16 APS in Sādhyasiddhiśāstra, anatomical body circa 300 CE

I took the liberty of transcribing (editing a google document OCR read of the pdf) the section of 16 APS (anapanasati), based on Javier’s excellent find:

This is the Tattvasiddhisastra (Chinese: 成實論; Japanese pronunciation: Jōjitsu-ron, previously reconstructed as the Sādhyasiddhiśāstra) authored by the Indian master Harivarman (250-350) and translated into Chinese in 411 by Kumārajīva.

from msg 38 on

185. Respiration (page 451 pdf, physical page 438)

The respiration has sixteen forms:
being mindful, he exhales and
being mindful he inhales.
{1} Inhaling along breath he discerns I inhale a long breath,
Exhaling a long breath he discerns: I exhale a long breath.
{2} Inhaling a short breath he discerns: I inhale a short-breath.
Exhaling a short breath, he discerns: exhale a short breath. {3} Experiencing the whole body, he trains himself:
I shall exhale and inhale.
{4} Calming the bodiy formations he trains himself:
I shall exhale and shall inhale.

{5} Experiening joy he trains himself:
I shall exhale and shall inhale.
{6} Experiencing happiness, he trains himself.
I shall exhale and shall inhale.
{7} Experiencing the mind’s formations he trains himself:
I shall exhale and shall inhale.
{8} Calming the mind’s formations he trains himself.
I shall exhale.
Calming the bodily formation he trains himself: I shall inhale.
{is that a typo or translation error? bodiliy instead of mind?}

{9} Experiencing the mind he trains himself.
I shall exhale and inhale.
{10} Gladdening the mind he trains himself;
I shall exhale and inhale.
{11} Concentrating the mind he trains himself:
I shall exhale and inhale.
{12} Releasing the mind he trains himself:
I shall exhale and inhale.

{13} Discerning impermanence he trains himself:
I shall exhale and inhale.
{14} Discerning cessation he trains himself:
I shall exhale and inhale.
{15} Discerning renunciation he trains himself.
I shall exhale and inhale.
{no number 16?}

Q. How does the respiration become long or short?
A. suppose e.g. a man ascends the hill; or if he Carries a load, then being fatigued he breathes a short breath. Likewise the ascetic dwelling in a gross thought breathes a short breath. The gross thought means the mind which is shaky and distracted by he disease.

“He breathes a long breath” means:
if the ascetic dwells in a subtle mind, then his breathing out and breath in become long. For, such breaths which accompany the subtle mind become subtle. As per example, of the same person who is fatigned and given rest the breath become subtle. Then, at that time his outgoing breath andincoming breath become long.

“Experiencing the whole body” means:
The ascetic being convinced of his body as trifling perceives the air moving in and get of skin-pores.

“calming the bodily formation”:
when the ascetic is peace-minded and physically strong, his gross breathings become pacified. Then at that time the ascetic becomes possessed of the foundation of body-mindfulness.

"Experiencing (pratisam-vadin) Joy:
out of this concentration he has a great joy in his mind, at that time he is termed “experiencing joy.”

“Experiencing happiness”:
happiness arises from joys so says the Sutra:
The body of the joyous-minded becomes serene and the serene body feels happiness.

“Experiencing the mind’s formation”:
The ascetic sees the blemish in the joy as it causes lust which is a mind’s formation. Lust arises for feeling and hence the ascetic sees the feeling as a mind’s formation.

“Calming the mind’s formation”:
The ascetic sees that lust arises from feeling, and calming that, the mind becomes peaceful. He calms also the gross feeling.

{9 - 12}
"Experiencing the mind"
calming the taste of feeling the ascetic sees his mind as appeased, not depressed and not distracted. This mind sometimes becomes depressed, then at that time he makes it joyous. If it becomes distracted, then at that time he makes it concentrated. If it becomes free from the said two faults, then at that time he lets it free. Therefore, he is termed as releasing the mind.

{13 - 16}
Thus, the ascetic being concentrated arouses a sense of impermanence aspect whereby he abandons the defilements. This is the cessation aspect. As a result of abandoning defilements, his mind gets disgusted: this is the desire freedom-aspect, Because of his desire-freed mind he secures the complete renunciation of everything. This is the renunciation aspect. In thiswise he gradually approaches towards the Release. These are sixteen aspects of respiration.

The Respiration is designated as abode of the noble, of gods, of Brahmā, of the learner (Saiksa) and of the learning ender (asaiksa). These are explained. Utility of this respiration: When the ascetic does not obtain detachment through foul-meditation, his body and mind become deluded. To a man. e.g. on taking an improper medicine, the disease recurs. Through foul-meditation one may gain an improper detachment and commit suicide by taking poison and so on. The respiration exercise does not create such a wrong detachment. It breaks all the defiling forces whereas the foul-meditation destroys only the sex passion. This is the distinction of respiration from the foul-meditation,

The respiration pertains to a developed body as well as to an operative mind. Since the embryo has no respiration, we understand, it pertains to the body; since it is absent in the person of no mind, viz. in the fourth dhyana, etc. it pertains to the mind. The inhalation and exhalation operate due to the totality of causes and conditions. They operate when the mind is present and they do not operate when the mind is inactive. Hence they are governed by the mind. They differ as per mind, viz. the gross-minded has a short respiration and the subtle minded has a long one. The respiration is governed by the sphere as well as the mind. The person remaining in the respiration sphere has that sphere as well as the mind. The respiratic sphere is: the desire-world and the first three dhyanas…

The birth starts with the outgoing breath and the life ends
with the incoming breath. Merging into and emerging from the first dhyana are likewise to be said (viz. merging with exhalation and merging with inhalation). When the ascetic completes the respiration in sixteen aspects, then, at that time the respiration becomes fulfilled.

Some masters say: It is fulfilled by means of six factors; Counting, continuous practice (anubandhana), Samatha,vipsyana, engaging the body and the mind (nivartana) and purity. Counting is from one to ten. It is three-fold; equal, more, and less.
The equal is to count ten as ten:
to count eleven as ten is more.
and to count nine as ten is less.

The continuous practice is the ascetic’s mind supplementing the respiration exercise.

Vipasyanā is when the ascetic perceives breathing as related to thë body as the string running through the gems,

Samatha is io fix up the mind on the respiration-exercise,
Engagement is the function of the body and the feeling with the support of the mind.

Purity is when the ascetic’s mind being released from every defile
ment and inopportune momenti gets purified.

The author says: These six are definite; because the Yogin engaged in respiration cuts all his considerations.

One who is capable of doing it in sixteen aspects is said to have

The sutra describes the respiration as food for this reason;
The body of person merged in the Respiration-exercise becomes happy as that of the person eating the sweet meal. This exercise is said to be an instrument to put an end to five aggregates. When the five aggregates are done away (through other means) what use will be there of this exercise? This is the same as the mindfulness of the body. It is termed the mindfulness of the body since it contemplates the body in four manners.

Q. Recollection is related to the past things; but the respiration is concerned with present breathings. How is it recollection?

A. It is given the designation Smrti {sati}, recollection.
Speaking truly it is a sort of knowledge which breaks up the conceptual ideas. Names of mental states are exchangeable.
Ten motions (samjñā) e.g. are termed anusmrti as they are to be contemplated through memory. This respiration serves as the contemplation of the body…
It is in the first stage an instrument path; and since it leads to the purity ultimately, it is termed in the later stage the abandonment-path. There is an imperimanence-aspect in this respiration but not stated in this Sutra, It is stated in some other Sutra. The ascetic remaining in the respiration-exercise dwells watchful of the body, of its origin and of its destruction, etc. It is said somewhere: He perceives it impermanent, etc.

{end of section 185. respiration}


Here’s an unedited OCR of the section that follows the 16 APS, talking about 10 hindrances to concentration

  1. rெFr (ரன்=ர்ாaரன்)
    This concentration being freed from its pollutions leads to immense advantage (a).
    Crosso is the concentration-pollution. The ascetic LSL LL L SLS S D LLS LLL LLLL L LLLLLLLLS distrace concentend

The ascetic recollecting the voidiness of everything does not have joy-buoyancy (pri prinodya ). It arises when one has the notion of artia. He should recollect thus: Things spring up due to causes and conditions, What is there for joy-buoyancy It ceases when the ascetic notices that all such things being sought cause distraction, The ascetic seeks after the magnificent purpose which is not accomplished by the sun’s heat and the light etc. hence joy-buoyancy does mot ärisc. Since he is perceiving the gain of cessation, he does not have the joy-buoyancy through the sun’s heat and the light etc. Because he meditates on tranquility and wishes the extinction of defilements, joy-buoyancy is not cherished.
(2) Timidity is a concentration-pollution. One raises up timidity on the support of 1-notion (aharikara). The ascetic watches all the dreadful places in the world. He, examining them all as impermanent and distractive, does not run after them. Timidity disappears when he contemplates that everything is unreal and void like the magic, etc. The ascetic is much interested in the practice of the path and hence he is regardless of his body and life. Wherefrom should he fear? His mind always is anchored in the mindfulness and hence timidity does not get
ity in him. He becomes fearless as a result of recollecting aracteristi |lt: brave man. Thiswise he does away with his timidity,
(3) Non-taming is a concentration-pollution, The ascetic LLLLLLLLS LLLLLLS LLLLLLa 0LLLLL ttLLL LLL LLL LLLLLLLLS LLLLLLS LL LsLLLLLLL S LLL untained body due to the extreme fatigue and other causes. Dhyaraas and concentrations are spoilt when the ascetic’s mind is untained on account of defiling lust, thirst and jealousy, etc. Therefore he should lamic his body and mind.
4.) Un-suited characteristic is a concentration-pollution. It is the same as dirtiness. A certain: NON-dirty thing als Öl is disi tracting th dhyana-concentrations, e.g. giving charity, etc.

5) Imbalance is a concentration-pollution. When the effort is applied wrongly or with lack of spirit the body and the mind become much fatigued. The ascetic does not grasp the concentration-object (ninitia). He falls from the concentration in both cases. The youngling, e.g. of Vartaka bird being firmly caught becomes much fatigued, and loosely caught falls from the grip of the bird. Or strings of the lute being tied too widely or too loosely do not accomplish the desired tune. The Buddha addresses, Anuruddha: A man of too emergetic effort will have letihargy ( kausīdya). Or å man of depressed spirit will also not accomplish his objective. Therefore, imbalance iš coñcentrationpollution.
6) Inattention is a concentration-pollution. It is a lack of attention towards good dharma Not to be at Lentive lo the object of concentration but to be attentive to some othe external thing is also inattention. The ascetic having made än effort with one-pointed mind should attend to an element worthy of experience (pedaniya-dharpia) just as a man carrying an oil-pot on his head,
Unsuitability is a concentration-pollution. A man ful of lust adopts a compassionate mind (for contemplation) and a man full of indignation (dyesa) contemplates on the foul object. These Two, men should meditale om dependent origination, The mind being too subdued contemplates on quietude and the same being too arrogant makes effort. In both cases one should adopt neutrality. This is unsuitability.
(. 8 ) Talkativeness is a coiicentration-pollution. TL is thic! L Ga zK LLL L LLLLL L LLLLL L L L L L LL LLLLLLLL0s S LLLLLL LL LLL S L LLLLLLLL S SLLL L S L S LS Y LLL LLLLs LLL
firmly stick to nor becomes delighted in the object of coñceiträliini.
( 9 ] Non-grasp of the characteristics. The characteristic is de Canada), making an attempt, and in

diference, IL is again three-fold: Entering into concentration, sustaining and waking from it. The ascetic, not adept in distinction of these characteristics falls from it.
(IO) Pride is a concentration-pollution. It is this: The ascetic may have the pride: I alone enter into and abide in concentration and none else. A dhimina is when he, not obtaining concentration, says: I have obtained it. Mithya-liana is when he arouses the notion of superiority prania) towards an inferior concentration.
(l) Lust and other elements are also concentiationpollutions. The Sutra says: The monk who is possessed of one dharma, viz. lust (ragar) does not see the eye as impermanent. All the persons not freed from lust, do they not see the eye as impermanent? It is to be expressed thus: The person having lust for the object of present moment does not see it as impermanent. There is some distinction in the lustful person also. There are certain men who have the lust, etc. very strong which always haunt their mind and obstruct the concentration. When the lust, etc. are thin and weak, they do not haunt their mind and do not harm the concentration.
Thirteen black elements are stated in the Satra as concentration-pollutions and thirteen white-elements as concentrationfavourable. The Buddha says: One does not cross over the old age-disease-death without abandoning three elements, viz. Ilust hate and hallucination. One does not cut these three elements without abandoning three, viz. the soul-view, contagion of mere rules and rituals and perplexity. Then there are three: irrational thinking, wrong action and mental dejection; then three forgetfulness, lack of self-possession, distracted mind: then three lack of modesty (audathaya), non-protection of sense-doors and moral deterioration then three: distrust, unmorality and lethargy then three displeasure towards the good man, aversion to the listening to the good dharma and joy in announcing other’s ills then three: disregard, blasphemy of one’s colleague and serving

the ill-witted person. One does not idon the last thrc. without abandoning the three, viz. lack of shyness ( cahrikya ) lack of aversion to objectionable things (T&patript) i careless ness: To punt rewersely; One abandoning the last mentioned three, abandons the Previ three: viz.: disiegärdä, etc. andson, up alba Iudicining မျို’ မျိုး three: soul-view, etc. abandons the first three: hist, cic. and abandoning these three, one crosses over the old age, etc.
Here crossing over old age-disease-death is Nirvāra without residue. To root out the lust, häte and hallucination is the arhant-trait, Nirvana with residue. То root out the 蠶 contagion of mere rules and rituals and perplexity is the Srimarya. fruit. To root out irrational thinking, wrong action and dejection s the Kišara-root of Nirved Phagpa, stra, etc. To root out the forgetfulness, lack of self-possession, and distracted mind is the cultivation of four-fold foundation of mindfulness. To root out the lack of modesty, non-protection of sense-doors and migral rioration is adoption of the ascetic’s moral conduct. To rol out displeasure towards good man, aversion to listening to the good charina and joy in announcing others ills, distrust, unmorality and lethargy, disregard, blasphemy of one’s colleague and serving the ill-witted person is the purity of the householder.
rikya is when a man having committed a wrong papaka) in camera, does not feel shy. The main subsequently commits Some WTOmg even in the midst of Saga and does not get ashamed that is trapatria. Parāda i a constant practice bad actions by one who has fallen from the good dharma-rot and two white elements (i.e. shyness and shamefulness). The person, possessed of the sablo weee elementis does not adopt what is taught by the teacher-that is disregard. To do reverse of what is advised by the teacher is blasphemy of one’s colleague T T ks ttLLL LLL CCC LL LLLLL L L LSLS SLtLLLLS SLLLLLLSL ill-witted person. The lack of sness that results from the bowe is disegard. Blasphemy of es calleague arises from

the lack of shamefulness, Serving the ill-witted person comes
from carelessness. Hence he, becoming a faithless and adopting
unmoral conduct, becomes lethargic. Serving the wicked person one does not believe in the teacher’s dispensation and says that
there is no resultant of the bad conduct…Hating listening to a good scripture one says that the good conduct is false doctrine. Because of his mind’s pollusion (kasiya), one becomes joyous in announcing others’ ills and says that the other person has, by doing dharma, gained nothing equal to his own. Thus defilements being not checked, one’s mind becomes proud (uddhata). Because of being proud, he does not control his senses with the result of moral deterioration. Because of this his mindfulness vanishes. A man not in self-possession becomes distracted in his mind. He will have also irrational thinking due to which he will tread on the wrong path. Treading on this path, he gains not his objective. Hence his mind becomes dull and dejected. Because of the mind’s dullness he does not root out three fetters. Because of this he does not abandon the lust, etc. and hence all the calamities, disease, etc., spring up. Converse of these (bad elements) are white elements,
(12) Grief a concentration-pollution: The ascetic will have grief when he thinks: I could not gain certain concentration
such a year, month or Season.
(13) Adherence to the taste of joy is also concentrationpolutiön.
(14). Lack of delightfulness is also concentration-pollution
Even after having a suitable country and an auspicious teacher, one’s mind does not become delighted.
15.) Hindrances, sensua pleasure, etc. are also on centration-pollutions.
Inbrief all things, robe, food and others and what decreases the wholesome ( kuŝala)-roots and what increases These akuala-) roots and all such things become concentration-poll

Anyone know the taisho number for the corresponding chinese source text of the 16 APS section, or the sastra as a whole?

Here’s the sanskrit portion of steps 3 and 4 relevant to the “whole body”

sarvakāya[pratisaṃvedī]ti | yogī kāye tucchādhimuktaḥ sarvaromakūpeṣu vāyumantarbahiścāriṇaṃ paśyati | praśrambhayan kāyasaṃskāramiti | dhātubalalābhino vyupaśāntacittasya yogina audārikā āśvāsapraśvāsā vyupaśāntā bhavanti | tadā yogī kāyammṛtyupasthānasamanvito bhavati | prītipratisaṃvedīti | asmātsamādhidharmādasya citte mahatī prītirbhavati | prakṛtito vidyamānāpi naivaṃ bhavati | asmin samaye prītipratisaṃvedītyākhyāyate | sukhapratisaṃvedīti | prīteḥ sukhaṃ jāyate | kasmāt | prītamanasaḥ kāyaḥ praśrabhyate, praśrabdhakāyaḥ sukhaṃ vindate | yathoktaṃ sūtre- prītamanasaḥ kāyaḥ praśramyate | praśrabdhakāyaḥ sukhaṃ vedayate | iti |


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Qian Lin’s dissertation “Mind in dispute” has the Taisho # as T1646


My friend Dr. Chu, Chinese Agama expert, says the English translation is filled with errors and utterly unreliable. His translation of the step 3 “whole body” from the chinese source:

step 3 “whole body” from the chinese source

"One should be mindful of the breath as it pervades the whole body, all the while ridding of bodily formations."
Dr. Chu comments: Here, the “body” is clearly the corporeal body and not the “breath body”

Can anyone here do a more detailed break down of the sanskrit to see how well it matches the Chinese?

{step 3 “whole body” is physical}
sarvakāya[pratisaṃvedī]ti |
"“Experiencing the whole body”" means:

yogī kāye tucchādhimuktaḥ sarvaromakūpeṣu vāyumantarbahiścāriṇaṃ paśyati |

The ascetic being convinced of his body
as trifling perceives the air
moving in and out of skin-pores.

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Ah interesting, has he translated significant portions of this text? Is it available anywhere? I would love to see it if he has and compare it.

Unfortunately No, he’s super busy with a lot on his plate. I only was able to obtain the step 3 excerpt translation by special request, and it took about a week :slight_smile: