Does anyone have an opinion about the meaning of (or the use of) the term “refuge” in the following translations of Dhammapada 12.160 and Mahāparinibbāna Sutta DN 16, Part 2.33? (Also, if you know of any parallels to these passages I would also be grateful for any information about them.)
Specifically, I am wondering, do these passages contradict Mahayana and Vajrayana (and perhaps some Theravada) practices that call for taking refuge in the Teacher/Guru? Or in the Dharma, the Buddha and the Sangha?
Or is each of the above just one potential interpretation of the passage?
I’m referring to the following translations: “One indeed is one’s own refuge; how can others be one’s refuge? With oneself thoroughly tamed, one can attain a refuge (i.e. arhatship), which is so difficult to obtain” (Dhammapada 12, Verse 160/Yamakavagga 1.12, Khuddaka Nikāya (KN) and its parallels), translator, Daw Mya Tin, Tipataka.net).
“[B]e islands unto yourselves, refuges unto yourselves, seeking no external refuge; with the Dhamma as your island, the Dhamma as your refuge, seeking no other refuge” (DN 16, Part 2.33).
(The following passage (and the larger discourse in which it is found) does seem to discourage taking refuge in any teacher: “For that which I have proclaimed and made known as the Dhamma and the Discipline, that shall be your Teacher when I am gone” (Mahāparinibbāna Sutta DN 16 Part 6.1, Vajira and Story, Access to Insight).
Any other thoughts about other passages that stress the importance of relying on oneself or taking refuge in oneself (as opposed to the Teacher/the Sangha/other sources of authority etc.) would be appreciated.