The second hindrance Byāpādo: "ill will" or "aversion/hatred"?

To my understanding, the second hindrance Byāpādo should be translated as “aversion/hatred”(嗔恚) instead of “ill will” , because ill will and cruelty should have already been abandoned at the second step of the noble eight fold path right resolve". The Chinese agama suttas have the correct translation of the second hindrace into aversion/hatred.

Metta to all,



I think ‘hatred’ is too strong to go with ‘aversion’. Ill will (such as not having a good/positive view on something/somebody),on the other hand, is more subtle, and can be likened to aversion more easily.

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The terminology ‘hindrances’ applies to the context of jhana, therefore it is correctly called “ill will.” Hate is the stronger word used in the kammic roots where the context is cosmic.

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After a reflection, I think the second hindrance should include both ill will and aversion/hatred, because the second step of the noble eight-fold path is resolving on non-ill will, which can diminish ill will but not yet overcome it.

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The noble eightfold path has two manifestations, of establishment where familiarization with the factors is attained, and of developing where the factors work together, and here the focus shifts to the three aggregates or the seven factors of awakening due to their view of active/passive dynamics:

“Now, again, lady, what is the noble eightfold path?”

“This is the noble eightfold path, friend Visakha: right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration.”

“Is the noble eightfold path fabricated or unfabricated?”

“The noble eightfold path is fabricated.”

“And are the three aggregates [of virtue, concentration, & discernment] included under the noble eightfold path, lady, or is the noble eightfold path included under the three aggregates?”

“The three aggregates are not included under the noble eightfold path, friend Visakha, but the noble eightfold path is included under the three aggregates. Right speech, right action, & right livelihood come under the aggregate of virtue. Right effort, right mindfulness, & right concentration come under the aggregate of concentration. Right view & right resolve come under the aggregate of discernment.”—MN 44

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The noble eightfold path doesn’t work like that. Samma sati, samma sankappa, samma ditthi, and samma vayamo circle around eachother.

When the 5 hindrances are overcome one is in Samma Samadhi.

So it’s not true that ill will and cruelty are abandoned by right intention alone, otherwise right effort wouldn’t be needed.

Right effort is four fold. If right intention already removed ill will, then right effort would be two fold not four fold.

The purpose of the whole path, up until samma samadhi, is to overcome the 5 hindrances, then once in samma samadhi, Supermundane right view (4NT, 3 characteristics, DO, etc…) is developed to destroy the fetters.