It is astonishing that the Buddha seemed to know things about the universe - at large. With ordinary vision the best we can do is see the stars but, world-systems?
The Buddha seemed to have a sense of the great age of the universe. He also taught that in the vast expanse of space there are worlds where sentient life exists.
There is a theory of kalpas in Vedic cosmology. In the Vedas there are teachings about yugas and kalpas - vast periods that stretch for aeons. In these teachings there is a description of a ‘wok-shaped’ Earth with a giant mythical mountain - Meru - in the centre. Did the Buddha ever mention Mount Meru?
As far as I know, the discovery of the Earth as a spheroidal planet in space post-dates the Buddha?
Is it possible that the Buddha’s cosmology was derived from earlier sources and had little, or nothing to do with supernormal powers?
The Buddha was from a wealthy family and would have had access to a good education. He seemed to be familiar with the sophisticated teachings of the ‘Samkhya’ tradition - founded by Kapila - as well as the ‘Tri-Vidya’ (the 3 Vedic collections). Both these traditions contain cosmological teachings.