Inherent Inequality and The Four Imponderables

Hi Everyone,

I recently have been looking at the world as if inequality is inherent to existence. While this may not be so apparent in the context of Pratītyasamutpāda. However, I think in day to day life there is a strong argument for it. If not it being totally apparent.

A few questions I have in regards to inequality as inherent to existence:

  • Is existence inherently unequal?
  • Does the Buddhist belief in reincarnation try to emphasize equality?
  • What are the implications of karma if in fact living in an inherently unequal existence?

After a quick search of Wikipedia I think these questions fall into the context of The Four Imponderables as identified in the Acintita Sutta, Anguttara Nikaya 4.77 Acintya means "incomprehensible, surpassing thought, unthinkable, beyond thought.

The Four Imponderables are:

  • The Buddha-range of the Buddhas [i.e., the range of powers a Buddha develops as a result of becoming a Buddha];
  • The jhana-range of one absorbed in jhana [i.e., the range of powers that one may obtain while absorbed in jhana];
  • The [precise working out of the] results of kamma;
  • Speculation about [the origin, etc., of] the cosmos is an imponderable that is not to be speculated about.

Why should I not have thoughts of the unthinkable, incomprehensible, impenetrable, that which transcends the limits of thinking and over which therefore one should not ponder? Why is it said these thoughts are beyond the limits of thinking?

Final question:
Is the Buddhist view of karma and reincarnation dependent on not questioning The Four Imponderables?


Dear Alex,

The venerable monastics are sure to offer an answer to your inquiry but while we wait, allow me to offer you a reply from my own practice and understanding albeit very simple. From the way you posted your inquiry, I am not sure if you are a practicing Buddhist or just exploring so I will answer as best as I could not to confuse you.

“Inequality” among humans is not the problem here. Because of our ego we think we are better, same, or less, we create the problem. We compare and judge ourselves. We tend to want more and not to be content. All of us are pretty much the same biologically except a few modifications in genitalia for the male in female and skin coloring. Even our minds are very similar as we experience all sorts of emotions and feelings. Perhaps you should look at existence this way: Life/existence comes with problems and that its nature. That is a fact. No force or being can ever change that.

I can tell you from my own practice that the four “imponderables” you listed are not conducive to the path and practice. It just takes away precious time from the training. Anyone can debate and argue over such things and in the end, they would have not reached any solid conclusion. The Buddha was a very pragmatic teacher and not a theorist. He only gave teachings that can be experienced through applied practice . And through that experience one can gain confidence. But I will humor you in answering the four imponderables (please forgive if it’s a bit cheeky, as practicing Buddhists tend to be cheeky):

  1. Buddha-range of Buddhas: Only a Buddha can know a Buddha’s abilities. It’s like comparing an average computer user to the world’s top computer programmer.

  2. Jhana-range: To able to go “in to” the jhanas, one has have mastered the basics of meditation and can maintain a still and clear mind for long periods. It is no mere task at all.
    It’s like comparing a kindergartner to someone with a PhD. Even if someone told you that hey have psychic powers anyway, would you believe it? Is it important to have psychic powers for both the wielder and the world at large?

  3. Precise working of the result of kamma: Who can really say it is the result of kamma when we live in a world that has seasons, accidents, sickness and with other beings? What’s in the past is in the past. It’s more important for a Buddhist to worry about what are we doing right now? It’s like someone worrying about what s/he is going to eat tomorrow but too lazy to fend for her/his self today.

  4. Origin of the cosmos: Who really wants to know about this? With all the wars, conflicts, hunger, discrimination, and environmental destruction we are experiencing, would knowing the origin of the cosmos really help the problem at hand?

Lastly, what practicing Buddhists worry about is what they can do to alleviate the sufferings of their immediate surroundings as we do live in this world, as whatever wholesome deeds we do become our solid support and foundations in our spiritual practice.

Hope this helps you out.

May you be free.

with añjali,



Hi Russell,

Thanks for the reply. I find it to be a very good example of the atypical Buddhist response when someone asks contextual questions that fall within the boundaries of The Four Imponderables.

If being critical (which the questions being asked are) there are many apparent generalizations in your answers about inequality. Also the method of looking at life/existence as being that of problems, which no force or being can do anything about is apathetic at best.

I am in complete agreement with you about the four “imponderables” not being conducive to the path. My questions and specifically the final question… Is the Buddhist view of karma and reincarnation dependent on not questioning The Four Imponderables?

Questions the validity of the path itself.

[quote=“Alex, post:3, topic:358, full:true”]
Hi Russell,

Thanks for the reply. I find it to be a very good example of the atypical Buddhist response when someone asks contextual questions that fall within the boundaries of The Four Imponderables.[/quote]

You’re very welcome. Not sure what you meant by atypical but I’ll take that as a complement albeit I feel that you meant something else by that :smiley:

[quote=“Alex, post:3, topic:358, full:true”]
If being critical (which the questions being asked are) there are many apparent generalizations in your answers about inequality. Also the method of looking at life/ existence as being that of problems, which no force or being can do anything about is apathetic at best.[/quote]

My apologies for the many apparent generalizations. I only answered with regards to us humans. Also, I don’t think my response was apathetic. I stated that “Life/existence comes with problems and that its nature. That is a fact. No force or being can ever change that.” How you got to apathy from that I am not sure. I merely stated the reality “life/existence comes with problems”. Can you change that reality?

If the need to have shelter, food, clothing, going through sickness, accidents, discrimination (age, gender, nationality, ethnicity, sexuality), wars/conflicts, modern slavery (sexual and labor), natural disasters, losing loved ones, and death aren’t problems to you then that’s your own view. I am just being realistic with my own observations. If you really believe they aren’t problems, kindly tell the people who are suffering the listed problems above, that what they’re experiencing, is not a problem. Would you tell that to a third world sex slave whose been horrendously raped many times in a single night that what they experienced isn’t a problem?

But because we understand and know there are problems, we try to make do what we can to alleviate the situation. Sometimes we can do something, sometimes we can’t. Honestly, its more apathetic to think that such problems above do not exist and not part of life.

[quote=“Alex, post:3, topic:358, full:true”]
I am in complete agreement with you about the four “imponderables” not being conducive to the path. My questions and specifically the final question… Is the Buddhist view of karma and reincarnation dependent on not questioning The Four Imponderables? [/quote]

Ah… You should’ve just say that in the first place rather than going roundabout way (as to how you really got to the idea that Buddhists view of kamma and rebirth relies on not questioning the “four imponderables” I don’t know). No it is not - any practicing Buddhist will know that. And it is something that I can’t convince you unless you practice and train.

Here is the path as the Teacher had laid it down:
-Right View
-Right Intent
-Right Speech
-Right Action
-Right Livelihood
-Right Effort
-Right Mindfulness
-Right Samādhi

The Noble Eightfold Path is the only path and practice I know of. Is there any other? The only questions practicing Buddhist should ask is whether their practice is in line with the path and whether their wholesomeness have increased. In the path, there are causes and results. We create the causes that leads to the results. The path is natural.

My answers may not be the answers you want to hear but it is what it is.

Anyhow, I made good kamma by trying to assist. That’s good enough for me.

As I’ve mentioned on my first post, the monastics are sure to give you an answer. :smile:

with añjali,

Hi Alex

Okay, quick answers to the first three and please understand, these are just my opinons…

  1. Yes. If it was inherently equal, then well…it wouldn’t be the world that we hear about on the news. And there’d be no mortgages, no princesses, no landlords…no hierarchies… It’s difference. It’s not sameness. And it’s about experiencing different qualities. And it’s not necessarily anything to do with kamma…I mean, two gardners have trees and a gale blows one down…it’s just natural forces. Movement, change, difference…yeah…inherent inequality and we experience it cos we exist.

  2. No. Although, yes as well…because we’re all equal in the sense that we’re the heirs of our karma

  3. you’re responsible for yourself right now and you’ll shape your future existence

  4. Wow Alex, this is a very imponderable question about the imponderables!! :wink: I’ve been trying to get my head around this last question and so have been playing with rephrasing it…

Will our views on kamma and rebirth depend on being uninterested in these 4…hmmm… that’s like saying that, if we were interested in them, we’d look at kamma and rebirth differently? If this is what you’re asking, may I ask why/how you think the views on kamma and rebirth would alter? And how would this alter the path and its goal? If you could answer these and show where you’re coming from, it might be easier for my poor little mind to understand what exactly is being asked…

Going on my limited understanding of your question, personally no, I can’t see a relationship between the two…

I don’t think the Buddha thought, you know, ‘heh, heh, heh…I’ll tell my disciples not to contemplate these 4 things so that they don’t really understand the deep stuff…heh, heh, heh’… I mean, why would he? He was supposed to be compassionate and helpful…why would he hold anything back if his motivation was compassion and his understanding was rooted in truth and wisdom.

It’s interesting your introduction mentioned Dependent Origination…I’m not sure how inequality is not apparent within the context of this teaching. It seems to me, it’s right there in the middle of it. I mean, according to how you feel, you act, according to how you act, you create your future…surely this is a process that is going to create inequality because we’re all going to feel differently about things and we’re all going to act differently too and all the outcomes are going to be different…the various combinations and permutations could be quite endless…heaps of inequality.

I think if you got stuck into pondering these 4 in a big way…you’d be actively pursuing a mind state that was going round in circles…so perhaps your personal view of Kamma and Rebirth would be impacted by this…

It’s funny…I just now had the thought that what you’re asking is about whether we are asked not to question!! Which is a funny thing to ask about Buddhism which is so much about questioning. I wonder if these 4 were called imponderables because an intellectual question could not be satisfactorily answered in mere words… Hmmm… no that can’t be it… I wonder…if perhaps they’re suggested as pointless to contemplate, because…well…they really are pointless to contemplate…as in, no practical use will come of them and the only result will be endless ruminating…

Anyway, take care and hope you get the answers that help you in your path. With metta and gratitude for the fun of attempting to get my head around your last question!!! Heh, heh… :slight_smile:

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i think existence IS inherently unequal because everyone has their own kammic background

so everybody is equal in a sense that everybody is a subject and a heir if his/her own kamma, everybody reap what they sow

but since the seeds are different for everybody so is the harvest

we’re given equal opportunities but the ways we dispose of them produce unequal results

but acknowledgment of inequality as being inherent immediately makes us face the tough question of whether inequality in society really requires amendments and is worth fighting against, whether societal inequality is not simply a manifestation, and an agent so to speak, of well earned kammic results, which are not to be messed with due to futility of this task

regarding the imponderables Cula Malunkyovada sutta (MN 63) is in order

Why have I left that undeclared? Because it is unbeneficial, it does not belong to the fundamentals of the holy life, it does not lead to disenchantment, to dispassion, to cessation, to peace, to direct knowledge, to enlightenment, to Nibbāna. That is why I have left it undeclared.


Dear Alex

With respect, I would like to offer another angle on this:

Sometimes, just the act of saying, yes there are terrible inequalities in the world and we should therefore do our Dhamma practice, draws criticism…like someone’s said, heck, I don’t care about others and I ain’t gonna lift a finger to help!!

That’s not it at all. It’s just saying, there are terrible things going on, it’s a motivation to Practice. I’m gonna do my Practice.

The person saying this might also be doing their bit, within their capacity, to help alleviate some of the pain in the world around them. As I’m sure Russ does, and especially because he takes his Practice so much to heart. It’s not just about time on the cushion or chair…no Practitioner ever views it like that. It’s not meant to be viewed like that. It’s supposed to be a soft, kindly, compassionate path which is buoyed along by service to others.

With metta.

Dear LXNDR and all

Yes indeed Lxndr and lovely sutta link too :pray: thank you so much.

Though I’m not so sure about the whole futility thing… I mean, the story of Venerable Patacara comes to mind. She was driven mad by grief. She was this naked, mad woman who came into the assembly where the Buddha was teaching… The Buddha could’ve said, ‘oh it’s just her kamma, nothing to be done for her…just kick her out.’

But he didn’t. He intervened. He changed her circumstances through his own actions. His compassion and service to her bore great fruit and allowed her to see that she could be responsible for herself and thereby be free from grief and madness.

It’s obvious in the world, that helping others, well…it helps… Perhaps there are instances when no amount of intervention helps a person or situation…like others trying to help an alcoholic. But, with enough patient exposure to alternate conditionings, the alcoholic may slowly see that he/she can be responsible for him/herself and therefore begin to make the kamma to change the addiction kamma.

For me, the crucial, practical point about the teaching of kamma, is that I am responsible for my future…my speech, writing, intentions, decisions, actions, responses, reactions…they matter deeply…they grow ‘me’ in a particular direction. The crucial point about rebirth for me…is that there is a vastness to existence, that I, living in my narrow mind (not putting myself down…but I’ve hardly got a comprehensive birds eye view on rebirth) haven’t yet experienced and seen and felt for myself…and I want to move towards a place where I have enough vastness within, to experience this…'cos that immensity will surely shape the very fabric of how kamma functions. Cos as I understand Paticca Samupadda…it’s a process going across lives…kamma means very little within just this life…cause and effect…big deal…factor in rebirth…well…then it is a massive deal…the vastness and endlessness of the implications are truly frightening and the fact that we seem to keep forgetting that we existed before is rather disturbing - stupidity goes with forgetfulness…and stupidity goes with harmfulness…and pain goes with that.

When I think about the translation of the word ditthi…it’s View. Like the View out of a window. I can be in a house surrounded by snow capped mountains on one side, desert on another, hills on another, the ocean on another…with windows and views on to each possible angle. And there are no doors. So to go and explore what I can see, I need to climb out the windows. But if I don’t first stand and even look out of a window at a particular View, I’m not even going to know that’s it an option for further exploration. But once I’ve looked at a particular view, then I can choose to climb out and explore further. First I need to look. If one doesn’t at least remain open to dependent orgination spanning more than one life, one will never even see the view, and never get a chance to really explore and investigate it and find out what it feels, smells, sounds like for oneself.

The 8 Fold Path is incredibly specific. It’s almost narrow in it’s specificity. It’s like that because it’s geared for a very particular reason. To see and experience kamma and rebirth and dependent origination…among other things.

Phew! It doesn’t often happen that I inspire myself silly…but I’ve just gone and done it! Thus…with many thanks to all you for this most interesting and appreciated discussion…I’m off to do a bit of meditation!

With much metta and thanks!


hi Kay, ‘futility’ meaning that one cannot change the vipaka, the kammic results, provided that inequality is exactly that

and if so, it’s possible to eradicate aspects of inequality from a society as a medium of manifestation of kammic results, but then they will start being manifested through something else, because bad kamma still has to find its expression

Hi Kay,

Thank you for the response. :laughing:

Would appear we are in agreement of existence being inherently unequal.

I find reincarnation to be the most imponderable question of all.

Appreciate this view. The 3rd question is an attempt to get the right view of karma if in fact living in an inherently unequal world.

‘heh, heh, heh’ - the Buddha


If looking at my questions in the larger perspective of Pratītyasamutpāda I am in agreement with you. On a day to day basis I do not think we are given equal opportunities.

This is more or less my conclusion.

Is the Buddhist view of karma and reincarnation dependent on not questioning The Four
Imponderables? It would appear so.

In a most extreme Buddhist example “Unintentional killing creates no kamma.”

as far as i understand every action of an unawakened worldling produces kammic results

it’s just there’re 4 types of them: dark, bright, dark & bright, neither dark nor bright

Kukkuravatika sutta (MN 57), Ariyamagga sutta (AN 4.235)

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I’m not entirely sure what this topic is aimed at but I’d like to add a few thoughts.

The fact that there’s inequality in the world does not mean that nothing can or should be done about it. The Buddha clearly said that not everything (good or bad) that happens to a person happens because of their kamma. And even if something bad happened to someone as a result of bad kamma that doesn’t mean we shouldn’t try to alleviate the situation if we’re in a position to do so…kamma isn’t an all-powerful vengeful god dishing out punishment we should stay out of the way of.

If we are in a position to catch a falling baby, we shouldn’t stand idly by thinking: ‘Well, that’s the way of gravity, he should have been more careful’ or ‘That baby was probably a baby thrower in a past life…after he falls, things will be in equilibrium again’.


lol lol lol… no no no!! I was saying the Buddha wouldn’t have said ‘heh, heh, heh’ … I mean it’s almost equal to a quiet evil laugh accompanied by some hand rubbing…

You know what…I’m changing my mind…

If the translation of ‘imponderable’ is correct…well…‘pondering’…that’s just another wording for thinking…you know…with plenty of thought type sankharas…

Well…it seems to me…these four can’t possibly be understood by our little weak thinking based minds.

Perhaps by powerful, jhana habituated, vast minds… So the whole understanding coming from personal experience thing… Except for most of us, the first ‘imponderable’ is not likely to be experienced…there’ll probably be an exceptionally tiny minority of us who might head that way though and know what that’s like…

As for rebirth being an imponderable…it is with my restless sankhara filled mind…but it’s pretty clear from the suttas that the Buddha says it’s perfertly possible for us to experience the the truth of this knowledge for ourselves…

Also going by external sources, the number of cases that are out there, through hypnosis or little kids remembering stuff…that’s been verified… And then, the number of medical stories of people technically/medically ‘dying’ and then coming back…suggests that while one’s ‘body is dead’ one’s mind is separated from it…the fact that one’s mind is separated from it, suggests an independence from the body…which suggests not only the possibility, but the reality of existing outside of this body. I mean the stories of people seeing what’s going on between the doctors and nurses while they are ‘dead’ and then coming back and talking about it…really does suggest separation from mind and body… I mean if that’s not verification…can you imagine the looks on the doctors and nurses faces? :slight_smile: These kinds of post death verification conversations suggest that the mind is there looking on, separate from the body…one is not a by product of the brain and gone and then kick started…cos if the brain’s dead for a bit, and you were a by product, you wouldn’t be there to hear and see all the stuff going on while you were brain dead.

I’m truly sorry for anyone who considers rebirth to be imponderable…heh, heh… :wink: I’m sorry, for saying that. But it’s just how I feel. You see, for me it opens up a whole vista, another way of viewing which is richer. It’s certainly useful to ponder…it has the practical usefulness of allowing other aspects of the path to be reflectively (so still using thoughts) contemplated and opening up to other ways of viewing sila, dependent orignation and so on… beginning with this right view, the rest of the path evolves in a way which it wouldn’t without it…

Here’s an example of a personal story that someone (the actual person this happened to) told Ajahn Brahm. An Aussie chap (can’t remember why) went and had hypnosis and ended up clearly recalling a life (with names and other details) he’d lived down in the south west. Anyway, afterwards, he went off to check it all out and found actual records…with names and dates and even the place where he’d lived. Ajahn Brahm said this guy’d been a sort of Buddhist before. But after this, he saw the links for himself and become a much more committed Buddhist who saw the value of sila much more deeply.

I don’t think it’s necessary to ‘believe’ in rebirth. But I do think it’s important to be open to it’s possibility. As soon as one closes that window, saying, ‘nope, not possible’…well, that view’s gone, one can’t even climb out of it to explore it thoroughly. As soon as one says ‘nope, not possible’, one makes it so. As soon as one says, ‘nope, not possible’, one is subscribing not to deep knowledge, but to simply, another belief - only this time, closing the door to having it challenged. It’s best to keep an open mind I reckon.

Having said I felt sorry for those who close this door, (not saying that anyone has…'cos Alex saying he finds it imponderable doesn’t mean he’s saying he’s closed a door…) But in saying this I also want to apologise to all those who feel this way…I don’t mean to put down your important right to believe and view and choose how you see and hypothesise about life and so on… I think it’s so very, very important to honour people’s choices in this respect. (For spirituality is only developed by responding to our own lived moments.) I felt I needed to express myself fully though here in this little post…I felt I wanted to spill my heart out in to these words…that’s why I said I felt sorry for anyone who felt it was too imponderable… But I do most sincerely ask forgiveness if offense was caused.

I’m mean sure, having a background, working hypothesis that rebirth might be true and being open to it, is quite different to constantly thinking about it and ascribing all manner of things to it. It’s obvious that it’s not helpful to speculate on it and think about it most of the time…I mean…when chopping carrots or listening deeply to a friend in need…best to be present!

Much metta

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Hi again…yes, I see what you mean. But I wonder if kamma is that linear. I mean remember the teaspoon of salt simile. Also I could intervene and that act of intervention might cause a supportive condition for the person I’m helping to recognise that he/she can help themselves. Or the act of intervention might mean that some other good kamma comes to fruit for that person… I think it’s more complicated than simple. Though I do think in some situations, we intervene when the person being interfered with doesn’t want our help…sometimes we need to re-think our interventions…

Hi again…yes that’ll be because in Buddhism, unlike Jainism, the mental act of kamma is the most important thing…not the physical act. In Jainism, apparently some monks and nuns use a fan to sweep the path so they don’t step on insects. Though I wonder if the fan kills a few? Hmm…and what if an insect happens to walk under one’s foot? The Buddha said in the suttas that the mental aspect, the intention, was primary. So if I’m walking in the dark and I step on a snail…I know in my heart I didn’t mean to kill it. My heart feels clear on this account. I do feel very, very, very sorry for the little creature and might speak kindly to it, sending it kind vibes and even cover it over with a leaf (don’t know if it helps but I hope it does). I’m trying to minimise the harm I’ve unintentionally caused and indeed, send the poor little thing as much comfort as I can…so even having the intention to maximise any possible good in that situation. So I don’t feel the same way as I would feel in my heart, if I’d gone looking for it and deliberately stepped on it. Now if I’d accidentally stepped on it and then proceeded to berate myself for not having lived up to some unreachable high standard, then I’d be creating the intention to hold myself up to an impossible standard and be hard on myself…that’d be bad kamma and I’d feel it straight away. Also I’d be creating an unkind vibe around this poor creature which is in it’s death process and really could use as much nice energy around it as possible.

Here’s a nice touchy feely story…well…I think it’s nice…some might think I’m nuts…but that’s okay too… :smile:

I was once driving home late at night along a country road. As I came 'round a bend, a big bunny jumped out. I saw it in the headlights. I heard the thud. I was horrified. I felt I needed to do something to allieviate the suffering of the bunny, out there, alone at night, dying or dead. So I stopped the car, found the bunny, saw it was certainly dead or going to be very soon. Yet, feeling that perhaps it’s little being was still about, in it’s death process, I hung around for a good 15 minutes…conjuring up happiness in my heart…remembering all the good I’d done to help promote this feeling of happiness to arise…remembering all the inspiring aspects of my faith…to help really bring up the sense of happiness and I directed it, in words and thought, towards the poor bunny…trying to help it along its way. I felt, strongly felt…not thought…that I helped. To this day, I feel that. When you believe in rebirth…such moments take on a different flavour. Death is not the most important thing. Kindness and helping can ocurr even at death and hopefully for that bunny, kindness and happiness, travelled with him/her to his/her next life. Seeing through the view of the rebirth window makes a difference to how we act, even when death has/is occurred/occurring. Rebirth might not be real. But if it is, I might have well made it easier for the bunny… The consequences of it being real…far outweigh those of it being unreal. I mean, if it’s real, I am a slightly crazy, kind hearted person who’s grown her own kindness, and, I may really have helped another being on it’s way. If its not real, I’m still a slightly crazy kind hearted person who’s grown her own kindness and no harm done. The consequences of rebirth being real, are distinctly different, to the ones that exist if it’s not. And as to acting through the view of rebirth, well, if I didn’t believe in rebirth, when i saw bunny was really a goner, I would’ve just driven off (though I might have stayed a shorter while, to offer a little comforting vibe for what remained of this life)…and if rebirth is real…well…a chance missed to help another being along a bit more…to create as nice and as peaceful a vibe as I possibly could, within which the death process could occur.

This was a long time ago. I’ve only ever shared this little story with my partner, who thought I was sweet. :slight_smile: I’ve never shared it with anyone else, being convinced that most would think me a complete nutter… But here, I suddenly remembered it, and feel, it might be nice to share it.

With metta.

This topic in part questions if inequality is inherent to existence and if so how does this effect karma.

LXNDR said it very well - acknowledgment of inequality as being inherent immediately makes us face the tough question of whether inequality in society really requires amendments and is worth fighting against, whether societal inequality is not simply a manifestation, and an agent so to speak, of well earned kammic results, which are not to be messed with due to futility of this task.

Helping people to an extent is possible in an inherently unequal world. But just like we can only jump so high, or that it hurts when we hit the ground, due to gravity. There are worldly limitation on how much help people can give to others in an inherently unequal world.

The Buddha was born a prince, who in my view regardless of going into the homeless life at age 29, never had to deal on a personal level with the inequality inherent in most people’s lives. Well other than the advantages it would of brought him.

I’m not saying he was not a wonderful teacher or that his teachings are not beautiful.

Do you believe in ghosts? A lot of people see those to. :scream:

Have pondered rebirth extensively. Dependent Origination as well. Both are interesting concepts.

Agree that it is important to be open to possibilities. You never really know unless you try. My personal 10 + years of exploring Buddhism has brought me to these questions.

  • Is existence inherently unequal?
  • Does the Buddhist belief in reincarnation try to emphasize equality?
  • What are the implications of karma if in fact living in an inherently unequal existence?

Which after further research / contemplation the above three questions seem to be in the context of the Acintita Sutta, Anguttara Nikaya 4.77 and makes me question…

  • Is the Buddhist view of karma and reincarnation dependent on not questioning The Four Imponderables?