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Jhāna is satipaṭṭhāna, and satipaṭṭhāna is Jhāna


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Jhāna is Satipaṭṭhāna


abbreviations used frequently in this article
4j = 4 jhānas = sammā samādhi (right concentration)
4sp = 4 Satipaṭṭhāna = sammā sati (right mindfulness)
MN 10 = Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta

Jhāna is satipaṭṭhāna, and satipaṭṭhāna is Jhāna.
There's a popular misconception that 4j is a completely different entity than 4sp. In a technical sense, they are different, but if we look carefully at many passsages in the EBT, we'll see that 4j and 4sp not only overlap, but interpenetrate each other to the point where you can't separate them.
It's important to understand this fundamental point, because later Buddhist traditions try to establish that 4j and 4sp are very different practices in order to justify their narrow, sectarian, and overly complex theory underlying their meditation systems. While later innovations have their merits, we have to carefully evaluate their claims of exclusivity when they deny the authenticity and legitimacy of other interpretations of Jhāna that follow a simple straightforward reading of the EBT.

MN 10 meditation exercises under kāya anupassana

1. mindful of various bodily postures
2. sato and sampajano in doing physical and mental activities
3. first 4 steps of 16 APS (anapanasati) + simile of lathe
4. 31 body parts + simile of bag of beans
5. 4 elements + simile of butcher
6. 9 stages of corpse decay

this insight refrain follows each exercise:

(b.bodhi) “In this way he abides contemplating the body as a body internally,
or he abides contemplating the body as a body externally,
or he abides contemplating the body as a body both internally and externally.
Or else he abides contemplating in the body its nature of arising,
or he abides contemplating in the body its nature of vanishing,
or he abides contemplating in the body its nature of both arising and vanishing.
Or else mindfulness that ‘there is a body’ is simply established in him to the extent necessary for bare knowledge and mindfulness.
And he abides independent,
not clinging to anything in the world.
That is how a bhikkhu abides contemplating the body as a body.

MN 119 kāyagata sati sutta

deals with the same 6 meditation exercises as MN 10, plus they add the 4 jhanas with their similes from AN 5.28
1. mindful of various bodily postures
2. sato and sampajano in doing physical and mental activities
3. first 4 steps of 16 APS (anapanasati) + simile of lathe
4. 31 body parts + simile of bag of beans
5. 4 elements + simile of butcher
6. 9 stages of corpse decay
1st jhana and simile
2nd jhana and simile
3rd jhana and simile
4th jhana and simile

samādhi ekodi refrain

instead of the insight refrain from MN 10, there's a samadhi and ekodi refrain for each exercise:
tassa evaṃ appamattassa ātāpino pahitattassa viharato ye gehasitā sarasaṅkappā te pahīyanti. tesaṃ pahānā ajjhattameva cittaṃ santiṭṭhati, sannisīdati ekodi hoti samādhiyati. evampi, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāyagatāsatiṃ bhāveti.
As he abides thus diligent, ardent, and resolute, his memories and intentions based on the household life are abandoned; with their abandoning his mind becomes steadied internally, quieted, brought to singleness, and concentrated. That is how a bhikkhu develops mindfulness of the body.

Let me repeat this since it might not have sunk in

cittaṃ santiṭṭhati, sannisīdati ekodi hoti samādhiyati is part fo the refrain for all 10 exercises, even #1 and #2 which include walking, talking, pissing, etc. The words ekodi and samadhi are hallmarks of 2nd jhana.
And look here in this sutta where that refrain is explicitly tied to 4 jhanas:

MN 122  sannisīdati ekodi hoti samādhiyati = do 4 jhanas

“kathañcānanda, bhikkhu
And how does he 
ajjhattameva cittaṃ
steady his mind internally,
saṇṭhapeti sannisādeti
quiet it,
ekodiṃ karoti
bring it to singleness,
samādahati?
and concentrate it?
idhānanda, bhikkhu
8.“Here, Ānanda,
vivicceva kāmehi
quite secluded from sensual pleasures,
vivicca akusalehi dhammehi ..pe ...
secluded from unwholesome states,
paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati ...pe ...
a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the first jhāna…
dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ...
the second jhāna…
tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ...
the third jhāna…
catutthaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati.
the fourth jhāna,... he enters and abides in.

satipatthana = 4 jhana

Maybe not exactly equal in some technical senses, but from a practical point of view, surveying a broad range of suttas in the EBT world including pali and agamas,  where satipatthana, samadhi, ekaggata, ekodi, upekkha, sato and sampajano collide, there are no clear boundaries beween right mindfulness, right effort, right concentration.

MN 10 parallel in Ekottarika-āgama dhamma anupasssana

not convinced? look at this MN 10 parallel in Ekottarika-āgama dhammanupasssana
unlike the MA version of MN 10 which puts 4 jhanas under kaya anupassana, EA puts it under dhamma anupasssana, and adds the insight refrain for each jhana similar to MN 10. Let me repeat, jhana, satipatthana, happen simultaneously.

(excerpt from Analayo's SP perspectives)

The Ekottarika-āgama account of contemplation of dharmas includes the attainment of the four absorptions in its description of contemplation of dharmas. The instructions present the standard description of the attainment of the four absorptions, each time followed by the suggestion that this would be a form of satipaṭṭhāna practice. The full passage reads as follows:
Again, free from craving for sensual pleasures, removing evil and unwholesome states, with [directed] awareness and [sustained] contemplation, being tranquil and mindful … one enjoys the first absorption and experiences joy in oneself. In this way, [in regard to] dharmas … one contemplates the characteristics of dharmas as a satipaṭṭhāna.
Again, discarding [directed] awareness and [sustained] contem plation, arousing joy within, the mind being unified, without [directed] awareness or [sustained] contemplation, being mindful and tranquil, with joy and at ease … one dwells in the second absorption and experiences joy in oneself. In this way, [in regard] to dharmas … one contemplates the characteristics of dharmas as a satipaṭṭhāna.
Again, mindfully discarding [joy] … one cultivates equanimity in this respect, one constantly knows and experiences pleasant feelings oneself with the body, as sought after by noble ones, with purity of equanimity and mindfulness,1 one engages in the third absorption. In this way, [in regard to] dharmas … one contemplates the characteristics of dharmas as a satipaṭṭhāna.
Again, discarding mental states of pain and pleasure and also being without sadness and joy, without pain and without pleasure, with purity of equanimity and mindfulness … one enjoys the fourth absorption. In this way, [in regard to] dharmas … one contemplates the characteristics of dharmas as a satipaṭṭhāna.
what does 3rd jhana sato and sampajano do? 4th jhana's upekkha sati parisddhim?
well now you know. sati and sampajano means just what it means under samma sati and satipatthana contexts, as the EA passage and MA parallels to MN 10 make explicit. 

now we compare to AN 6.29 udayi sutta

There are 3 really outstanding features of AN 6.29
1. for each of the 6  adhicitta practice (higher mind, synonym for samadhi), it explains its purpose
2. fourth jhana is split apart from the first 3 jhanas.
3. there's an organic, sequential temporal causal sequence here, tipped off by the 4th jhana split apart from the first 3. 
the 6 exercises in AN 6.29
first 3 jhanas, done for the purpose of ditta dhamma sukha viharaya, pleasant abiding here and now.
perception of light devleoped day and night, for the purpose of naña dassana, knowledge and vision.
31 body parts for the purpose of abanding kama raga, sensuality ad lust.
9 stages of corpse contemplations for asmi mana samuggataya, uprooting subtle conceit and sense of self. 
4th jhana for the purpose of aneka dhatu pativedhaya, penetratiion of many elements.
awareness of postures, awareness of mental intention while doing kamma, for the purpose of sati and sampajano

difference between AN 6.29 and MN 10, MN 119

in MN 10, you're presented with a dizzying array of meditation exercises with no idea what order to do them, which is more important, etc. In AN 6.29 the order of development is clear: 1, 2, 3, 4. 5. You need to get pleasant abiding first, otherwise this life of intense meditaiton practice is painful. Note vesali sutta in SN 54 anapana samyutta where scores of monks committed suicde from doing 31 body parts and corpse contemplation incorrectly. So the buddha taught them 16 APS for pleasant abiding.  That's why you need pleasant abiding before you do the emotionally  hard stuff. You also want to have pleasant abiding well established before you to develop perception of light. Otherwise it's going to be painful and unpleasant, only the force of willpower and fear of samsara drives you. It doesn't have to be painful, do it in the proper order. 

MADHYAMA-ĀGAMA  SATIPAṬṬHĀNA sutta

so what's the special feature of this sutra? 
Unlike the Theravada segregatig MN 10 and MN 119 into sati and samadhi practices (using the same meditaiton exercises), MA is unified. in their refrain for each exercise, it mentions knowledge and vision, implying 7 bojjhanga and noble eightfold path,  which includes both sati and samadhi. Consistent with EA parallel of MN 10 which has satipatthana in essence equivalent to 4 jhanas. While MA SP sutta doesn't explicitly say the purpose of each meditaiton as AN 6.29 does, they add a few exercises in strategic spots that makes it clear to any serious meditator there's a holistic temporal causal sequence going on.

the meditaiton exercises

4 postures
mindfulness and awareness of physical and mental activities, talking, pissing, etc.
similar to MN 20's strategy of eliminating unwanted thinking by replacing kusala thought with akusala, with a simile
similar to MN 20's strategy of last resort "crushing mind with mind" when unwanted thinking won't stop, with a simile
first 4 steps of 16 stpes anapana
first jhana simile from AN 5.28
second jhana simile
third jhana simile
fourth jahna simile of white cloth covering body
perception of light for knowledge and vision, a longer version than AN 6.29 version, same as iddhipadda SN 51 extended formula version
5th noble right concentration factor of AN 5.28 , the reviewing sign, with its simile
31 body parts
4 elements
9 cemetary contemplations
insight refrain for each exercise:
“In this way a monk contemplates the body as a body internally and contemplates the body as a body externally. He establishes mindfulness in the body and is endowed with knowledge, vision, understanding, and penetration. This is reckoned how a monk contemplates the body as a body.
temporal causal elements
look at step 3 and 4 adding what looks like cittanpassana terrirtory material into kayanupassana. And marvel at how perception of light in #10 is stuck right between 4th jhana and the 5th concentration factor of "reviewing sign". this sutra is exquisite!
is he doing sati, samadhi, wisdom, or all of the above?
I've summarized some key passages, you should be able to draw a rational conclusion.

EA 12.1, 4 jhānas = 4sp, as explicit as you can get

see the full chinese + english word for word breakdown in 4nt → 8aam #8 Samma Samadhi → STED Sammā Samādhi from Pāli and Agamas, and sanskrit

Plenty of more passages in EBT show 4j=4sp

Once you’ve been enlightened to this concept, free from your previous mis-understanding that no insight is possible while in jhāna, you’ll be able to look at the pali passages presented in the articles and see it in many more EBT passages on your own.
When you see pali sutta passages where a large congregation of samadhi related terms are happening at the same time, some combination of vitakka, vicāra, sati, sampajano, jhāna, or jhāyti (doing jhāna), ekaggata, ekodi-bhava, samādhi, it’s like catching a big gang of criminals red handed at a scene of a crime, all present simultaneously with a look of guilt on their face. The jig is up. Jhāna is satipaṭṭhāna, and satipaṭṭhāna is Jhāna.

More passages where Jhāna and 4sp can’t be separated

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MN 53: 4th jhāna = “supreme mindfulness”, is what 6 abhiñña are based on

Instead of following the usual formula of four jhanas then 6 abhiñña, here the buddha instead of referencing 4th jhana, uses the name “purified equanimity and mindfulness”.
♦ 28. “sa kho so, mahānāma, ariyasāvako imaṃyeva anuttaraṃ upekkhāsatipārisuddhiṃ āgamma anekavihitaṃ pubbenivāsaṃ anussarati, seyyathidaṃ — ekampi jātiṃ dvepi jātiyo ... pe ... iti sākāraṃ sauddesaṃ anekavihitaṃ pubbenivāsaṃ anussarati, ayamassa paṭhamābhinibbhidā hoti kukkuṭacchāpakasseva aṇḍakosamhā.
20. “Based upon that same supreme mindfulness whose purity is due to equanimity,563 this noble disciple recollects his manifold past lives…(as Sutta 51, §24)…Thus with their aspects and particulars he recollects his manifold past lives. This is his first breaking out like that of the hen’s chicks from their shells.

SN 47.4 newly ordained and arahant do 4j=4sp

1. kāye kāyānupassino

etha tumhe, āvuso,
“‘Come, my, friends,
kāye kāy-ānupassino viharatha
body (as) body-contemplating (you must) dwell (in).
ātāpino sampajānā
ardent, clearly-comprehending,
ekodi-bhūtā
{become}-unified,
vippasanna-cittā
limpid-mind,
samāhitā ek-agga-cittā,
concentrated, (with) one-peak-mind,
kāyassa yathā-bhūtaṃ
(the) body as-[it really]-is:
ñāṇāya;
[you must] know [this].

SN 47 is the 4sp samyutta. The above exercise is repeated for all 4 of 4sp. Note ekodi-bhuta and samadhi, both present in that paragraph, are the hallmark characteristics of 2nd jhāna and higher. Jhana and 4sp interpenetrate here, you can’t separate them. The newly ordained are taught to do “jhāna” and “satipatthana” in this way, and the arahant continues the same practice.

SN 47.8 simile of cook: samadhi, 4sp, V&V concurrent

from the simile, it's clear vitakka and vicara meaning thought and evaluation that is activiely fighting the upakkilesa's (proxy for 5 hindrances). the reward for successfully doing this is both "sati and sampajanna", "pleasant abiding", which is a way of saying first, 2nd, or 3rd jhana. (AN 6.29, AN 4.41). so the reward of the fruit of doing 4sp and of doing 4jh is happening simultaneously.

AN 1: “Not devoid of Jhāna”

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Practices that can be done simultaneously with Jhāna

First, AN 1.53 – 1.55 uses the phrase “not devoid of jhāna” that is strongly suggesting that it’s a fancy way of saying jhāna can be done simultaneously with Metta.
Then in AN 1.394 it removes doubt by using the same formula as AN 1.53 to link it to the four jhānas. So if while you’re doing the four jhanas it is said that “you are not devoid of jhāna”, then it’s safe to assume “not being devoid” means you’re doing it and fulling the definition of jhāna.
The same formula is then extended from metta to all 4bv (brahma viharas), then the 4sp (satipatthana) and 4pd, the 4 aspects of right effort. Note that 4j, 4sp, 4pd are all classified under the samādhi group. It’s really natural to extend jhāna to encompass all 3 noble eightfold path factors that fall under samādhi.
Then the same formula gets extended to the entire 37bp (bodhi pakkhiya, wings to awakening), then the formless attainments, and other meditative recollections and topics. And following that, it starts doing some permutations with jhāna and certain 37bp factors simultaneously. So when your’e doing jhāna, you’re also doing satipatthana.

AN 1.53 mettā-cittaṃ āsevati

“accharā-saṅghāt-amattampi ce, bhikkhave,
"{Monks}, (if), for the amount of time it takes to snap-the-fingers,
bhikkhu mettā-cittaṃ āsevati;
a-monk {does} good-will-(with the)-mind;
ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave —
this is-called, ********* -
‘bhikkhu arittaj-jhāno viharati
'a-monk not-devoid-(of)-jhāna (he) abides (in).
satthu-sāsana-karo
{he carries out} the-teachers-dispensation-****,
ovāda-pati-karo,
{he carries out} the-advice,
a-moghaṃ raṭṭha-piṇḍaṃ bhuñjati’.
not-(in)-futility (is the) country's-almsfood (that he) eats.'
ko pana vādo ye naṃ bahulī-karontī”ti!
how much-more I-say (of) he *** (that) abundantly-practices (it)!"

AN 1.54 mettā-cittaṃ bhāveti

“accharā-saṅghāt-amattampi ce, bhikkhave,
"{Monks}, (if), for the amount of time it takes to snap-the-fingers,
bhikkhu mettā-cittaṃ bhāveti;
a-monk {develops} good-will-(with the)-mind;
ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave —
this is-called, ********* -
‘bhikkhu arittaj-jhāno viharati
'a-monk not-devoid-(of)-jhāna (he) abides (in).
satthu-sāsana-karo
{he carries out} the-teachers-dispensation-****,
ovāda-pati-karo,
{he carries out} the-advice,
a-moghaṃ raṭṭha-piṇḍaṃ bhuñjati’.
not-(in)-futility (is the) country's-almsfood (that he) eats.'
ko pana vādo ye naṃ bahulī-karontī”ti!
how much-more I-say (of) he *** (that) abundantly-practices (it)!"

AN 1.55 mettā-cittaṃ manasi karoti

“accharā-saṅghāt-amattampi ce, bhikkhave,
"{Monks}, (if), for the amount of time it takes to snap-the-fingers,
bhikkhu mettā-cittaṃ manasi karoti;
a-monk {pays-attention-to} good-will-(with the)-mind;
ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave —
this is-called, ********* -
‘bhikkhu arittaj-jhāno viharati
'a-monk not-devoid-(of)-jhāna (he) abides (in).
satthu-sāsana-karo
{he carries out} the-teachers-dispensation-****,
ovāda-pati-karo,
{he carries out} the-advice,
a-moghaṃ raṭṭha-piṇḍaṃ bhuñjati’.
not-(in)-futility (is the) country's-almsfood (that he) eats.'
ko pana vādo ye naṃ bahulī-karontī”ti!
how much-more I-say (of) he *** (that) abundantly-practices (it)!"

Aṅguttara Nikāya, ekakanipātapāḷi, 18. aparāccharāsaṅghātavaggo (AN 1.382-493-562)

AN 1.394 1st jhāna

“accharā-saṅghāt-amattampi ce, bhikkhave,
"{Monks}, (if), for the amount of time it takes to snap-the-fingers,
paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ bhāveti,
first jhāna he-develops,
ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave —
this is-called, ********* -
‘bhikkhu arittaj-jhāno viharati
'a-monk not-devoid-(of)-jhāna (he) abides (in).
satthu-sāsana-karo
{he carries out} the-teachers-dispensation-****,
ovāda-pati-karo,
{he carries out} the-advice,
a-moghaṃ raṭṭha-piṇḍaṃ bhuñjati’.
not-(in)-futility (is the) country's-almsfood (that he) eats.'
ko pana vādo ye naṃ bahulī-karontī”ti!
how much-more I-say (of) he *** (that) abundantly-practices (it)!"

AN 1.395-397 2nd jhāna to 4th jhāna

dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ bhāveti ... pe ...
second jhāna he-develops,
tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ bhāveti ... pe ...
third jhāna he-develops,
catutthaṃ jhānaṃ bhāveti ... pe ...
fourth jhāna he-develops,

398-401 4bv mind liberations

mettaṃ ceto-vimuttiṃ bhāveti ... pe ...
Good-will mind’s-liberation he-develops,
karuṇaṃ ceto-vimuttiṃ bhāveti ... pe ...
compassion mind’s-liberation he-develops,
muditaṃ ceto-vimuttiṃ bhāveti ... pe ...
Sympathetic-joy mind’s-liberation he-develops,
upekkhaṃ ceto-vimuttiṃ bhāveti ... pe ....
equanimity mind’s liberation he-develops,

4sp – 4 mindful-establishings

♦ 390-393. kāye kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ; vedanāsu vedanānupassī viharati ... pe ...
citte cittānupassī viharati ... pe ...
dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṃ.

4 right exertions

♦ 394-397. anuppannānaṃ pāpakānaṃ akusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ anuppādāya chandaṃ janeti vāyamati vīriyaṃ VAR ārabhati cittaṃ paggaṇhāti padahati;
uppannānaṃ pāpakānaṃ akusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ pahānāya chandaṃ janeti vāyamati vīriyaṃ ārabhati cittaṃ paggaṇhāti padahati.
anuppannānaṃ kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ uppādāya chandaṃ janeti vāyamati vīriyaṃ ārabhati cittaṃ paggaṇhāti padahati;
uppannānaṃ kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ ṭhitiyā asammosāya bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya bhāvanāya pāripūriyā chandaṃ janeti vāyamati vīriyaṃ ārabhati
cittaṃ paggaṇhāti padahati.

4ip 4 power-bases

♦ 398-401. chandasamādhipadhānasaṅkhārasamannāgataṃ iddhipādaṃ bhāveti...
vīriyasamādhipadhānasaṅkhārasamannāgataṃ iddhipādaṃ bhāveti...
cittasamādhipadhānasaṅkhārasamannāga...
iddhipā...
bhāveti...
vīmaṃsāsamādhipadhānasaṅkhārasamannāgataṃ iddhipādaṃ bhāveti....

5 indriya

♦ 402-406. saddhindriyaṃ bhāveti...
vīriyindriyaṃ bhāveti...
satindriyaṃ bhāveti...
samādhindriyaṃ bhāveti...
paññindriyaṃ bhāveti....

5 bala

♦ 407-411. saddhābalaṃ bhāveti...
vīriyabalaṃ bhāveti...
satibalaṃ bhāveti...
samādhibalaṃ bhāveti...
paññābalaṃ bhāveti....

7 awakening-factors

♦ 412-418. satisambojjhaṅgaṃ bhāveti...
dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgaṃ bhāveti...
vīriyasambojjhaṅgaṃ bhāveti...
pītisambojjhaṅgaṃ bhāveti...
passaddhisambojjhaṅgaṃ bhāveti...
samādhisambojjhaṅgaṃ bhāveti...
upekkhāsambojjhaṅgaṃ bhāveti....

8aam: noble eightfold path

♦ 419-426. sammādiṭṭhiṃ bhāveti...
sammāsaṅkappaṃ bhāveti...
sammāvācaṃ bhāveti...
sammākammantaṃ bhāveti...
sammāājīvaṃ bhāveti...
sammāvāyāmaṃ bhāveti...
sammāsatiṃ bhāveti...
sammāsamādhiṃ bhāveti....

formless perceptions and formless perceptions

♦ 427-434. VAR ajjhattaṃ rūpasaññī bahiddhā rūpāni passati parittāni suvaṇṇadubbaṇṇāni. ‘tāni abhibhuyya jānāmi passāmī’ti — evaṃsaññī hoti...
ajjhattaṃ rūpasaññī bahiddhā rūpāni passati appamāṇāni suvaṇṇadubbaṇṇāni. ‘tāni abhibhuyya jānāmi passāmī’ti — evaṃsaññī hoti...
ajjhattaṃ arūpasaññī bahiddhā rūpāni passati parittāni suvaṇṇadubbaṇṇāni. ‘tāni abhibhuyya jānāmi passāmī’ti — evaṃsaññī hoti...
ajjhattaṃ arūpasaññī bahiddhā rūpāni passati appamāṇāni suvaṇṇadubbaṇṇāni. ‘tāni abhibhuyya jānāmi passāmī’ti — evaṃsaññī hoti...
ajjhattaṃ arūpasaññī bahiddhā rūpāni passati nīlāni nīlavaṇṇāni nīlanidassanāni nīlanibhāsāni. ‘tāni abhibhuyya jānāmi passāmī’ti — evaṃsaññī hoti...
ajjhattaṃ arūpasaññī bahiddhā rūpāni passati pītāni pītavaṇṇāni pītanidassanāni pītanibhāsāni. ‘tāni abhibhuyya jānāmi passāmī’ti — evaṃsaññī hoti...
ajjhattaṃ arūpasaññī bahiddhā rūpāni passati lohitakāni lohitakavaṇṇāni lohitakanidassanāni lohitakanibhāsāni. ‘tāni abhibhuyya jānāmi passāmī’ti evaṃsaññī hoti...
ajjhattaṃ arūpasaññī bahiddhā rūpāni passati odātāni odātavaṇṇāni odātanidassanāni odātanibhāsāni. ‘tāni abhibhuyya jānāmi passāmī’ti — evaṃsaññī hoti....
♦ 435-442. rūpī rūpāni passati...
ajjhattaṃ arūpasaññī bahiddhā rūpāni passati subhanteva adhimutto hoti...
sabbaso rūpasaññānaṃ samatikkamā paṭighasaññānaṃ atthaṅgamā nānattasaññānaṃ amanasikārā ananto ākāsoti ākāsānañcāyatanaṃ upasampajja viharati...
sabbaso ākāsānañcāyatanaṃ samatikkamma anantaṃ viññāṇanti viññāṇañcāyatanaṃ upasampajja viharati...
sabbaso viññāṇañcāyatanaṃ samatikkamma natthi kiñcīti ākiñcaññāyatanaṃ upasampajja viharati...
sabbaso ākiñcaññāyatanaṃ samatikkamma nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṃ upasampajja viharati...
sabbaso nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṃ samatikkamma saññāvedayitanirodhaṃ upasampajja viharati....

10 kasinas

♦ 443-452. pathavīkasiṇaṃ bhāveti...
āpokasiṇaṃ bhāveti...
tejokasiṇaṃ bhāveti...
vāyokasiṇaṃ bhāveti...
nīlakasiṇaṃ bhāveti...
pītakasiṇaṃ bhāveti...
lohitakasiṇaṃ bhāveti...
odātakasiṇaṃ bhāveti...
ākāsakasiṇaṃ bhāveti...
viññāṇakasiṇaṃ bhāveti....

10 perceptions

♦ 453-462. asubhasaññaṃ bhāveti...
maraṇasaññaṃ bhāveti...
āhāre paṭikūlasaññaṃ bhāveti...
sabbaloke anabhiratisaññaṃ VAR bhāveti...
aniccasaññaṃ bhāveti...
anicce dukkhasaññaṃ bhāveti...
dukkhe anattasaññaṃ bhāveti...
pahānasaññaṃ bhāveti...
virāgasaññaṃ bhāveti...
nirodhasaññaṃ bhāveti....

10 more perceptions

♦ 463-472. aniccasaññaṃ bhāveti...
anattasaññaṃ bhāveti...
maraṇasaññaṃ bhāveti...
āhāre paṭikūlasaññaṃ bhāveti...
sabbaloke anabhiratisaññaṃ bhāveti...
aṭṭhikasaññaṃ bhāveti...
puḷavakasaññaṃ VAR bhāveti...
vinīlakasaññaṃ bhāveti...
vicchiddakasaññaṃ bhāveti...
uddhumātakasaññaṃ bhāveti....

10 recollections

♦ 473-482. buddhānussatiṃ bhāveti...
dhammānussatiṃ bhāveti...
saṅghānussatiṃ bhāveti...
sīlānussatiṃ bhāveti...
cāgānussatiṃ bhāveti...
devatānussatiṃ bhāveti...
ānāpānassatiṃ bhāveti...
maraṇassatiṃ bhāveti...
kāyagatāsatiṃ bhāveti...
upasamānussatiṃ bhāveti....

1st jhana combined with bala

♦ 483-492. paṭhamajjhānasahagataṃ saddhindriyaṃ bhāveti...
vīriyindriyaṃ bhāveti...
satindriyaṃ bhāveti...
samādhindriyaṃ bhāveti...
paññindriyaṃ bhāveti...
saddhābalaṃ bhāveti...
vīriyabalaṃ bhāveti...
satibalaṃ bhāveti...
samādhibalaṃ bhāveti...
paññābalaṃ bhāveti....
♦ 493-562. “dutiyajjhānasahagataṃ ...
pe ...
tatiyajjhānasahagataṃ ...
pe ...
catutthajjhānasahagataṃ ... pe ...
mettāsahagataṃ ... pe ...
karuṇāsahagataṃ ... pe ...
muditāsahagataṃ ... pe ...
upekkhāsahagataṃ saddhindriyaṃ bhāveti... vīriyindriyaṃ bhāveti...
satindriyaṃ bhāveti...
samādhindriyaṃ bhāveti...
paññindriyaṃ bhāveti...
saddhābalaṃ bhāveti...
vīriyabalaṃ bhāveti...
satibalaṃ bhāveti...
samādhibalaṃ bhāveti...
paññābalaṃ bhāveti. ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave — ‘bhikkhu arittajjhāno viharati satthusāsanakaro ovādapatikaro, amoghaṃ raṭṭhapiṇḍaṃ bhuñjati’. ko pana vādo ye naṃ bahulīkarontī”ti!
♦ aparāccharāsaṅghātavaggo aṭṭhārasamo.

SN 43 covers the same territory as AN 1

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Each sutta in this saṁyutta ends with the same stock phrase "meditate (jhāyatha, verb form of jhāna) monks, don't regret it later..." The meditation topics referred to very similar to the list in AN 1.
yaṃ, bhikkhave, satthārā karaṇīyaṃ sāvakānaṃ hitesinā anukampakena anukampaṃ upādāya, kataṃ vo taṃ mayā. etāni, bhikkhave, rukkhamūlāni, etāni suññāgārāni. jhāyatha VAR, bhikkhave, mā pamādattha; mā pacchā vippaṭisārino ahuvattha. ayaṃ vo amhākaṃ anusāsanī”ti. paṭhamaṃ.
Whatever should be done, bhikkhus, by a compassionate teacher out of compassion for his disciples, desiring their welfare, that I have done for you. These are the feet of trees, bhikkhus, these are empty huts. Meditate, bhikkhus, do not be negligent, lest you regret it later. This is our instruction to you.”

Saṁyutta Nikāya 43: Asaṅkhata-saṁyutta

Connected Discourses on the Unconditioned
I. THE FIRST SUBCHAPTER
• 1. Mindfulness Directed to the body • 2. Serenity and Insight • 3. With Thought and Examination • 4. Emptiness Concentration • 5. (5)Establishments of Mindfulness • 6. Right Strivings • 7. Bases for Spiritual Power • 8. Spiritual Faculties • 9. Powers • 10. Factors of Enlightenment • 11. The Eightfold Path
II. THE SECOND SUBCHAPTER
• 12. The Unconditionel • 13. The Uninclined • 14–43. The Taintless, Etc. • 44. The Destination

Short early strata passages where 4j = 4sp

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Udāna 1.2 & 1.3: liberating insight happens while in jhāna

Udana 1.2 & 1.3: "As phenomena grow clear to the Brahman--ardent, in jhana--his doubts all vanish when he penetrates the ending of requisite conditions."

Itivuttaka 3.32: He’s in jhāna while walking on almsround

Itivuttaka 3.32: "Both when receiving offerings & not: his concentration won't waver, he remains heedful: he — continually staying in jhana, subtle in view & clear-seeing, enjoying the ending of clinging — is called a man of integrity."

perspective from Chinese scripture earlier than Vism.

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They also display a pattern similar to Pāli EBT. The earlier the text, the more vipassana and samatha coexist simultaneously in Jhāna. The later the text, the more it resembles Vism. Redefinitions of jhāna.

150 CE: In jhāna, samatha and vipassana equal in strength

The Mahāvibhāṣā (circa 150 C.E.; Apidamo dapiposha lun):
“In the four dhyānas, śamatha and vipaśyanā are equal in strength, and thus they are named a pleasant dwelling.”

4 CE: A different Abhidhamma tradition says jhāna contains both samatha and vipassana

The Abhidharmakośabhāṣya (circa 4th century; Apidamo jushe lun):
“Samādhi is in fact excellent: it is a dhyāna filled with ‘parts,’ which goes by the means of the yoke of śamatha and vipaśyanā [that is to say, in which śamatha and vipaśyanā are in equilibrium], that is termed in the Sūtra ‘happiness in this world’ and ‘the easy path,’ the path by which one knows better and easily.”

4CE: But this changes over time, enter access concentration

The Yogācārabhūmiśāstra (circa 4th century; chronologically later than the last two commentaries): “Furthermore, only by depending on the dhyānas and the access concentration preceding the first dhyāna, the incompletely attained concentration, can one make the [initial] breakthrough to the noble truths. The formless attainments are inadequate. What is the reason? In the state of the formless attainments, the path of śamatha is superior, whereas the path of vipaśyanā is inferior. The inferior path of vipaśyanā is incapable of attaining the [initial] breakthrough to the noble truths.” (instructor note: “path” here should read “quality”)
The Yogācārabhūmiśāstra’s position: insight in all four states of jhāna, but not in the four states of “formless” bases

other schools and texts with similar ideas as above

The Tattvasiddhiśāstra (Chengshih lun), the Prakaraṇāryavācaśāstra (Xianyang shengjiao lun), and the Mahāprajñāpāramitopadeśa (Dazhi du lun) make similar statements

6 CE: Vism.

Still more different from the suttas’ position is the Visuddhimagga’s position: no insight in any of the four states of jhāna and the four states of “formless” bases.

Turing test for first jhāna
What is the difference between jhāna and samādhi?
#2

STED sammā-samādhi in Āgamas


STED four jhānas (EA 12.1)

In Ekottarāgama 12.1, one of the Chinese āgama parallels for MN 10, the 4 jhānas are actively developed, as part of 4sp under Dhamma-anupassana, not passively examined from outside of jhāna as in DN 22 (mahā satipaṭṭhāna sutta) describes the 4j. In EA 12.1, Dhamma-anupassana only has 2 subjects, 7sb (awakening-factors) and 4 jhānas. The 5 hindrances are in the prelude section of the sutra that comes before all 4sp, rather then being part of Dhamma-anupassana as in MN 10 and the MA parallel. In EA 12.1 Dhamma-anupassana, there’s an unmistakable moment by moment practice with samma samādhi, 7sb, 4j, and 4sp inextricably interwoven here, with no clean boundaries between them unlike Theravada that tries to segregate sati from samādhi, tranquility from insight.

(1st jhāna)

「復次,比 丘!Fù cì, bǐqiū!
“Further more, Bhikkhus!
於愛欲解脫,Wū àiyù jiětuō,
free from craving for sensual pleasures,
除惡不-善法,Chú è bùshàn fǎ,
removing evil (and) un-wholesome dhamma [qualities],
有覺、有觀,Yǒu jué, yǒu guān,
with coarse-thinking (and) with subtle-thinking,
有猗念,Yǒu yī niàn,
with tranquility (and) mindfulness,
樂於初禪而自娛樂。Lèwū chū chán ér zì yúlè.
(he) delights in first Jhāna, and he experiences delight.
(jhāna is satipaṭṭhāna refrain)
如是,Rúshì,
In this way,
比丘 法 Bǐqiū fǎ
(a) Bhikkhu [in regard to] dhammas,
法相 fǎxiāng
(those) dhamma characteristics
觀意止。 Guān yì zhǐ.
(he) contemplates (as a) satipaṭṭhāna.
(A note on vitakka and vicāra)
Ven. Anālayo translated jue and guan as “directed awareness and sustained contemplation,” but that’s a translation based on an extrapolation of the literal reading of some archaic characters (in non-Buddhist Chinese contexts, they mean “realize” and “observe,” respectively). The Mahaprajnaparamita-sastra and the Yogacarabhumi (texts that are traditionally used as dictionaries), among others, explain that jue and guan should be understood as “coarse thinking” and “subtle thinking,” respectively.

(2nd jhāna)

「復次,比 丘!Fù cì, bǐqiū!
“Further more, Bhikkhus!
捨有覺、有觀,Shě yǒu jué, yǒu guān,
discarding coarse-thinking (and) subtle-thinking,
內 發歡喜,Nèi fā huānxǐ,
Internally arousing joy
專其一意,Zhuān qí yīyì,
the mind being unified,
成無覺、無觀,Chéng wú jué, wú guān,
achieved no coarse-thinking (and) no subtle-thinking,
念猗 Niàn yī
mindful (and) tranquil,
喜安, xǐ'ān,
(with) joy (and) ease,
遊二禪而自娛樂。Yóu èr chán ér zì yúlè.
(he) travels-to second Jhāna and he-himself (experiences) happy pleasure [sukha].
(jhāna is satipaṭṭhāna refrain)
如是,Rúshì,
In this way,
比丘 法 Bǐqiū fǎ
(a) Bhikkhu [in regard to] dhammas,
法相 fǎxiāng
(those) dhamma characteristics
觀意止。 Guān yì zhǐ.
(he) contemplates (as a) satipaṭṭhāna.

(3rd jhāna)

「復次,比 丘!Fù cì, bǐqiū!
“Further more, Bhikkhus!
捨於念,Shě wū niàn,
discarding [joy] mindfully
修於護,xiū wū hù,
(he) cultivates equanimity in this respect,
恒自覺知 身覺樂,héng zìjué zhī shēn jué lè,
constantly he experiences (and) knows (with his) body the-experience-of pleasure [sukha].
諸賢聖所求,zhūxián shèng suǒ qiú,
as sought after by noble ones,
護念清淨,hù niàn qīngjìng,
equanimity (and) mindfulness, (are) pure-(and)-clean,
行於三 禪。xíng wū sān chán.
(he) engages in third Jhāna.
(jhāna is satipaṭṭhāna refrain)
如是,Rúshì,
In this way,
比丘 法 Bǐqiū fǎ
(a) Bhikkhu [in regard to] dhammas,
法相 fǎxiāng
(those) dhamma characteristics
觀意止。 Guān yì zhǐ.
(he) contemplates (as a) satipaṭṭhāna.

(4th jhāna)

「復次,比 丘!Fù cì, bǐqiū!
“Further more, Bhikkhus!
捨 苦樂心,Shě kǔ lè xīn,
discarding pain [dukkha] (and) pleasure [sukha] (of) heart/mind,
無復憂喜,wú fù yōu xǐ,
without sadness (and) joy,
無苦無樂,wú kǔ wú lè,
without pain [dukkha] (and) without pleasure [sukha],
護念清淨,hù niàn qīngjìng,
equanimity (and) mindfulness, (are) pure-(and)-clean,
樂 於四禪。lèwū sì chán.
(He) delights in fourth Jhāna.
(jhāna is satipaṭṭhāna refrain)
如是,Rúshì,
In this way,
比丘 法 Bǐqiū fǎ
(a) Bhikkhu [in regard to] dhammas,
法相 fǎxiāng
(those) dhamma characteristics
觀意止。 Guān yì zhǐ.
(he) contemplates (as a) satipaṭṭhāna.

(arising, ceasing, pari-mukhaṃ refrain)

彼行習 法,Bǐ xíng xí fǎ,
“he practices the venue to [its] origination,
行盡法,Xíng jǐn fǎ,
he practices the venue to [its] cessation,
并行習盡之法 Bìngxíng xí jǐn zhī fǎ
and he practices the venue to both [its] origination and cessation.”
而自娛樂, ér zì yúlè,
experiencing joy in himself [by removing evil thoughts and being free from worry and sorrow].
便 得法意止 Biàn défǎ yì zhǐ
He gains the satipaṭṭhāna of dharmas
而現在前。 ér xiànzài qián. (pari-mukha)
and keeps it present in front [of himself].
(A note on pari-mukha)
Visuddhimagga apologists often explain the parimukha-instruction as “bringing attentional focus” to one’s nose-tip. But Chinese passages where that instruction occur actually are virtually identical to what you find here in EA. Here in EA, the expression clearly means something to the effect of “keeping it present,” as a nose-tip focus would not be a sensible starting point for dharma-based satipatthana. If it means “keeping it present” here, why would it mean “fixing on nose-tip” elsewhere?
(EA 12.1 translation notes for STED 4 jhānas and 4sp)
護 is equanimity. This is peculiar to this EA recension.
捨 (Shě) is what most Chinese Agamas have for equanimity.
樂 as sukha is a noun sometimes, but also gets used as a verb "to enjoy" or "to delight in". (such as in 4th jhāna)
意止 (yì zhǐ) in EA is satipaṭṭhāna.
念住 (nianzhu) is the phrase for satipaṭṭhāna used in most Chinese agamas.


#3

This is great. Thank-you.


#4

I think jhana can be separated: see what is added to the usual jhana refrain here:

“’I tell you, the ending of the mental fermentations depends on the first jhana.’ Thus it has been said. In reference to what was it said? There is the case where a monk, secluded from sensuality, secluded from unskillful qualities, enters & remains in the first jhana: rapture & pleasure born of seclusion, accompanied by directed thought & evaluation. He regards whatever phenomena there that are connected with form, feeling, perception, fabrications, & consciousness, as inconstant, stressful, a disease, a cancer, an arrow, painful, an affliction, alien, a disintegration, an emptiness, not-self.
AN9.36

With metta


#5

Can we have the pdf version


#6

Jhana has concept (pannati) as its object while satipatthana has paramattha dhamma (nama rupa) as its object, so I don’t think they are the same.


#7

4j-is-4sp-sxs.zip (40.6 KB)
8aam8-sxs.zip (35.9 KB)

epubs inside those zips.
8aam8 contians the EA 12 satipatthana sutra parallel passage where jhana is built right into satipatthana.

you can use calibre (free program you can google for) to convert the epub into pdf, or for those of you with an appreciation for eink devices (low eyestrain, can read in broad daylight) like amazon kindle, convert the epub to azw3 format.

you can also convert to straight html format with calibre (htmlz), put it on your android phone and view with the browser.

for pc desktop use, calibre has an excellent epub reader, with hierarchical table of contents so it’s easy to find what you want and jump directly there.


#8

Show us an EBT sutta passage that says that. Late Abhidhamma period is far from EBT.


#9

How many of the meditation techniques in the Satipatthana have parramatta dhamma as the object?

With metta


#10

All of them. Isn’t satipatthana what is called Vipassana today? The meditator can practice jhana while practicing satipatthana but satipatthana is much more than jhana. I would even say that practing satipatthana is practicing the 8 middle path.


#11

Right now I am reading Analayo’s book on Satipatthana and his argument is that most vipassana (at least as currently taught) is not satipatthana, or at least many models of vipassana are not quite up to snuff. That doesn’t mean the method is entirely at odds with it, it just isn’t sutta based.


#12

Could you explain more on why current vipassana is not satipatthana in Analayo’s book?


#13

Well I haven’t finished the book yet but what he has pointed out so far is basically that the teachers aren’t teaching based on the suttas. I think his argument would be that vipassana is sometimes practiced similarly to satipatthana but is often not quite there in the details. Sorry I can’t be more specific, maybe when I finish the book I can report back.


#14

Aggregates, sense doors and elements are paramatta dhamma. The breath, feelings, postures, 9 stages of decomposition, craving, aversion etc, five hindrances, etc aren’t paramatta, are they? What I mean is, it is too simple to just say satipatthana is vipassana- it is a complex section and generate both samatha and vipassana.

with metta


#15

The four satipatthanas are mindfulness of body, feelings, consciousness, and dhamma. This corresponds to the 5 khandhas: body -> rupa, feelings -> vedana, consciousness -> sanna, dhamma -> sankhara, consciousness -> vinanna.

All sense objects are paramattha, it is because we lack sati-sampajjhana that we construct pannati (concept) from realities. So in my opinion, any satipatthana objects should be paramattha. Samatha and vipassana are just two side of the same coin. Some people are strong in concentration, other are strong in panna. Both are required to fulfil the 8 middle paths.

I don’t think the Buddha ever taught jhana with jhana as the end goal. Even if one achieve jhana, one should contemplate the arising and destruction of the jhana factors, this is basically satipatthana itself.


#16

Corresponds and the same are two different things. Otherwise there’s no chance of seeing paramatta dhamma.

With metta


#17

Can we even have mindfulness over non-paramattha (real) things? In fact, doesn’t pannati (concepts) created because our lack of mindfulness. Generally I assume all satipatthana objects are nama-rupa.


#18
  1. Can we trust them?
  2. When they say ‘thought’, how exactly do they define that? It’s an English word after all - I would like to know exactly what they mean by that equivelent Chinese term.

I have this from my notes. I am not sure if the page reference is correct - would check but the free version of Analāyo’s book seems to be such that the pages are images, and the text un-searchable and unable to copy and paste also. I am running OCR on it now…

I am also not 100% sure if these are the terms he uses to translate them with in his book although from my notes I seem to have thought so. However, I also studied wth him, so I may have got this particular version of the translations from him directly. I like them. Here are my notes - his reasoning seems fair unless we can find a refutation:

In the context of jhāna, Bhikkhu Analayo usually translates vitakka as ‘initial mental application’ and vicāra as ‘sustained mental application’. He explains this on pg 84 of his Satipatthana book, and why it is not what we would generally term ‘thinking’. In his lectures he has described vitakka in this context as a quality or factor of the mind which directs the mind towards an object, in the sense of setting a direction.

The translations I gave for the two terms in my email were his translation from the Chinese in Madhyama Agama 72 where Analayo points out that here (in the context of the jhanas) in the Chinese translation it is significant that they are not using a character for ‘thought’ even though they do use characters that clearly mean thought elsewhere for translating vitakka. But here in the context of jhāna, they are translating vitakka with 覺 (awareness/realising), and vicara with 觀 (contemplation). So they are clearly trying to use terminology to make it clear to their readers that this is not just ‘thought’.

Edit:
OCR complete! So here is something more Anālayo says, Satipaṭṭhāna book pg 75:

To translate vitakka as " initial mental application" finds support in the Mahācattārīsaka Sutta, which includes " application o f the m ind" (cetaso abhiniropanā) in a list o f synonyms for " right thought" along w ith vitakka.51 To understand vitakka as initial application of the mind can moreover claim support from the Abhidhamma and the commentaries, and from numerous m odern m editation teachers and scholars.52

By the way does anyone have a good option for OCR (optical character recognition) of Pāli and English? I use Finereader, set to simultaneously recognise English, Irish, French, Latvian and Polish. From my trial and error process, this seemed to give the best result. (They have no Pāli option! Not even Sanskrit!)


#19

Is this ‘in oneself’ in the Chinese actually referring to the body - kāya - by any chance?

I would be really interested if anyone can explain the Chinese equivelent for ditta dhamma character by character. There has been some debate abuot this expresion.

Anyone have any clarity on exactly what the Chinese is saying about the body here?

How is it possible to be one-pointed while doing more than one thing? For example, if you speak to someone, you are engaging in thought - so thinking is present. You are engaging with the world of the senses. You are processing information regarding perceptions of the person you are talking to, or receiving food from. And so on. Many complex mental tasks, which also require parallel processing.

Interesting! Which nikāya produced that? Any idea of which nikāyas shared this concept of access concentration, or any who rejected the concept, or simply didn’t have it?

It seems that the current Tibetan concept of ‘attaining samatha’ is equivelent to access concentration. According to Alan Wallace anyway. They do seem to have entirely rejected jhāna practice so far as I have been able to deduce, and only aim to go to that level, no further.

Thanks very much for your detailed essay!


#20

The archaic chinese in the agamas is notoriously difficult. All of the dictionarys, Abhidharma commentary scholars rely on, IMO the definitions also can be somewhat vague and open to interpretation. So if you ask are they reliable? on one hand those references are the only thing we can go by, but their explanation is sufficiently vague. Chinese to English then tends to up with people translating it according to what they think V&V (vitakka and vicara) means from other contexts in the Agamas, or Pali parallels. In other words, I think Ven. Analayo’s Chinese to English translations are going to reflect lots of biases and preconceived understandings carried over from his Theravada studies. This is a natural bias and I’m not knocking him for that, if I translate from Chinese to English, I’m going to be affected by my preconceived understandings of Theravada as well. So when you have vague Chinese dictionary definitions for “thinking”, then people are just going to translate it as however they previously understood it from Pali parallels most likely. Not surprisingly, Ven. Analayo injects V&V in the agama first jhana formula exactly with the same meaning as he does in the Pali.

I doubt it, since the pali first jhana doesn’t have “kaya” in there, and neither does one of the sanskrit parallels.

“one pointed”, is a poor understanding and translation of ekaggata.

Ekaggata and samādhi often used synonymously

Here are a few excerpts from Thanissaro’s article on Ekaggata that show hearing sounds and samādhi and jhāna happen simultaneously.

agga is a meeting place

The second cluster of meanings for agga centers on the idea of “meeting place.” A hall where monks gather for the uposatha, for example, is called an uposath’agga. The spot where they gather for their meals is called a bhatt’agga.
Given that the object of concentration is said to be a dwelling (vihāra), and that a person enters and dwells (viharati) in the levels of jhāna, this second cluster of meanings may be the more relevant one here. A mind with a single agga, in this case, would simply be a mind gathered around one object, and need not be reduced to a single point.
B. An even more telling way to determine the meanings of ek’agga and ek’aggatā is, instead of dividing these words into their roots, to look at the ways in which the Canon uses them to describe minds.
1. Two passages, one from the Vinaya and one from a sutta, show what ek’agga means in the everyday context of listening to the Dhamma.

Mv.II.3.4 “We listen with an ek’agga mind, an unscattered...

In Mv.II.3.4, the phrase, “we pay attention,” in the instructions for how to listen to the Pāṭimokkha, is defined as: “We listen with an ek’agga mind, an unscattered mind, an undistracted mind.” Even if ek’agga were translated as “one-pointed” here, the “point” is obviously not so restricted as to make the ears fall silent. Otherwise, we would not be able to hear the Pāṭimokkha at all. And the fact that the mind is ek’agga doesn’t mean that we can’t also hear other sounds aside from the Pāṭimokkha. It’s just that those sounds don’t make the mind lose its focus on a single theme.

AN 5:151 with ek'agga mind one can listen and think

In AN 5:151, the Buddha lists five qualities that enable one, when listening to the true Dhamma, to “alight on assuredness, on the rightness of skillful qualities.” The five qualities are:
“One doesn’t hold the talk in contempt.
“One doesn’t hold the speaker in contempt.
“One doesn’t hold oneself in contempt.
“One listens to the Dhamma with an unscattered mind, an ek’agga mind.
“One attends appropriately.”
Because appropriate attention means to contemplate experiences in terms of the four noble truths (see MN 2), this passage shows that when the mind is ek’agga, it’s not only able to hear. It can also think at the same time. If it couldn’t hear or think, it couldn’t make sense of the Dhamma talk. So again, even if we translate ek’agga as “one-pointed,” the one-pointed mind is not so pointy that it cannot think or hear sounds. This would defeat the purpose of listening to the Dhamma and would get in the way of “alighting on assuredness.”