I just started reading this course, well better late then never. I wonder, how about kamma being made in hell? From the sutta it seems that hell is kind of a purgatory state, as long as the bad vipaka not end then these beings stuck there suffering (with super hero rapid regeneration ability, not a smart choice now eh ).
I know that every beings make kamma, of course except an Arahant. But how then the dreadful condition in hell? I bet beings there suffer a lot and thus create kamma themselves, though mostly through the mind + running away from fire to get out of the hell gate + craving for food and water. If they produce kamma as much there, then the vipaka will be waiting in line. Never ending suffering? That’s frightening! Is it ripening in another lifetime? Is it not big of a deal as per you say they are largely pre-programmed to suffer? Or is it totally a purgatory state, no vipaka being made (cease for a moment)?
But then The Buddha said that it is so difficult to get out of the apaya realms, even to be reborn as a human is a slight chance. He also said the same for animal kingdom, as they kill each other there. I had like to agree with your idea that there is powerful drive behind different beings (like genetics) affecting the rating of kamma they do, so lion wouldn’t be so bad killing other animals for food, but The Buddha seems at odds. Seems like even though they are programmed to eat other animals, the huge desire for food is much deterministic factor of the rating of kamma, and that what makes them reborn countless time as an animal again and again.
Then the problem is how about primitive human life who has to kill for food? Is it the same with civilized human nowadays who kill for food, though there are so many alternatives nowadays such as being a vegetarian?
On the other hand if someone go to the heavenly realm they will feel so blissful there with abundance of sense pleasure. Thus they might make bad kamma through mind too like for example craving for sense pleasure, though subtle but not that good either. Like the story of Sakka who was scold by Moggallana (is this story EBT?).
Well I shouldn’t poke on this ethical problem too far, but I’m curious to know what others think. Anumodana