My translation of the Three Refuges (Khp. 1)

To celebrate the ability of this forum to render mermaid diagrams (thanks @musiko and @Ric), I would like to humbly offer my translation of the Three Refuges, using pseudo UML diagrams to describe the grammatical analysis.

Please note, grammatical terms are provided in Pali rather than English, as I believe it’s best to learn Pali in Pali. For key to what the terms mean (as well as a legend to decode the Unicode symbols which reflect the type of inflection/conjugation, for example :mens::bust_in_silhouette::two: means masculine, singular, accusative) please refer to:

Feedback on this translation (as well as the usefulness/readibility of the diagrams will be most appreciated.

Khp. 1:

buddhaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi,
dhammaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi,
saṅghaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi.
dutiyampi buddhaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi,
dutiyampi dhammaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi,
dutiyampi saṅghaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi.
tatiyampi buddhaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi,
tatiyampi dhammaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi,
tatiyampi saṅghaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi.

  class sentence["dutiyampi/tatiyampi buddhaṃ/dhammaṃ/saṅghaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi"] {
    english((For the second/third time) I go to the Buddha/Dhamma/Sangha as refuge)
  namespace saṅkhyāpūraṇa {
    class dutiyaṃ {
      english(second time)
    class tatiyaṃ {
      english(third time)
  class pi {
  namespace saraṇa {
    class buddhaṃ {
    class dhammaṃ {
    class saṅghaṃ {
  class saraṇaṃ {
    english(as refuge)
  class gacchāmi {
    english(I go)
  sentence *-- dutiyaṃ
  sentence *-- tatiyaṃ
  sentence *-- pi
  sentence *-- buddhaṃ : kamma
  sentence *-- dhammaṃ : kamma
  sentence *-- saṅghaṃ : kamma
  sentence *-- saraṇaṃ : kamma
  sentence *-- gacchāmi: kiriya
  buddhaṃ .. saraṇaṃ
  dhammaṃ .. saraṇaṃ
  saṅghaṃ .. saraṇaṃ
participant ahaṃ as (ahaṃ)
participant buddhaṃ
participant dhammaṃ
participant saṅghaṃ
  loop (paṭhama), dutiyampi, tatiyampi
    ahaṃ ->> buddhaṃ : gacchāmi
    buddhaṃ ->> saraṇaṃ : (hoti)
    ahaṃ ->> dhammaṃ : gacchāmi
    dhammaṃ ->> saraṇaṃ : (hoti)
    ahaṃ ->> saṅghaṃ : gacchāmi
    saṅghaṃ ->> saraṇaṃ : (hoti)
  state fork_state <<fork>>
  state join_state <<join>>
  [*] --> fork_state : gacchāmi
  fork_state --> buddhaṃ
  fork_state --> dhammaṃ
  fork_state --> saṅghaṃ
  buddhaṃ --> join_state
  dhammaṃ --> join_state
  saṅghaṃ --> join_state
  join_state --> saraṇaṃ
  saraṇaṃ --> fork_state : dutiyampi, tatiyampi
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When I learned this in G&K I used colored pencils! Seems somewhat antiquated…

PS If you’re into Pali grammatical terms, Steven Collins’s Grammar is good for that.

Thanks, stephen!

Nothing wrong with using coloured pencils! I am very much an analog person, I still hand write many things, and I use fountain pens (I am somewhat ashamed to say I have quite the collection, I am not in full control of my lobha)

I’ve been wanting to track a copy of Stephen Collin’s book but haven’t found a PDF yet.

It’s a nice grammar.
I’m not aware of it in electronic format, may have to go the ancient way- paper.

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