Pali prefix: 'pari' vs 'saṁ' hypothesis

Dear forum

I answered a question about the verse below from SN 1.2 and was curious about the two prefixes used ‘pari’ vs ‘saṁ’:

a prefix denoting completion

  1. all round; altogether; completely


indeclinable prefix, implying conjunction & completeness; saṁ˚; is after vi˚; (19’) the most frequent (16’) of all Pāli prefixes. Its primary meaning is “together”

I chose a selection of verses using the same words:

Suppose there was an iron cauldron that had been heated all day, and a person let two or three drops of water fall onto it.

Seyyathāpi, udāyi, puriso divasaṁsantatte ayokaṭāhe dve vā tīṇi vā udakaphusitāni nipāteyya;

The drops would be slow to fall, but they’d quickly dry up and evaporate.

dandho, udāyi, udakaphusitānaṁ nipāto. Atha kho naṁ khippameva parikkhayaṁ pariyādānaṁ gaccheyya.

MN 66

For a mendicant with defilements [utterly] ended it is in line with the teaching to answer:

Khīṇāsavassa, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno vusitavato katakaraṇīyassa ohitabhārassa anuppattasadatthassa parikkhīṇabhavasaṁyojanassa sammadaññāvimuttassa ayamanudhammo hoti veyyākaraṇāya:

MN 112

Since that wealth is not properly utilized, it’s [utterly] wasted, not used.

Evaṁsa te, mahārāja, bhogā sammā aparibhuñjiyamānā parikkhayaṁ gacchanti, no paribhogaṁ.

SN 3.19

By this means the Kosalan cartload of twenty bushels of sesame seed would run out faster than a single lifetime in the Abbuda hell.

khippataraṁ kho so, bhikkhu, vīsatikhāriko kosalako tilavāho iminā upakkamena parikkhayaṁ pariyādānaṁ gaccheyya, na tveva eko abbudo nirayo.

SN 6.10

With the utter ending of all defilements,

With the ending
Kusalānañca dhammānaṁ,
of good principles and understanding,
paññāya ca parikkhayā;

Thag 16.10

“Those mendicants who are freed through [together with] the ending of craving have reached the ultimate end, the ultimate sanctuary, the ultimate spiritual life, the ultimate goal.

“Ye kho, devānaminda, bhikkhū taṇhāsaṅkhayavimuttā te accantaniṭṭhā accantayogakkhemī accantabrahmacārī accantapariyosānā.

DN 21

But when it came to the last month of summer, the grass and water [both together] ran out. Their bodies became much too thin,

Tesaṁ gimhānaṁ pacchime māse, tiṇodakasaṅkhaye, adhimattakasimānaṁ patto kāyo hoti.

and they lost their strength and energy.

MN 25

[together] without meditation, wisdom ends.
ayogā bhūrisaṅkhayo;

Dhp 282

good deeds are a blessing at [together with] the end of life,
Puññaṁ sukhaṁ jīvitasaṅkhayamhi,

Dhp 331

tathāgato bujjhitvā sabbadhamme parinibbuto upadhisaṅkhaye

the Tathāgata, knowing all that can be known, arrived at the insight of Buddhahood, and was completely set free by [together with] the destruction of all that leads to re-existence.’

Mil 5.4.7

The only questionable verse is from Thag 16.10 below, which uses the word “and” (“ca”):

With the ending
Kusalānañca dhammānaṁ,
of good principles and understanding,
paññāya ca parikkhayā;

Thag 16.10

However, if kusala dhamma & panna above are treated as the same genre of phenomena, even though “and” is used twice, I think the above quotes show:

  1. ‘pari’ is used in respect to a single phenomena
  2. ‘sam’ is used in respect to multiple different phenomena occurring together

Any thoughts on this matter? :saluting_face: :saluting_face:

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