Why are there 7 hindrances not 5 in patisambhidamagga?

If you would name the seven hindrances given in patisambhidamagga, it might be helpful. This information is not contained in your screenshot. :grin:

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It is an isolated attempt to provide an alternative view of anapanasati. See Part III, “The Analysis”:

The difference is because it relates to anapanasati, whereas the five hindrances of the general suttas relate to obstacles to jhana attempted through any of the 40 subjects:

"For one who develops the sixteen-based mindfulness of breathing concentration, more than two hundred kinds of knowledge arise, namely:

I. 8 kinds of knowledge of obstacles, 8 kinds of knowledge of

So, what are the extras?
Is it the case the sevenfold version splits done of the hindrances in the fivefold formulation? :thinking:

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I don’t think so, patisambhidamagga refers to first jhana as a state that is free from 7 hindrances

Patisambhidamagga adds ignorance and boredom as hindrances


It an ancient attempt to make up two contrasting lists of hindrances Vs awakening factors.


Interesting. Do you happen to know the Sanskrit / Pali terms of used for these? :anjal: ( I assume ignorance is avijja/avidhya?)

The Patisambhidamagga is linked to the Abhidhamma and there are many differences in the lists in the latter compared with those in the suttas. The reason is both the P and A are attempts to systemitize the suttas:

“THE 6 HINDRANCES. The Abhidhamma, in its efforts to compile a comprehensive systematization of everything “regarding the Dharma” (abhi,dhamma), gives us a list of six hindrances. The Dhamma,saṅgaṇī, for example, is useful in its examination of every state of consciousness (citta) and mental factor (cetasika) in a more exhaustive manner than in the Suttas. This Dhamma,saṅgaṇī excerpt is a description of the states of mind or its signs in the presence of the hindrances.

SD 32.1(3.5) Nīvaraṇa Gocchaka

The Group of Mental Hindrances

PTS: Dhs = Dhs 1252-1262/204 f

Dhammasaṅgāṇi 2, Niddesa 3, Nikkhepa Kaṇḍa 2, Duka Nikkhepa 8

1152 What are the hindrances?

They are the 6 hindrances:

(1) the hindrance of sensual desire kāma-c,chanda nīvaraṇa,
(2) the hindrance of ill will vyāpāda nīvaraṇa,
(3) the hindrance of sloth and torpor thina,middha nīvaraṇa,
(4) the hindrance of restlessness and worry uddhacca,kukkucca nīvaraṇa,
(5) the hindrance of doubt vicikicchā nīvaraṇa,
(6) the hindrance of ignorance avijjā nīvaraṇa.”

—- Piya Tan SD 32.1 Nīvaraṇa, Mental Hindrances

Incidentally the Visuddhimagga defines boredom as a form of aversion.


You are right I think it’s obvious that patisambhidamagga is derived from dhammasangani

It is thought it (the Patisambhidamagga) precedes the Abhidhamma.

So, what’s the Pali/Sanskrit to the hindrance of boredom??

I think it’s arati

Nīvaraṇāti, katame te nīvaraṇā? Kāmacchando nīvaraṇaṃ, byāpādo nīvaraṇaṃ, thinamiddhaṃ nīvaraṇaṃ, uddhaccakukkuccaṃ nīvaraṇaṃ, vicikicchā nīvaraṇaṃ, avijjā nīvaraṇaṃ, arati nīvaraṇaṃ, sabbepi akusalā dhammā nīvaraṇā.

From Pali text of Ps 1.3 Anapanassatikatha


I think that’s contested: IIRC Ñāṇamoḷi and Warder (?) argued it was later than the bulk (or all?) of the Abhidhamma. Obviously all these texts were compiled over time, of course. But if Ds has 6 hindrances and Ps has 7, that would tend to support the idea that it’s later.

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