KN Pe: Peṭakopadesa (pitaka disclosure): everything interesting it says about jhāna & samādhi

Just got the book, Ven. Nanamoli’s translation of KN Pe from 1970’s. I’m using it to help translate everything about jhanas in there, but because of textual corruption and my lack of pali skills, I will need some help here, so please help correct errors (just egregious ones, not grammar nitpicking where it doesn’t alter the meaning appreciably).

work in progress… will update this page every so often…

What I’ve read so far, I’m pretty excited, because their commentary on the 4 jhanas for the most part agrees what a simple, straightforward, occams razor reading of the EBT. As opposed to the corruption (of Dhamma) that happens in later Theravada regarding jhana and samadhi.

2018/aug : all four jhanas complete

Table of Contents

KN Pe: Peṭakopadesa (pitaka disclosure)

everything interesting it says about jhāna & samādhi.
KN-Pe has the earliest detailed word commentary on the standard jhāna formula: Peṭakopadesa 7.72

(1st Jhāna)

STED 1st Jhāna

vivicc’eva kāmehi
Quite-withdrawn (from) sensuality,
vivicca a-kusalehi dhammehi
withdrawn (from) un-skillful Dhamma [teachings & qualities],
sa-vitakkaṃ sa-vicāraṃ
With-directed-thought, with-evaluation,
vivekajaṃ pīti-sukhaṃ
withdrawal-born rapture-&pleasure,
paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati.
first Jhāna (he) enters, dwells.

(rich section on V&V, vitakka & vicara)

(first paragraph 72. talks about tīṇi akusala-mūlāni (3 unskillful roots) and 5niv (hindrances) removal.
♦ tattha a-lobhassa pāripūriyā nekkhamma-vitakkaṃ vitakketi.
576. Here, for non-greed fulfillment, renunciation-thoughts (he) thinks.
tattha a-dosassa pāripūriyā abyāpāda-vitakkaṃ vitakketi.
for non-hatred fulfillment, renunciation-thoughts (he) thinks.
tattha a-mohassa pāripūriyā avihiṃsā-vitakkaṃ vitakketi.
for non-delusion fulfillment, renunciation-thoughts (he) thinks.
tattha a-lobhassa pāripūriyā vivitto hoti kāmehi.
577. “Here, for fulfilling non-passion he is secluded from sensual pleasures.
tattha a-dosassa pāripūriyā
Here, for fulfilling non-aggression and
a-mohassa pāripūriyā ca vivitto hoti pāpakehi akusalehi dhammehi,
fulfilling non-delusion he is secluded from unskillful phenomena.
savitakkaṃ savicāraṃ vivekajaṃ pītisukhaṃ
And so he enters and remains in the first jhāna,
paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati.
which includes directed thought and evaluation, as well as joy and pleasure born of seclusion.
♦ vitakkāti tayo vitakkā —
578. Directed thought: There are three kinds of directed thought, namely
the thought of renunciation,
the thought of non-aversion,
and the thought of harmlessness.
tattha paṭham-ābhinipāto vitakko,
579. Here, directed thought is the first instance
paṭiladdhassa vicaraṇaṃ vicāro.
while evaluation is the evaluation of what is thereby received.

V&V simile: vitakka sees person, vicara scrutinizes their sila

yathā puriso dūrato purisaṃ passati āgacchantaṃ,
580. Just as when a man sees someone approaching in the distance
na ca tāva jānāti eso itthīti vā purisoti vā
he does not yet know whether it is a woman or a man,
yadā tu paṭilabhati itthīti vā purisoti vā
but when he has received [the apperception] that “it is a woman” or “it is a man” or
evaṃ vaṇṇoti vā evaṃ saṇṭhānoti vā
that “it is of such color” or that “it is one of such shape,”
ime vitakkayanto uttari upaparikkhanti
then when he has thought this he further scrutinizes,
kiṃ nu kho ayaṃ sīlavā udāhu dussīlo
“How then, is he ethical or unethical,
aḍḍho vā duggatoti vā.
rich or poor?”
evaṃ vicāro
This is examination.
vitakke appeti,
With directed thought he fixes.
vicāro cariyati ca anuvattati ca.
With examination he moves about and turns over [what has been thought].”

Notes of interest:
V&V “fixes” and “turning over” have been reinterpreted in the Vsm.

V&V winged bird simile

yathā pakkhī
581. and just as a winged bird
pubbaṃ āyūhati
first accumulates [speed]
pacchā nāyūhati
and afterwards no more accumulates [speed, when gliding],
yathā āyūhanā evaṃ vitakko,
so too, thinking is like the accumulation [of speed],
yathā pakkhānaṃ pasāraṇaṃ evaṃ vicāro anupālati vitakketi vicarati vicāreti.
and like the out-strechedness of the [gliding bird's] wings is exploring,
vitakkayati vitakketi,
[which] keeps preserving the thinkings
anuvicarati vicāreti.
and keeps preserving the explorings.

V&V relationship to right/wrong resolves

kāma-saññāya paṭipakkho vitakko,
582. sensual-desire-perceptions (is the) opposite (of) directed-thoughts,
byāpāda-saññāya vihiṃsa-saññāya ca paṭipakkho vicāro.
ill-will-perceptions & cruelty-perceptions (is the) opposite of evaluation.
vitakkānaṃ kammaṃ a-kusalassa a-manasikāro,
(such) thinking (is an) action (whereby the) un-skillful (gets) no-attention.
vicārānaṃ kammaṃ jeṭṭhānaṃ saṃvāraṇā.
(such) evaluation (is an) action (whereby the) forerunners (gets) restrained.

simile of reciting is literally like vaci dropping out of first jhana, vaci-sankhara = v&v remains! SN 36.11

yathā paliko tuṇhiko sajjhāyaṃ karoti evaṃ vitakko,
583. just-as (a) reciter silently recites, such (is) directed-thoughts,
yathā taṃyeva anupassati evaṃ vicāro.
just-as that-recitation (he) contemplates, such (is) evaluation.

simile of vicara needs to finish the job vitakka started

yathā a-pariññā evaṃ vitakko.
just-like incomplete-understanding, such (is) directed-thoughts,
yathā pariññā evaṃ vicāro.
just-like complete-understanding, such (is) evaluation.

simile of vitakka more superficial, vicara explores/dives deep into meaning

nirutti-paṭisambhidāyañca paṭibhāna-paṭisambhidāyañca vitakko,
language-analysis & clarity-analysis (is) directed-thoughts,
dhamma-paṭisambhidāyañca attha-paṭisambhidāyañca vicāro.
idea-analysis & meaning-analysis (is) evaluation.

unclear simile

kallitā kosallattaṃ cittassa vitakko,
good-health; skill (of the) mind (regarding that), is directed-thoughts.
abhinīhāra-kosallaṃ cittassa vicāro.
Resolution-in-being-skillful; mind [in that mode], is evaluation.

simile, vitakka sets task, vicara finishes

idaṃ kusalaṃ idaṃ akusalaṃ
this (is) skillful, this (is) unskillful,
idaṃ bhāvetabbaṃ idaṃ pahātabbaṃ
this should-be-developed, this should-be-abandoned,
idaṃ sacchikātabbanti
this (is) to-be-verified,
[those are examples of] directed-thoughts,
yathā pahānañca bhāvanā ca
these-are abandoned, are developed,
sacchikiriyā ca
(these are) verified,
evaṃ vicāro.
evaluation [finishes the task set out by vitakka]

first jhana: what parts mental, physical

imesu vitakka-vicāresu ṭhitassa
584. these directed-thoughts-&-evaluations (being) steady,
duvidhaṃ dukkhaṃ na uppajjati kāyikañca cetasikañca;
two-fold suffering doesn't arise; bodily & mental;
duvidhaṃ sukhaṃ uppajjati kāyikañca cetasikañca.
two-fold pleasure arises; bodily & mental.
iti vitakka-janitaṃ
thus directed-thoughts-generates
cetasikaṃ sukhaṃ
mental pleasure,
pīti kāyikaṃ
rapture (in the) body,
sukhaṃ kāyikoyeva.
pleasure (in the) body.
yā tattha cittassa ekaggatā,
this here (is) mind's unification,
ayaṃ samādhi.
this is undistractable-lucidity.
iti paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ
Such is first jhāna,

(2nd Jhāna)

STED 2nd Jhāna

Vitakka-vicārānaṃ vūpasamā
(with) directed-thoughts-(and)-evaluation subsiding,
ajjhattaṃ sampasādanaṃ
internal assurance,
cetaso ekodi-bhāvaṃ
mind has-become-singular,
a-vitakkaṃ a-vicāraṃ
No-directed-Thought, no-evaluation,
samādhi-jaṃ pīti-sukhaṃ
undistractable-lucidity—born rapture-&pleasure,
dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati.
second Jhāna (he) enters, dwells.

(Pe commentary)
♦ tesaṃyeva vitakka-vicārānaṃ
585. those directed-thoughts-&evaluation,
abhikkhaṇaṃ āsevanāya
(the) constant practice (of that),
tassa tappoṇa-mānasaṃ hoti.
(is what the) mind slopes toward.
tassa vitakka-vicārā
those directed-thoughts-&evaluation,
oḷārikā khāyanti.
coarse (is how they) appear (to him).
yañca pīti-sukhañca nekkhammañca
and-the rapture-&pleasure (born from) renunciation, [piti-sukha from first jhana]
oḷārikaṃ bhavati.
coarse (it) becomes (to him).
api ca samādhi-jā pīti rati ca jāyati.
and then undistractable-lucidity-induced rapture & relish is born.
tassa vicār-ārammaṇaṃ.
586. the evaluation-of-thought-objects [from first jhana V&V],
tesaṃ vūpasamā ajjhattaṃ ceto sampasīdati.
their calming [leads to] internal mental confidence.
ye vitakka-vicārā
those directed-thoughts-&evaluation
dve dhamm-{an?-}ānus-saritabbā.
[are] two dhammas (which) need {not?} be-recollected.
pacc-uppannā daraṇitabbaṃ.
presently-arisen {thinking & evaluation?} should-be-feared.
tesaṃ vūpasamā
with the calming [of directed-thoughts-&evaluation]
Ekodi-bhāvaṃ citt-ekaggataṃ hoti.
{there} becomes-singularity & mental-unification.
tassa ekodi-bhāvena pīti pāripūriṃ gacchati.
(with it) becoming-singular, rapture fulfillment happens.
yā pīti, taṃ so-manass-indriyaṃ,
whatever rapture, that (is) good-[happy]-mental-state-faculty.
yaṃ sukhaṃ, taṃ sukh-indriyaṃ.
whatever pleasure, that (is) [bodily] pleasure-faculty.
yā citt-ekaggatā, ayaṃ samādhi.
whatever mind-unification, that (is) undistractable-lucidity.
taṃ dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ
this second jhana,

(3rd Jhāna)

STED 3rd Jhāna

pītiyā ca virāgā
(with) Rapture ** fading,
upekkhako ca viharati
Equanimously-observing ** (he) dwells,
sato ca sam-pajāno,
(he is a) Rememberer, a clear-discerner,
sukhañca kāyena paṭisaṃvedeti,
pleasure with-the-body (he) experiences,
yaṃ taṃ ariyā ācikkhanti —
that those Noble-Ones declare -
‘upekkhako satimā sukha-vihārī’ti
“(He is an) equanimous-observer (and a) Rememberer, (he has) pleasurable-abiding.”
tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati.
third Jhāna (he) enters, dwells.

(Pe commentary)
so pītiyā virāgā
587. he, (with) rapture's fading-away,
yāti ojahi jalla-sahagataṃ.
drives nutritive-essence wetness-,connected-with-that.
♦ 73. tattha so-manassa-cittam-upādānanti{uppādayati} ca
587. there happy-mental-state-(of)-mind-arises, [pīti leftover from 2nd jhana]
so taṃ vicinanto upekkhameva manasi-karoti.
he then investigates (that with) equanimous-obervation attention.
so pītiyā virāgā
he, (with) rapture's fading,
upekkhako viharati.
equanimously-observing (he) dwells.
yathā ca pītiyā sukha-mānitaṃ,
as-to the rapture induced-pleasure,
taṃ kāyena paṭisaṃvedeti
that, (with the) body (he) experiences,
sam-pajāno viharati.
(with) clear-discerning (of that he) dwells.
yena sati-sampajaññena
because-of remembrance-&clear-discerning,
upekkhā-pāripūriṃ gacchati.
equanimous-observation-fulfillment happens.
idaṃ tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ
this third jhana,

(4th Jhāna)

(STED 4th Jhāna)

sukhassa ca pahānā
Pleasure's ** abandoning,
dukkhassa ca pahānā
pain's ** abandoning,
pubbeva so-manassa-do-manassānaṃ atthaṅgamā
(with) previous elated-mental-state-(and)-distressed-mental-states’ disappearance,
Neither-pain nor-pleasure
catutthaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati
fourth Jhāna (he) enters, dwells.

(Pe commentary)
♦ tathā kāyikassa sukhassa pahānāya
thus (with) body's pleasure abandoned, [from 3rd jhana]
paṭhame jhāne so-{do-?}manass-indriyaṃ nirujjhati.
(and) first jhana's distressed-mental-state-faculty ceased,
dutiye jhāne dukkh-indriyaṃ nirujjhati.
(and) second jhana's pain-faculty ceased.
tattha catūhi indriyehi upekkhā pasādā{ap-pasanna?} hoti,
Here, four faculties make equanimous-observation un-clarified:
dukkh-indriyena do-manass-indriyena
pain-faculty, distressed-mental-state-faculty,
sukh-indriyena so-manass-indriyena ca.
pleasure-faculty, elated-mental-state-faculty.
tesaṃ nirodhā upekkhā-sampajaññaṃ hoti,
With-their cessation {there is} equanimous-observation-&-clear-discerning.
tattha sukh-indriyena so-manass-indriyena
There [in previous jhanas], pleasure-faculty and elated-mental-state-faculty
ca a-sati hoti,
[caused] non-remembrance.
tesaṃ nirodhā satimā hoti,
With-their cessation {there is} remembrance.
dukkh-indriyena do-manass-indriyena
[Because of] pain-faculty and distressed-mental-state-faculty,
ca a-sam-pajaññaṃ,
[that caused] un-clear-discerning.
tesaṃ nirodhā sam-pajaññaṃ hoti,
With-their cessation, {there is} clear-discerning.
iti upekkhāya ca saññā{pasann-attā?},
[Because of] equanimous-observation's clarification,
sato sampajāno citt-ekaggatā ca
Remembrance, clear-discerning, and mind-unification happen.
idaṃ vuccate ca catutthaṃ jhānaṃ.
This (is called ** fourth jhāna.

Am I translating the last 4 lines correctly?
It looks like what it’s saying is piti produces both mental and physical happiness, sukha also produces both mental and physical. But my pali isn’t good enough to know if I’m attaching the adjectives to the right nouns, so I could be way off here.

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Here’s a Pāli question for you, but not one highly related to the work you’ve done on this, if you’ll forgive me.

Why is the a --> u = o sandhi at the word-joining also influencing the beginning of piṭaka? (i.e. pi- --> pe-)

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