I think the problem being pointed out by a discussion of philosophy is that wrong metaphysics can easily lead people to rationalize behaviour driven by kilesa. The Sāmaññaphala Sutta provides a good example of this where the Buddha asks King Ajātasattu whether he has spoken to other Samaṇa-Brāhmanā regarding fruits of the ascetic life (which they are discussing). The result is a veritable mini-tour of other popular teachers of the Buddha’s time. The king relays the materialist philosophy of Pakudha Kaccāyana, saying,
And here there is no-one who kills or who makes others kill; no-one who learns or who educates others; no-one who understands or who helps others understand. If you chop off someone’s head with a sharp sword, you don’t take anyone’s life. The sword simply passes through the gap between the seven substances.’
Materialism, essentialism, and other such folk theories & philosophies certainly aren’t unique to ‘Western’ thought. David J. Kalupahana’s book A History of Buddhist Philosophy outlines in detail the many folk theories & philosophies, and their parallels in Western philosophy, prevalent at the time of the Buddha. Continuing on from that work, Joanna Macy’s book Mutual Causality in Buddhism and General Systems Theory: The Dharma of Natural Systems highlights the link between the Buddha’s teaching of Idappaccayatā and a contemporary understanding of complex systems, self-organizing processes, emergent phenomena, and ‘levels’ of being (mirroring the way the Buddha spoke, e.g. the five Niyāmas, discussed in Jayarava’s analysis).