SuttaCentral

Difference between vicara and vicāra


#1

MN 137 is interesting because it looks like it can shed some light on what vitakka & vicāra mean.

vicara (note short ‘a’) seems to be used synonymously with vicāra, in the context below. I’ve added hyperlink sectioned booksmarks to MN 137 so you can easily see what’s going on and get a sense of the larger picture.

especially when you compare the section (5. 18 mental neighborhoods) with
(gradual replacement of pleasures…), it’s clear the latter section is talking about gradually moving through the first 8 samadhi attainments (4 jhanas, 4 arupa attainments). Then the 18 mental neighborhoods would be referring to what’s possible for vicara and vicāra to do in the rupa first jhāna. Of the 3 translations shown below, I like Bodhi’s the best, it’s the most literal and straightforward (18 mano-upa-vicarati = 18 mental explorations). Bhante @sujato, why “neighborhood”? I’ve been searching for “vicara” (not vicāra) in all the suttas, it doesn’t seem to occur very often. In KN Snp, the context definitely seems to be “wandering and exploring”.

KN Pe commentary for first jhana seems to equate vicara and vicāra as well.

vicarati: goes about; wanders. (vi + car + a)

Vicarati [vi+carati] to go or move about in (loc.), to walk (a road=acc.), to wander Sn 444 (raṭṭhā raṭṭhaŋ vicarissaŋ, fut.), 696 (dhamma – maggaŋ); Nd1 201, 263 Pv iii.73 (aor. vicari); DhA i.66; PvA 4, 22, 33, 69 120, 185 (=āhiṇḍati); Sdhp 133. – In Sn often with loke (in this world), e. g. Sn 466, 501, 845, 846, 864. <-> Caus. vicāreti; pp. vicarita, vicārita & viciṇṇa. Cp anu˚.;

MN 137

mano-'pa-vicārā

Upavicāra [upa + vicāra; cp. BSk. upavicāra Divy 19, trsld on p. 704 in Notes by “perplexed by doubts” (?) applying (one’s mind) to, discrimination D iii.245 (domanass˚); M iii.239; S iv.232 (somanass˚ etc.); A iii.363 sq.; v.134; Ps i.17; Dh 8, 85, 284; Vbh 381.

bodhi: mental exploration

“‘The eighteen kinds of mental exploration should be understood. ’1235 “” So it was said. And with reference to what was this said?

“On seeing a form with the eye, one explores a form productive of joy, one explores a form productive of grief, one explores a form productive of equanimity.1236 “” On hearing a sound with the ear…On smelling an odour with the nose…On tasting a flavour with the tongue…[217] On touching a tangible with the body… On cognizing a mind-object with the mind, one explores a mind-object productive of joy, one explores a mind-object productive of grief, one explores a mind-object productive of equanimity. Thus there are six kinds of exploration with joy, six kinds of exploration with grief, and six kinds of exploration with equanimity. So it was with reference to this that it was said: ‘The eighteen kinds of mental exploration should be understood.’

sujato: mental neighborhoods

Aṭṭhārasa manopavicārā veditabbā’ti—iti kho panetaṃ vuttaṃ. Kiñcetaṃ paṭicca vuttaṃ? ‘Cakkhunā rūpaṃ disvā somanassaṭṭhānīyaṃ rūpaṃ upavicarati, domanassaṭṭhānīyaṃ rūpaṃ upavicarati, upekkhāṭṭhānīyaṃ rūpaṃ upavicarati. Sotena saddaṃ sutvā … pe … ghānena gandhaṃ ghāyitvā … jivhāya rasaṃ sāyitvā … kāyena phoṭṭhabbaṃ phusitvā … manasā dhammaṃ viññāya somanassaṭṭhānīyaṃ dhammaṃ upavicarati, domanassaṭṭhānīyaṃ dhammaṃ upavicarati, upekkhāṭṭhānīyaṃ dhammaṃ upavicarati. Iti cha somanassūpavicārā, cha domanassūpavicārā, cha upekkhūpavicārā, aṭṭhārasa manopavicārā veditabbā’ti—iti yaṃ taṃ vuttaṃ idametaṃ paṭicca vuttaṃ. (5)
‘The eighteen mental neighborhoods should be understood.’ That’s what I said, but why did I say it? Seeing a sight with the eye, you linger in the neighborhood of a sight that’s a basis for happiness or sadness or equanimity. Hearing a sound with the ear … Smelling an odor with the nose … Tasting a flavor with the tongue … Feeling a touch with the body … Becoming conscious of a thought with the mind, you linger in the neighborhood of a phenomena that’s a basis for happiness or sadness or equanimity. So there are six neighborhoods near happiness, six neighborhoods near sadness, and six neighborhoods near equanimity. ‘The eighteen mental neighborhoods should be understood.’ That’s what I said, and this is why I said it.

thanissaro: explorations
“‘The eighteen explorations for the intellect should be known’: Thus was it said. And in reference to what was it said? Seeing a form via the eye, one explores a form that can act as the basis for happiness, one explores a form that can act as the basis for unhappiness, one explores a form that can act as the basis for equanimity. Hearing a sound via the ear… Smelling an aroma via the nose… Tasting a flavor via the tongue… Touching a tactile sensation via the body… Cognizing an idea via the intellect, one explores an idea that can act as the basis for happiness, one explores an idea that can act as the basis for unhappiness, one explores an idea that can act as the basis for equanimity. The eighteen explorations for the intellect should be known’: Thus was it said. And in reference to this was it said.


#2

The term upavicarati is used in the EBTs in one specific doctrinal context, and also in one “ordinary life” context at AN 6.52. As always, it is best to work from the basic meanings towards the more sophisticated doctrinal sense.

The “ordinary life” context occurs as part of a series of questions where the Buddha is asked to define a range of characteristics of different groups of people: what is their ambition, goal, and so on. One of these things is their upavicāra. For several kinds of persons (brahmins, khattiyas, etc.) their upavicāra is wisdom (paññā; perhaps “knowledge” would be better here.) For women, it is adornments; for bandits, a hiding place.

Thus the upavicāra is something that is important for that kind of person, something they are “preoccupied” with. Ven Bodhi has “quest” here, but I don’t think that’s quite right. “Quest” implies a final goal, but that is a separate item. For bandits, for example, a hiding place is not really their goal: wealth is. A hiding place is just somewhere to avoid getting caught. Similarly, Critical Pali Dictionary’s “range, scope, approach” don’t really fit well. I had preciously used “exploration”, but on reflection I have adopted Cone’s suggestion of “preoccupation”.

In the doctrinal context, Ven Bodhi’s rendering has been “explore”. The problem here is that words like “explore” in a technical sense have a strong connotation with vipassana meditation. This impression is reinforced by the connection between upavicāra and wisdom in the above passage. However in doctrinal contexts upavicāra is never treated as a kind of meditation. Rather, it is listed along with a series of other factors as a way of analysing “what is”, i.e. it relates to the first noble truth rather than the fourth.

The Sanskrit Dictionaries list “neighborhood” as the only sense of upavicāra, and I worked from that sense. I think the point of the six “mental upavicāras” is not that one “explores” (i.e. investigates with wisdom) the six sense stimuli, but rather that one “lingers in their neighborhood”: i.e., when we experience a stimulating sensation, we tend to come back to it, lingering on what caused pleasure (or pain!).

Hence my original rendering. However, I was never that happy with it, and looking at it once more, I think we can use “preoccupation” in all contexts. So I have gone back and changed it!

These are the eighteen mental preoccupations …

Seeing a sight with the eye, one is preoccupied with a sight that’s a basis for happiness or sadness or equanimity.


#3

Bumbling around elsewhere today I happened on So there are six neighborhoods near happiness, six neighborhoods near sadness, and six neighborhoods near equanimity. ‘The eighteen mental neighborhoods should be understood.. This made total instant sense to me. More so than exploration or preoccupation. The reason it made more sense to me was that neighborhood refers to locality and/or association independent of a self. The electron is in the neighborhood of the proton. Watching or not-watching, the neighborhood just is. The difficulty with exploration and preoccupation is that the self crowds in and becomes part of the picture. I.e., “I am exploring, I am preoccupied”. I do not know Pali, but there are slippery nuances here.


#4

Is there any significance to the difference between upa-vicāra and upa-vicarati (no long ‘a’)?

The basic sense is still “walking” though isn’t it? anu-vicara happens frequently in the walking/exploration sense. And in SN 46.3, for dhamma-vicaya-sambojjhanga, you have “explore” for pa-vicarati. Is pa-vicarati in SN 46.3 really distinctly different from upa-vicarati and anu-vicarati?

As they live mindfully in this way they investigate, explore, and inquire into that teaching with wisdom. So tathā sato viharanto taṃ dhammaṃ paññāya pavicinati pavicarati parivīmaṃsamāpajjati.

The ‘vicaya’ in dhamma-vicaya-sambojjhanga also seems synonymous with the “explore” sense of pa-vicarati and pa-vicinati

Vicaya [fr. vi+ci: see vicinati] search, investigation, examination S iii.96 (vicayaso, i. e. thoroughly); Pug 25 Miln 340 (dhamma˚); Nett 1, 2, 10; DhsA 147; Sdhp 466. For dhamma˚ see sambojjhanga.

I guess it comes down to how certain we are that the “upa” prefix is giving a very specific meaning. I’m still agnostic on this point.

MN 137 eighteen mental explorations (mano upa vicara)

Aṭṭhārasa mano-’pa-vicārā veditabbā’ti—
‘The eighteen mental-explorations should be understood.’
iti kho panetaṃ vuttaṃ.
That’s what I said,
Kiñcetaṃ paṭicca vuttaṃ?
but why did I say it?
‘Cakkhunā rūpaṃ disvā
(the) eye; form (it) sees,
So-manassaṭ-ṭhānīyaṃ rūpaṃ upavicarati,
(a) good-mental-state-basis, (that) form (you) explore.
Do-manassaṭ-ṭhānīyaṃ rūpaṃ upavicarati,
(a) bad-mental-state-basis, (that) form (you) explore.
upekkhāṭ-ṭhānīyaṃ rūpaṃ upavicarati.
(an) equanimity-basis, (that) form (you) explore.
Sotena saddaṃ sutvā … pe …
(the) ear; sounds (it) hears …
ghānena gandhaṃ ghāyitvā …
(the) nose; odors (it) smells …
jivhāya rasaṃ sāyitvā …
(the) tongue; flavors (it) tastes …
kāyena phoṭṭhabbaṃ phusitvā …
(the) body; tactile-sensations (it) touches …
manasā dhammaṃ viññāya
(the) mind; dhamma [ideas] (it) cognizes.
somanassaṭṭhānīyaṃ dhammaṃ upavicarati,
(a) good-mental-state-basis, (that) dhamma [idea] (you) explore.
domanassaṭṭhānīyaṃ dhammaṃ upavicarati,
(a) bad-mental-state-basis, (that) dhamma [idea] (you) explore.
upekkhāṭṭhānīyaṃ dhammaṃ upavicarati.
(an) equanimity-basis, (that) dhamma [idea] (you) explore.
Iti cha so-manass-ūpa-vicārā,
So (there are) six good-mental-state-explorations,
cha do-manass-ūpa-vicārā,
six bad-mental-state-explorations,
cha upekkh-ūpa-vicārā,
six equanimity-explorations.
Aṭṭhārasa mano-’pa-vicārā veditabbā’ti—
‘The eighteen mental-explorations should be understood.’
iti yaṃ taṃ vuttaṃ
That’s what I said,
idametaṃ paṭicca vuttaṃ. (5)
and this is why I said it.

#5

But if we go by KN Pe commentary on first jhana, it definitely supports the “explore” sense. See last line especially, where carati is used to explain what “vicāra” does. And the simile they give, of vitakka is like first recognizing whether a person is a man or woman, and then vicāra “explores/evaluates/ponders” that person’s ethical/sīla qualities. That simile is practically a literal short hand implementation of SN 46.2 dhamma-vicaya-sambojjhanga nutriments: (sila = discriminating kusala/akusala, savajja/anavajja, etc.)

(2. Dhamma vicaya ← kusal-ākusalā d, sāvajj-ānavajjā d, hīna-paṇītā d, kaṇha-sukka-sap-paṭibhāgā dhammā)

Ko ca, bhikkhave,
“{And} what, monks, [is the]
āhāro an-uppannassa vā
nutriment (for) un-arisen
dhamma-vicaya-sam-bojjh-aṅgassa uppādāya,
Dhamma [teachings]-investigation-awakening-factor's arising,
uppannassa vā dhamma-vicaya-sam-bojjh-aṅgassa
(and) arisen Dhamma [teachings]-investigation-awakening-factor's
bhāvanāya pāripūriyā?
development (and) fulfillment?
Atthi, bhikkhave,
There-is, monks,
kusal-ākusalā dhammā,
wholesome-and-unwholesome dhamma [teachings & qualities & things],
sāvajj-ānavajjā dhammā,
blameable-and-blameless dhamma [teachings & qualities & things],
hīna-paṇītā dhammā,
inferior-and-superior dhamma [teachings & qualities & things],
kaṇha-sukka-sap-paṭibhāgā dhammā.
dark-(and)-bright-with-counterpart dhamma [teachings & qualities & things],
Tattha yoniso-manasi-kāra-bahulī-kāro–
(To) that-there, wise-mental-production-frequently-done,
ayam-āhāro an-uppannassa vā
is-the-nutriment (for) un-arisen
dhamma-vicaya-sam-bojjh-aṅgassa uppādāya,
Dhamma [teachings]-investigation-awakening-factor's arising,
uppannassa vā dhamma-vicaya-sam-bojjh-aṅgassa
(and) arisen Dhamma [teachings]-investigation-awakening-factor's
bhāvanāya pāripūriyā.
development (and) fulfillment.

KN Pe: Peṭakopadesa 7.72, 1st jhāna commentary

KN-Pe is the earliest detailed word commentary on the standard jhāna formula: Peṭakopadesa 7.72
(first paragraph 72. talks about tīṇi akusala-mūlāni (3 unskillful roots) and 5niv (hindrances) removal.
♦ tattha a-lobhassa pāripūriyā nekkhamma-vitakkaṃ vitakketi.
Here, for non-greed fulfillment, renunciation-thoughts (he) thinks.
tattha a-dosassa pāripūriyā abyāpāda-vitakkaṃ vitakketi.
for non-hatred fulfillment, renunciation-thoughts (he) thinks.
tattha a-mohassa pāripūriyā avihiṃsā-vitakkaṃ vitakketi.
for non-delusion fulfillment, renunciation-thoughts (he) thinks.
tattha a-lobhassa pāripūriyā vivitto hoti kāmehi.
“Here, for fulfilling non-passion he is secluded from sensual pleasures.
tattha a-dosassa pāripūriyā
Here, for fulfilling non-aggression and
a-mohassa pāripūriyā ca vivitto hoti pāpakehi akusalehi dhammehi,
fulfilling non-delusion he is secluded from unskillful phenomena.
savitakkaṃ savicāraṃ vivekajaṃ pītisukhaṃ
And so he enters and remains in the first jhāna,
paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati.
which includes directed thought and evaluation, as well as joy and pleasure born of seclusion.
♦ vitakkāti tayo vitakkā —
Directed thought: There are three kinds of directed thought, namely
nekkhammavitakko
the thought of renunciation,
abyāpādavitakko
the thought of non-aversion,
avihiṃsāvitakko.
and the thought of harmlessness.
tattha paṭham-ābhinipāto vitakko,
Here, directed thought is the first instance
paṭiladdhassa vicaraṇaṃ vicāro.
while evaluation is the evaluation of what is thereby received.
yathā puriso dūrato purisaṃ passati āgacchantaṃ,
Just as when a man sees someone approaching in the distance
na ca tāva jānāti eso itthīti vā purisoti vā
he does not yet know whether it is a woman or a man,
yadā tu paṭilabhati itthīti vā purisoti vā
but when he has received [the apperception] that “it is a woman” or “it is a man” or
evaṃ vaṇṇoti vā evaṃ saṇṭhānoti vā
that “it is of such color” or that “it is one of such shape,”
ime vitakkayanto uttari upaparikkhanti
then when he has thought this he further scrutinizes,
kiṃ nu kho ayaṃ sīlavā udāhu dussīlo
“How then, is he ethical or unethical,
aḍḍho vā duggatoti vā.
rich or poor?”
evaṃ vicāro
This is examination.
vitakke appeti,
With directed thought he fixes.
vicāro cariyati ca anuvattati ca.
With examination he moves about and turns over [what has been thought].”

#6

How does one get these marvelous side-by-side renditions of Pali/English? (sorry for the distraction)


#7

regarding AN 6.52

After studying that sutta carefully, I still think your original choice of “explore” works best. “preoccupation” is serviceable, but I think the case of the thief and woman “exploring for” hiding place and adornments, shows the physical aspect of exploring to accomplish that, whereas the other 4 cases were all pañña-upavicara, exploring for wisdom/knowledge/skill in their profession, which ambiguously covers both mental and physical exploration but we can’t be sure.

I’ve been doing an exhaustive search for “vicar” in all the suttas, and since there are only two unique places really that use upa-vicara, AN 6.52 and MN 137, I can’t really see anything that differentiates upa-vicara from anu-vicara mano. See my notes in the next message, “anu-vicara mano” seem to occupy the same kind of doctrinal mental exploration territory as upa-vicara in MN 137.


UPED: user friendly pali english dictionary
#8

Table of Contents

vicara & vicāra

anu-vicarati: wanders about; roams. (anu + vi + +car + a)

Anu-vicarati [anu + vi + carati] to wander about, stroll roam through, explore D i.235; J ii.128; iii.188; PvA 189 (= anupariyāti). -- Caus. ˚vicāreti to think over (lit. to make one's mind wander over), to meditate ponder (cp. anuvicinteti); always combd. with anuvitakketi (q. v.) A i.264 (cetasā), iii.178 (dhammaŋ cetasā a.). -- pp. anuvicarita (q. v.).

anuvicarita: pondered over; reflected. (pp. of anuvicarati)

Anuvicarita [pp. of anuvicāreti] reflected, pondered over, thought out S iii.203 (manasā); DA i.106 (= anucarita).

upa-vicāra (see MN 137)

Upavicāra [upa + vicāra; cp. BSk. upavicāra Divy 19, trsld on p. 704 in Notes by "perplexed by doubts" (?) applying (one's mind) to, discrimination D iii.245 (domanass˚); M iii.239; S iv.232 (somanass˚ etc.); A iii.363 sq.; v.134; Ps i.17; Dh 8, 85, 284; Vbh 381.

vicarati: goes about; wanders. (vi + car + a)

Vicarati [vi+carati] to go or move about in (loc.), to walk (a road=acc.), to wander Sn 444 (raṭṭhā raṭṭhaŋ vicarissaŋ, fut.), 696 (dhamma -- maggaŋ); Nd1 201, 263 Pv iii.73 (aor. vicari); DhA i.66; PvA 4, 22, 33, 69 120, 185 (=āhiṇḍati); Sdhp 133. -- In Sn often with loke (in this world), e. g. Sn 466, 501, 845, 846, 864. <-> Caus. vicāreti; pp. vicarita, vicārita & viciṇṇa. Cp anu˚.;

vicaya: investigation. (m.)

Vicaya [fr. vi+ci: see vicinati] search, investigation, examination S iii.96 (vicayaso, i. e. thoroughly); Pug 25 Miln 340 (dhamma˚); Nett 1, 2, 10; DhsA 147; Sdhp 466. For dhamma˚ see sambojjhanga.

vicara: wandering

(MN 26.1), wander in the world
♦ ‘uṭṭhehi vīra vijitasaṅgāma,
Arise, victorious hero, caravan leader,
♦ satthavāha aṇaṇa vicara loke.
Debtless one, and wander in the world.
♦ desassu VAR bhagavā dhammaṃ,
Let the Blessed One teach the Dhamma,
♦ aññātāro bhavissantī’”ti.
There will be those who will understand.’

upa-vicara AN 3.61, DN 33, MN 137, MN 140 share similar text

MN 137 eighteen mental explorations (mano upa vicara)

Aṭṭhārasa mano-’pa-vicārā veditabbā’ti—
‘The eighteen mental-explorations should be understood.’
iti kho panetaṃ vuttaṃ.
That’s what I said,
Kiñcetaṃ paṭicca vuttaṃ?
but why did I say it?
‘Cakkhunā rūpaṃ disvā
(the) eye; form (it) sees,
So-manassaṭ-ṭhānīyaṃ rūpaṃ upavicarati,
(a) good-mental-state-basis, (that) form (you) explore.
Do-manassaṭ-ṭhānīyaṃ rūpaṃ upavicarati,
(a) bad-mental-state-basis, (that) form (you) explore.
upekkhāṭ-ṭhānīyaṃ rūpaṃ upavicarati.
(an) equanimity-basis, (that) form (you) explore.
Sotena saddaṃ sutvā … pe …
(the) ear; sounds (it) hears …
ghānena gandhaṃ ghāyitvā …
(the) nose; odors (it) smells …
jivhāya rasaṃ sāyitvā …
(the) tongue; flavors (it) tastes …
kāyena phoṭṭhabbaṃ phusitvā …
(the) body; tactile-sensations (it) touches …
manasā dhammaṃ viññāya
(the) mind; dhamma [ideas] (it) cognizes.
somanassaṭṭhānīyaṃ dhammaṃ upavicarati,
(a) good-mental-state-basis, (that) dhamma [idea] (you) explore.
domanassaṭṭhānīyaṃ dhammaṃ upavicarati,
(a) bad-mental-state-basis, (that) dhamma [idea] (you) explore.
upekkhāṭṭhānīyaṃ dhammaṃ upavicarati.
(an) equanimity-basis, (that) dhamma [idea] (you) explore.
Iti cha so-manass-ūpa-vicārā,
So (there are) six good-mental-state-explorations,
cha do-manass-ūpa-vicārā,
six bad-mental-state-explorations,
cha upekkh-ūpa-vicārā,
six equanimity-explorations.
Aṭṭhārasa mano-’pa-vicārā veditabbā’ti—
‘The eighteen mental-explorations should be understood.’
iti yaṃ taṃ vuttaṃ
That’s what I said,
idametaṃ paṭicca vuttaṃ. (5)
and this is why I said it.

MN 85

MN 2, 4. rājavaggo, 5. bodhirājakumārasuttaṃ (MN 85.1), para. 44 ⇒
satthavāha aṇaṇa, vicara loke.

anu-vicāra: explore mental and physical seem similar

AN 6.52 explore by thief, ascetic

“Corā kho, brāhmaṇa, ādānādhippāyā gahanūpavicārā satthādhiṭṭhānā andhakārābhinivesā adassanapariyosānā”ti. (5)
6.2“Bandits have theft as their ambition. They explore for a hiding-place. They’re committed to their sword. They insist on darkness. Their ultimate goal is invisibility.”
“Samaṇā pana, bho gotama, kiṃadhippāyā, kiṃupavicārā, kiṃadhiṭṭhānā, kiṃabhinivesā, kiṃpariyosānā”ti?
7.1“Ascetics, Master Gotama, have what as their ambition? Why do they explore? What are they committed to? What do they insist on? What is their ultimate goal?”
“Samaṇā kho, brāhmaṇa, khantisoraccādhippāyā paññūpavicārā sīlādhiṭṭhānā ākiñcaññābhinivesā nibbānapariyosānā”ti. (6)
7.2“Ascetics have patience and gentleness as their ambition. They explore for wisdom. They’re committed to ethical conduct. They insist on owning nothing. Their ultimate goal is extinguishment.”

anu-vicara: walking and wandering for exercise

.
.

walking and wandering for exercise … anu-caṅkamamāno anu-vicaramāno

all the suttas where these two words appear together.
caṅkama = walking meditation.

DN 13

DN 13
52.. atha kho vāseṭṭhabhāradvājānaṃ māṇavānaṃ jaṅghavihāraṃ anucaṅkamantānaṃ anuvicarantānaṃ maggāmagge kathā udapādi.

MN 18, 35 36 37 39 54 75 77 89 92 94 98 125

18
daṇḍapāṇipi kho, bhikkhave, sakko jaṅghāvihāraṃ anucaṅkamamāno anuvicaramāno yena mahāvanaṃ tenupasaṅkami.
35
addasā kho saccako nigaṇṭhaputto vesāliyaṃ jaṅghāvihāraṃ anucaṅkamamāno anuvicaramāno āyasmantaṃ assajiṃ dūratova āgacchantaṃ. disvāna yenāyasmā assaji tenupasaṅkami;
36
atha kho saccako nigaṇṭhaputto jaṅghāvihāraṃ anucaṅkamamāno anuvicaramāno yena mahāvanaṃ kūṭāgārasālā tenupasaṅkami.
37
atha kho sakko ca devānamindo vessavaṇo ca mahārājā āyasmantaṃ mahāmoggallānaṃ vejayante pāsāde anucaṅkamāpenti anuvicarāpenti —
39
tattha cakkhumā puriso majjhe ṭhito passeyya manusse gehaṃ pavisantepi nikkhamantepi, anucaṅkamantepi anuvicarantepi .
MN 54 walking and wandering
potaliyopi kho gahapati sampannanivāsanapāvuraṇo chattupāhanāhi jaṅghāvihāraṃ anucaṅkamamāno anuvicaramāno yena so vanasaṇḍo tenupasaṅkami;
MN 75 walking and wandering
atha kho māgaṇḍiyo paribbājako jaṅghāvihāraṃ anucaṅkamamāno anuvicaramāno yena bhāradvājagottassa brāhmaṇassa agyāgāraṃ yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami;
MN 77
tatra cakkhumā puriso majjhe ṭhito passeyya manusse gehaṃ pavisantepi nikkhamantepi anucaṅkamantepi anuvicarantepi;
MN 89
addasā kho rājā pasenadi kosalo ārāme jaṅghāvihāraṃ anucaṅkamamāno anuvicaramāno rukkhamūlāni pāsādikāni
MN 92
atha kho selo brāhmaṇo tīhi māṇavakasatehi parivuto jaṅghāvihāraṃ anu-caṅkamamāno anu-vicaramāno yena keṇiyassa jaṭilassa assamo tenupasaṅkami.
MN 94
atha kho ghoṭamukho brāhmaṇo jaṅghāvihāraṃ anucaṅkamamāno anuvicaramāno yena khemiyambavanaṃ tenupasaṅkami.
tena kho pana samayena āyasmā udeno abbhokāse caṅkamati.
MN 98
atha kho vāseṭṭhabhāradvājānaṃ māṇavānaṃ jaṅghāvihāraṃ anucaṅkamantānaṃ anuvicarantānaṃ ayamantarākathā udapādi —
MN 125
atha kho jayaseno rājakumāro jaṅghāvihāraṃ anucaṅkamamāno anuvicaramāno yena aciravato samaṇuddeso tenupasaṅkami;

example: MN 94 anu-vicara: wandering around walking exercise, cankama = walking meditation

atha kho ghoṭamukho brāhmaṇo jaṅghāvihāraṃ anucaṅkamamāno anuvicaramāno yena khemiyambavanaṃ tenupasaṅkami.
As he was [158] walking and wandering for exercise, he came to the Khemiya Mango Grove.
tena kho pana samayena āyasmā udeno abbhokāse caṅkamati.
At the time the venerable Udena was walking up and down in the open.

SN 35.113, SN 46.6

SN 35.113
upasaṅkamitvā parito parito kuṭikāya anucaṅkamanti anuvicaranti uccāsaddā mahāsaddā kānici kānici seleyyakāni karonti —
SN 46.6
tassa mayhaṃ, bho gotama, pacchābhattaṃ bhuttapātarāsassa ayamācāro hoti — ārāmena ārāmaṃ uyyānena uyyānaṃ anucaṅkamāmi anuvicarāmi.

AN 3.35, AN 5.58, AN 9.3

AN 3.35
atha kho hatthako āḷavako jaṅghāvihāraṃ anucaṅkamamāno anuvicaramāno addasa bhagavantaṃ gomagge siṃsapāvane paṇṇasanthare nisinnaṃ.
AN 5.58
tena kho pana samayena sambahulā licchavikumārakā sajjāni dhanūni ādāya kukkurasaṅghaparivutā mahāvane anucaṅkamamānā anuvicaramānā addasu bhagavantaṃ aññatarasmiṃ rukkhamūle nisinnaṃ;
AN 9.3
addasā kho āyasmā meghiyo kimikāḷāya nadiyā tīre jaṅghāvihāraṃ anucaṅkamamāno anuvicaramāno ambavanaṃ pāsādikaṃ ramaṇīyaṃ.

KN Ud 4.1

KN Ud 4.1
addasā kho āyasmā meghiyo kimikāḷāya nadiyā tīre jaṅghāvihāraṃ anucaṅkamamāno anuvicaramāno ambavanaṃ pāsādikaṃ manuññaṃ ramaṇīyaṃ.

anuvicaritaṃ manasā, explored by the mind

AN 4.23, 4.24, 11.7, 11.8, 11.9, 11.18, 11.19, 11.20, 11.21

AN 4.23
Yaṃ, bhikkhave, sadevakassa lokassa samārakassa sabrahmakassa sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiyā pajāya sadevamanussāya diṭṭhaṃ sutaṃ mutaṃ viññātaṃ pattaṃ pariyesitaṃ anuvicaritaṃ manasā, sabbaṃ taṃ tathāgatena abhisambuddhaṃ. 2.2That’s why he’s called the ‘Realized One’. Tasmā ‘tathāgato’ti vuccati.
2.1In this world—with its gods, Māras, and Brahmās, this population with its ascetics and brahmins, its gods and humans—whatever is seen, heard, thought, cognized, searched, and explored by the mind, all that has been understood by a Realized One.
AN 4.24
Yaṃ, bhikkhave, sadevakassa lokassa samārakassa sabrahmakassa sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiyā pajāya sadevamanussāya diṭṭhaṃ sutaṃ mutaṃ viññātaṃ pattaṃ pariyesitaṃ anuvicaritaṃ manasā, tamahaṃ jānāmi.
2.1“In this world—with its gods, Māras and Brahmās, this population with its ascetics and brahmins, its gods and humans—whatever is seen, heard, thought, cognized, searched, and explored by the mind: that I know.
AN 11.7
“Siyā nu kho, bhante, bhikkhuno tathārūpo samādhipaṭilābho yathā neva pathaviyaṃ pathavisaññī assa, na āpasmiṃ āposaññī assa, na tejasmiṃ tejosaññī assa, na vāyasmiṃ vāyosaññī assa, na ākāsānañcāyatane ākāsānañcāyatanasaññī assa, na viññāṇañcāyatane viññāṇañcāyatanasaññī assa, na ākiñcaññāyatane ākiñcaññāyatanasaññī assa, na nevasaññānāsaññāyatane nevasaññānāsaññāyatanasaññī assa, na idhaloke idhalokasaññī assa, na paraloke paralokasaññī assa, yampidaṃ diṭṭhaṃ sutaṃ mutaṃ viññātaṃ pattaṃ pariyesitaṃ anuvicaritaṃ manasā, tatrāpi na saññī assa; saññī ca pana assā”ti?
2.1“Could it be, sir, that a mendicant might gain a state of immersion like this? They wouldn’t perceive earth in earth, water in water, fire in fire, or air in air. And they wouldn’t perceive the dimension of infinite space in the dimension of infinite space, the dimension of infinite consciousness in the dimension of infinite consciousness, the dimension of nothingness in the dimension of nothingness, or the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception in the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception. They wouldn’t perceive this world in this world, or the other world in the other world. And they wouldn’t perceive what is seen, heard, thought, cognized, attained, sought, or explored by the mind. And yet they would still perceive.”
AN 11.8
similar
AN 11.9 in jhana
So vicikicchaṃyeva antaraṃ katvā jhāyati pajjhāyati nijjhāyati avajjhāyati.
2.15Harboring doubt within they meditate and concentrate and contemplate and ruminate.
So pathavimpi nissāya jhāyati, āpampi nissāya jhāyati, tejampi nissāya jhāyati, vāyampi nissāya jhāyati, ākāsānañcāyatanampi nissāya jhāyati, viññāṇañcāyatanampi nissāya jhāyati, ākiñcaññāyatanampi nissāya jhāyati, nevasaññānāsaññāyatanampi nissāya jhāyati, idhalokampi nissāya jhāyati, paralokampi nissāya jhāyati, yampidaṃ diṭṭhaṃ sutaṃ mutaṃ viññātaṃ pattaṃ pariyesitaṃ anuvicaritaṃ manasā, tampi nissāya jhāyati. 2.17That’s how a wild colt meditates. Evaṃ kho, saddha, purisakhaḷuṅkajhāyitaṃ hoti.
2.16They meditate dependent on earth, water, fire, and air. They meditate dependent on the dimension of infinite space, infinite consciousness, nothingness, or neither perception nor non-perception. They meditate dependent on this world or the other world. They meditate dependent on what is seen, heard, thought, cognized, attained, sought, or explored by the mind.
AN 11.18, .19, .20, .21 similar to AN 11.7

DN 29

Yañca kho, cunda, sadevakassa lokassa samārakassa sabrahmakassa sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiyā pajāya sadevamanussāya diṭṭhaṃ sutaṃ mutaṃ viññātaṃ pattaṃ pariyesitaṃ anuvicaritaṃ manasā, sabbaṃ tathāgatena abhisambuddhaṃ,
In this world—with its gods, Māras, and Brahmās, this population with its ascetics and brahmins, its gods and humans—whatever is seen, heard, thought, cognized, searched, and explored by the mind, all that has been understood by the Realized One.

KN Iti

KN It, 4. catukkanipāto, 13. lokasuttaṃ (KN 4.112), para. 3 ⇒
“yaṃ, bhikkhave, sadevakassa lokassa samārakassa sabrahmakassa sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiyā pajāya sadevamanussāya diṭṭhaṃ sutaṃ mutaṃ viññātaṃ pattaṃ pariyesitaṃ anuvicaritaṃ manasā yasmā taṃ tathāgatena abhisambuddhaṃ, tasmā tathāgatoti vuccati.

MN 22

MN 22
yampi taṃ diṭṭhaṃ sutaṃ mutaṃ viññātaṃ pattaṃ pariyesitaṃ, anuvicaritaṃ manasā tampi ‘etaṃ mama, esohamasmi, eso me attā’ti samanupassati;
He regards what is seen, heard, sensed, cognized, encountered, sought, mentally pondered thus: ‘This is mine, this I am, this is my self.ʹ258

SN 24.1

SN 24.1
‘na vātā vāyanti, na najjo sandanti, na gabbhiniyo vijāyanti, na candimasūriyā udenti vā apenti vā esikaṭṭhāyiṭṭhitā’”ti?
‘Winds don’t blow; rivers don’t flow; pregnant women don’t give birth; the moon and stars neither rise nor set, but stand firm like a pillar’?”
“No hetaṃ, bhante”.
“No, sir.”
“Yampidaṃ diṭṭhaṃ sutaṃ mutaṃ viññātaṃ pattaṃ pariyesitaṃ anuvicaritaṃ manasā tampi niccaṃ vā aniccaṃ vā”ti?
“That which is seen, heard, thought, cognized, searched, and explored by the mind: is that permanent or impermanent?”

SN 24.2, 3, 4, 5, 6 7 8 9 10 18 similar to 24.1


#9

All of Bhante Sujato’s sutta translations, all the nikayas, you can view his English and Pali either side by side, or line by line interleaving. You just have to configure the settings to show that. My translations with pali+english side by side, are done by hand so they are doing the best to match word for word in order. That is of course time consuming so I’ve only done it for what i consider the critical suttas worth memorizing, or short excerpts worth memorizing or of doctrinal importance.


#10

Abhidhamma agrees with my observation that there doesn’t seem to be any real difference between upa-vicara and anu-vicara. Even just plain “cara” , “searching”, seems to just borrow from the physical world of walking/wandering/exploring/searching.

abhidhamma line from first and second jhana commentary, on what V&V’s vicāra means:

yo cāro vicāro anuvicāro upavicāro
That which is searching, examining, constant examining,

the full section:

Abhdhamma Vibhanga 12, V&V in jhānas

first jhāna V&V, (J2 same def)

♦ 565. “savitakkaṃ savicāran”ti
“Accompanied by initial application, accompanied by sustained application” means:
atthi vitakko, atthi vicāro.
There is initial application; there is sustained application.
♦ tattha katamo vitakko?
Therein what is initial application?
yo takko vitakko saṅkappo
That which is mentation, thinking, thought,
appanā byappanā
fixation, focussing,
cetaso abhiniropanā sammāsaṅkappo —
application of the mind, right thought.
ayaṃ vuccati “vitakko”.
This is called initial application.
♦ tattha katamo vicāro?
Therein what is sustained application?
yo cāro vicāro anuvicāro upavicāro
That which is searching, examining, constant examining,
cittassa anusandhanatā anupekkhanatā —
scrutinizing, constant connection of (and) constant inspection by consciousness.
ayaṃ vuccati vicāro.
This is called sustained application.

that's not my translation above

V&V as "initial application" and "sustained application".

I would follow either V.Bodhi or V.Thanissaro for V&V, directed thought & evaluation (of said thought).


#11

For now I translate vicāra as divergence and vicara as diverge which seems to make sense in the contexts where I’ve found them.


#12

Could vicara be translated into ‘contemplating’ when thinking re the eye etc.?


#13

In the context of the “eye” sense:

In an exhaustive search for vitakkavicara, all 50 results used the long form vicārā, which would be the contemplation of the diversity of what is connected to what is seen.

This leads me to think that vicara with the short “a” would only be used for the medical condition known as “lazy-eye” or “wandering eye”.


#14

The eye- :eye: Cakkhu. Cakkhu sutta.


#15

Ah! Thanks for that reference. I was curious about the followers by faith in DN33.

And yes, maybe vicaracakkhu would be wandering eye. :eyes: :grin:


#16

How’s this: investigating :eyes:!