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Dhammapada 351 - a comparative study


#1

@lemon and I have been discussing some other complex relationships between various Dharmapadas. In this case DHP351 and it’s parallels. Below some of @lemon’s comments:


Bhante, firstly please have a look at the vagga parallels table, it’s from Tai-Shing Wut’s (屈大成) book:

Please note that for T212, Mr. Wut combined vagga 4 & 5 into a single vagga 4, so the numbering of T212 after vagga 4 is all “minus 1”.

From this table, we can locate the 2 sets of paralleled vaggas containing the aboved gathas:
1 Dhp 24 Taṇhā——T210 32爱欲——T212 3爱——T213 3贪——UV 3 Tṛṣṇā
(Mr. Wut made a mistake here)
2 T210 36泥洹——T212 27泥洹——T213 26圆寂——UV26 Nirvāṇa

After comparison, I think these are two different parallels of gathas.

They should belong to the above 2 sets of vaggas respectively, but for some reasons, the paralleled gathas are distributed differently:

The first set has the key word “body”(samussaya, 身):

DHP351

Niṭṭhaṅgato asantāsī,
vītataṇho anaṅgaṇo;
Acchindi bhava sallāni ,
antimoyaṃ samussayo .

t210 36.23

所见不复恐 无言言无疑
断有之 射箭 遘愚无所猗
(是为第一快 此道寂无上)

(This gatha doesn’t mention "body"身, but it does mention another keyword "arrow"salla/箭. The last line is an extra part, and it can be find in both T212 & T213 as a whole gatha.)

uv26.28

niṣṭhāgato hy asaṁtrāsī na vikanthī na kaukṛtiḥ ।
ācchettā bhava śalyānām antimo 'sya samucchrayaḥ ।।

t212 27.28

究竟不恐懼, 越縛無狐疑,
未斷有欲 , 豈知 為患?

t213 26.33

究竟不恐懼, 越縛無狐疑,
未斷有欲 , 豈知 為患?

I also have the Tibetan UV translations by Rockhill and Sparham(in Chinese) here:

  1. He who has reached the end and is without fear, is without pride and without sin; having left behind the pains of existence, he has a body for the last time.
  2. 涅槃是究竟的目的地,是無畏之地,超越一切懊悔與虛浮,生命之苦痛徹底被摧毀,而達於最後

But the Tibetan gathas do not mention “arrow”.

The second set has the key word “saṃsara”(轮回, 渊) instead of “body”:

t210 32.29

無欲無有畏, 恬惔無憂患,
欲除使結解, 是為長出

t212 3.14

無欲無所畏, 恬惔無憂患,
欲除使結解, 是為長出

uv3.13

tāṁ tu tṛṣṇāṁ prahāyeha vītatṛṣṇo bhavābhave ।
nāsau punaḥ saṁsarate tṛṣṇā hy asya na vidyate ।।

t213 3.16-3.17

(造惡俱苦受, 云何不生悔?)
貪性初為種, 愛性受胞胎。
有情戀不息, 往來難 出離
( 諸天及人民, 依愛而止住。)
("出离"means “get out of saṃsara”)

Tibetan UV:

  1. It is hard to cast off (existence) in this world; he who has cast off lust, who has pulled up the seed* (of existence), will no more be subject to transmigration , for he has put an end to lust.
  2. 將那難捨的貪愛捨去,並經由此(教法)將其種子*而消滅,沒有愛渴的人,不再進入 生死輪迴 矣!

If you compare the 2 sets of gatha parallels with the 2 sets of vagga parallels, the only gatha that is not in the right place, is the Dhp 351.