Khuddakapāṭha parallels

I’ve never before ventured into the Khuddakapāṭha before, but a search for a sutta pointed me in that direction. In turn, I figured I’d seek a brief overview. offers an entry from Damien Keown’s, A Dictionary of Buddhism:

The first book of the Khuddaka Nikāya of the Sūtra Piṭaka of the Pāli Canon. It is thought that this book was the last one to be added to the Khuddaka Nikāya collection and its rightful claim to be included as part of the canon was disputed both by the Dīgha-bhāṇakas and the Majjhima-bhāṇakas. It appears to be a later composition, possibly compiled as a handbook for novices. The Khuddakapāṭha consists of nine short texts, probably compiled in Sri Lanka, only one of which is not found elsewhere in the canon. The commentary to the Khuddakapāṭha, traditionally attributed to Buddhaghoṣa (5th century ce), is part of the Paramatthajotikā. According to the commentary, the book derives its name from the first four texts, which are shorter than the remaining five.

SuttaCentral’s Khuddakapāṭha listing highlights three parallel texts (likewise on the staging site), but what are the other five?

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Our coverage of KN in general is not as good as the 4 nikayas, so there is much to be done here. But lets’s take this as a starting point.

Kp 1 is just the three refuges; Kp 2 is the ten precepts; Kp 3 is the 32 parts. These all occur in lots of places in the EBTs, but are too generic to really warrant having a parallel. Kp 4 is more distinctive, and perhaps we should list the parallels in AN, even though they are not very close. This leaves Kp 7 and Kp 8, neither of which are EBT material. Kp 7 does, however, have a parallel at Pv 5, so we could include that.

@vimala, can you add these to the data when you get the time:

  • Kp 4 is a resembling parallel with AN 10.27 and AN 10.28
  • Kp 7 is a full parallel with Pv 5

Though it does have the distinction of being the only place outside of the Vinaya’s Mahāvagga where this particular phrasing is used. Everywhere else stipulates bhikkhu-saṅgha as the third refuge.

Perhaps also the Paṭisambhidāmagga’s abhiññeyyā dhammā and loka. Ps1.1

Kathaṃ “ime dhammā abhiññeyyā” ti sotāvadhānaṃ, taṃpajānanā paññā sutamaye ñāṇaṃ?

Eko dhammo abhiññeyyo: sabbe sattā āhāraṭṭhitikā. Dve dhammā abhiññeyyā: dve dhātuyo. Tayo dhammā abhiññeyyā: tisso dhātuyo. Cattāro dhammā abhiññeyyā: cattāri ariyasaccāni. Pañca dhammā abhiññeyyā: pañca vimuttāyatanāni. Cha dhammā abhiññeyyā: cha anuttariyāni. Satta dhammā abhiññeyyā: satta niddasavatthūni. Aṭṭha dhammā abhiññeyyā: aṭṭha abhibhāyatanāni. Nava dhammā abhiññeyyā: nava anupubbavihārā. Dasa dhammā abhiññeyyā: dasa nijjaravatthūni.

Eko loko: sabbe sattā āhāraṭṭhitikā. Dve lokā: nāmañca, rūpañca. Tayo lokā: tisso vedanā. Cattāro lokā: cattāro āhārā. Pañca lokā: pañcupādānakkhandhā. Cha lokā: cha ajjhattikāni āyatanāni. Satta lokā: satta viññāṇaṭṭhitiyo. Aṭṭha lokā: aṭṭha lokadhammā. Nava lokā: nava sattāvāsā. Dasa lokā: dasāyatanāni. Dvādasalokā: dvādasāyatanāni. Aṭṭhārasa lokā: aṭṭhārasa dhātuyo.

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I didn’t realize that. That’s probably enough to mark them as parallels, then.

Yes, I looked at that, but it didn’t seem very closely related. Apart from being a list up to ten, and starting with the same item, the phrasing, context, and most of the items are different.


This I have already:

“parallels”: [“an10.27”, “ea46.8”, “~sa486-489”, “~kp4”]
“parallels”: [“an10.28”, “~kp4”]
“parallels”: [“kp4”, “~an10.27”, “~an10.28”]
“mentions”: [“kp7”, “pv5”, “~kv7.6#5-#7”]


Is kp4 also a resembling parallel to ea46.8 and sa486-489?
kp7 is already in as mentioned in pv5 and partly in kv7.6. Should this be parallels instead of mentions?

Other parallels I have for kp:

“parallels”: [“kp5”, “snp2.4”]
“parallels”: [“skt-lo-mvu29”, “kp6”, “snp2.1”]
“parallels”: [“kp9”, “snp1.8”]
“mentions”: [“kp8#9”, “kv7.7#7”]

Yes. (I just checked them using google translate for the Vietnamese. Most entertaining!)

kp5 and pv5 are full parallels.

kv7.6#4-7 mentions kp7#6-9

Not sure if you have this already, but kv7.6#9-14 mentions an5.39.[quote=“Vimala, post:5, topic:5687”]
Other parallels I have for kp:

“parallels”: [“kp5”, “snp2.4”]
“parallels”: [“skt-lo-mvu29”, “kp6”, “snp2.1”]
“parallels”: [“kp9”, “snp1.8”]
“mentions”: [“kp8#9”, “kv7.7#7”]

These are all correct.

[quote=“sujato, post:6, topic:5687”]
Yes. (I just checked them using google translate for the Vietnamese. Most entertaining!)[/quote]

It is indeed!

Sometimes when I want a quick ’n’ dirty translation of a passage from the Niddesa or the Apadāna I go to the Tam Tạng Pāli website where the Pali text and Vietnamese translation are given side by side. I then copy the latter and get Google to translate it.

Sometimes the result is a fairly passable translation that needs only a few corrections to it:

Tasmā hi diṭṭhaṃ va sutaṃ mutaṃ vā sīlabbataṃ bhikkhu na nissayeyyā ti Tasmā ti tasmā taṃkāraṇā taṃhetu tappaccayā taṃ nidānā - diṭṭhaṃ vā diṭṭhasuddhiṃ vā sutaṃ vā sutasuddhiṃ vā mutaṃ vā mutasuddhiṃ vā sīlaṃ vā sīlasuddhiṃ vā vataṃ vā vatasuddhiṃ vā na nissayeyya na gaṇheyya na parāmaseyya na abhiniviseyyā ’ti ‘tasmā hi diṭṭhaṃ va sutaṃ mutaṃ vā sīlabbataṃ bhikkhu na nissayeyya.’

Therefore, the monk should not rely on what has been seen, what has been heard, what has been sensed, or on the world and on the part of the task - that is, because of that, by reason By virtue of it, by virtue of it, should not take refuge, should not embrace, should not cling, should not persist in what was seen or purity by sight, in what was heard or in Clean by hearing, on the senses or purity of sensation, on precepts or purity by virtue, on duty or on accountability. ‘That is why the monk should not rely on what has been seen, what has been heard, what has been felt, or on the world and the part’ is that.

But other times it’s a scream…

Api ca atītā kāmā, anāgatā kāmā, paccuppannā kāmā, ajjhattā kāmā, bahiddhā kāmā, ajjhattabahiddhā kāmā, hīnā kāmā, majjhimā kāmā, paṇītā kāmā, āpāyikā kāmā, mānusikā kāmā, dibbā kāmā, paccupaṭṭhitā kāmā, nimmitā kāmā, paranimmitā kāmā, animmitā kāmā, pariggahitā kāmā, apariggahitā kāmā, mamāyitā kāmā, amamāyitā kāmā, sabbe’pi kāmāvacarā dhammā, sabbe’pi rūpāvacarā dhammā, sabbe’pi arūpāvacarā dhammā, taṇhāvatthukā taṇhārammaṇā kamanīyaṭṭhena rajanīyaṭṭhena madanīyaṭṭhena kāmā. Ime vuccanti vatthukāmā.

In addition, the past sex, the re-education, the current sex, the internal sex, the external sex, the internal and external sex, the mild paralysis, the sex, medium, the sex of the hell, the sex of the human, the sex of the heaven, the sex is existing, the sex is created, the sex is created by other people, the sex is not created, the sex belongs, the sexes are not owned, the sex is personal, the sex is not personal, including all the sphetics, all the lupus, all legal forms, the sex platform is love, there is the realm of love, with the sense that it leads to desire, in the sense that it leads to attachment, in the sense that it leads to passion. These are called sex toys.


That’s an important point. It’s definitely not just some of the sphetics!

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Okay, done. But the staging server still does not show them. I restarted the server but the link to the parallels seems to be broken. I might have a look at that next week.

@Blake, why is the staging server not secure?

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I found this interesting. Often we hear that it is the ariya sangha which is intended (the eight noble disciples) here. Could you point out an example where it states this is the ordained bhikkhu sangha?

with metta

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“A” passage? It occurs everywhere but in this instance.ṅghañca&lang=

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Though it’s probably of too late a date for Sutta Central, I just remembered that there is also a parallel to the Khp’s Kumārapañha in a Mahāyāna tathāgatagarbha text: the third fascicle of the Aṅgulimālika Sūtra. Eight out of the ten answers therein match the Pali, but with the difference that each then serves as a Vimalakīrti-style foil for presenting the Mahāyāna view.

Then the Buddha asked Aṅgulimāla, “What is meant by the one learning [śikṣā]?”

Aṅgulimāla answered in verse:

According to the Voice-Hearer Vehicle, not the Mahāyāna,
All sentient beings’ lives are sustained by food and drink.
According to the Mahāyāna, their lives are apart from food and drink, and are always firm.

What is meant by one?
It means that the Tathāgata store [tathāgata-garbha] of all sentient beings constantly abides.

What is meant by two?
According to the Voice-Hearer Vehicle, not the Mahāyāna,
It means one’s name and form [mind and body].
Riders of the Voice-Hearer Vehicle and the Pratyekabuddha Vehicle
Claim that name and form are different.
They believe that only one’s name achieves liberation, and do not say that it has a wonderful form.
All Tathāgatas’ liberation has wondrous form,
Observable like an āmra [mango] in one’s palm.

What is meant by three?
According to the Voice-Hearer Vehicle, not the Mahāyāna,
It means the three kinds of sensory reception [pleasure, pain, and neither].
According to the Mahāyāna, the three kinds of reception mean that
A Tathāgata is foremost in permanence, and is never born,
And that if the Dharma and the Saṅgha are destroyed, they will be born again.

Etc., etc.

Yes, outside the purview of the EBTs, but interesting nonetheless.

I also find this interesting.
“Bhikkhu-sa.ngha” may be a later “adjustment” to the text, after the disappearance of the bhikkhunis.
It could not have been the original wording.