ethics.

  3. Immersion > MN44:11.4: Right effort, right mindfulness, and right immersion: these things are included in the category of immersion.

MN8 reinforces this with an admonition to not focus on jhana prematurely:

MN8:4.1: It’s possible that a certain mendicant, quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unskillful qualities, might enter and remain in the first absorption, which has the rapture and bliss born of seclusion, while placing the mind and keeping it connected. They might think they’re practicing self-effacement. But in the training of the noble one these are not called ‘self-effacement’

Without wisdom and ethics, immersion is wrong immersion. Indeed, one can see how attainment of Right View would characterize stream-entry. Similarly, attainment of the first seven steps would also correspond to non-return. The argument here is simple–who but the non-returner could practice true mindfulness without the plague of the lower fetters?

1 Like

Thanks so much! So it seems that even the Buddha Jayanthi does not fully expand this passage.

This passage from the Sallekha Sutta isn’t about “premature” practice, it’s about misunderstanding the role of samadhi in eliminating the view of self.

Samadhi has the purpose of eliminating the emotional defilements of greed and hate, while vipassana eliminates the cognitive defilements such as the mistaken view of a self. See for example AN 2.31. Of course they also work together; these things are not separated in either mind or doctrine, but that is the emphasis.

The Sallekha Sutta (MN 8) begins with the problem of the views of self, and establishes that the contemplation of not-self, i.e. vipassana, is the appropriate way to undo this. The text makes the point that the practice of jhana alone does not eliminate the false notion of self. Rather, samadhi supports vipassana, and vipassana eliminates the view of self.

There’s a nice simile for this—I think it may be from the Visuddhimagga. Samadhi is like a firm hand that gathers a bunch of grass together, while vipassana is like the sharp scythe that cuts the grass. Samadhi by itself won’t cut the grass, but without samadhi, vipassana is just flailing around ineffectually.

The text goes on to re-affirm that samadhi AKA jhana is essential to the path:

‘Others will have wrong immersion, but here we will have right immersion.’

And it concludes by exhorting the practice of jhana:

Here are these roots of trees, and here are these empty huts. Practice absorption, Cunda! Don’t be negligent! Don’t regret it later! This is my instruction.

The right view of the stream-enterer is the understanding of the four noble truths, and this requires samadhi, as for example at SN 56.1.

The stream enterer is regularly said to possess the various factors of the path as taught in various ways, such as the eightfold path, the threefold training, and so on. For example, a stream-enterer has the faculty of samadhi, which is defined as the four jhanas.

The suttas don’t allot different path factors for different stages of the journey. The path is the same for everyone, it is just practiced to different degrees or with different emphasis.

As DN 29 puts it:

These four kinds of indulgence in pleasure, when developed and cultivated, lead solely to disillusionment, dispassion, cessation, peace, insight, awakening, and extinguishment. What four?

… [ the four jhanas] …

‘Four benefits may be expected by those who live indulging in pleasure in these four ways. What four?

Firstly, with the ending of three fetters a mendicant becomes a stream-enterer, not liable to be reborn in the underworld, bound for awakening. This is the first fruit and benefit.

Furthermore, a mendicant—with the ending of three fetters, and the weakening of greed, hate, and delusion—becomes a once-returner. They come back to this world once only, then make an end of suffering. This is the second fruit and benefit.

Furthermore, with the ending of the five lower fetters, a mendicant is reborn spontaneously and will become extinguished there, not liable to return from that world. This is the third fruit and benefit.

Furthermore, a mendicant realizes the undefiled freedom of heart and freedom by wisdom in this very life, and lives having realized it with their own insight due to the ending of defilements. This is the fourth fruit and benefit.

If you’re interested, I have collected practically all the relevant canonical references on this point in my first book, A Swift Pair of Messengers.


To be found here: Lulu


Thanks for this clarification between emotional (greed/hate) and cognitive (view). I hadn’t considered that articulation. By “premature” I was referring to my own early misguided focus on meditation which completely missed the cognitive/view aspects you mention. Although I found meditation helpful in reducing emotional baggage, I completely lacked the cognitive foundation, so the meditation stalled for decades until I found the EBTs to correct the cognitive deficit. As you mention, “Samadhi by itself won’t cut the grass”. :laughing:

Aha! Thank you. I have added “immersion truly” to the Voice examples. SN56.1 is the first result of four suttas found.

The only way my mind fits around this is spirally, with each turn corresponding to eight steps of the path. In this manner immersion corrects view, view corrects ethics and ethics corrects immersion. Endlessly spiralling skillfully upwards, the notion of attainment evaporates into a focus of “one step up and again”. I cannot relate to the path as an eight step ladder.

Thank goodness that’s a PDF that I can view in large text format! I shall study this to see if we can add even more examples to Voice. I’m finding it much easier to build a cognitive framework on key phrases rather than by memorizing sutta numbers or nikaya/vagga structure. Your consistent phrasing is foundational to that cognitive structure, providing the binding that makes sense of it all. Thank you.

:pray: :pray: :pray: