DN 2, is probably the most detailed sutta we have on the gradual training.
Here, with B. @Sujato 's own translation, you can see why kāya needs to be consistently translated as ‘body’ all the way through, from 7sb awakening factors kaya-passsaddhi, into the four jhanas and their similes. B. Sujato is consistent most of way, except for the 3rd jhana, discussed here link here
7sb with V&V will be addressed later.
In this translation, I’ve numbered the 7sb in round parenthesis. (1,2,3) refer to sati, dhamma-vicaya, viriya-sambojjhanga.
- sati remembers the Dhamma teaching on 5niv (5 hindrances)
- dhamma-vicaya explores and investigates the Dhamma teaching on 5niv
- viriya-sambojjhanga is the vigor awakening factor, executing the Dhamma instructions in remove the 5niv, and raise all kusala Dhammas (akusala dhamma pahanaya, kusala dhamma upasampadaya).
7sb samādhi-sam-bojjhanga = 4 jhānas
DN 2 (B.Sujato trans.)
|(1, 2, 3) Tassime pañca nīvaraṇe pahīne attani samanupassato||(1, 2, 3) Seeing that the hindrances have been given up in them,|
|pāmojjaṃ jāyati,||joy springs up.|
|(4) pa-muditassa pīti jāyati,||(4) Being joyful, rapture springs up.|
|(5) pīti-manassa kāyo passambhati,||(5) When the mind is full of rapture, the body becomes tranquil.|
|Passaddha-kāyo sukhaṃ vedeti,||When the body is tranquil, they feel bliss.|
|(6) sukhino cittaṃ samādhiyati.||(6) And when blissful, the mind becomes immersed.|
(STED first jhana formula)
|So vivicceva kāmehi, vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṃ savicāraṃ vivekajaṃ pītisukhaṃ paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati.||Quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unskillful qualities, they enter and remain in the first absorption, which has the rapture and bliss born of seclusion, [with vitakka & vicara].|
(first jhana simile)
|So imameva kāyaṃ vivekajena pītisukhena abhisandeti parisandeti paripūreti parippharati, nāssa kiñci sabbāvato kāyassa vivekajena pītisukhena apphuṭaṃ hoti.||They drench, steep, fill, and spread their body with rapture and bliss born of seclusion. There’s no part of the body that’s not spread with rapture and bliss born of seclusion.|