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Sequence of gradual training

The Sequence of the Gradual Training [Draft]

Read suttas (https://suttacentral.net) & Obtain right view:
Mundane right view (of the law of kamma):
Kamma:
What is Kamma: cause & consequence
‘There is what is given and what is offered and what is sacrificed; there is fruit and result of good and bad actions; there is this world and the other world; there is mother and father*; there are beings who are reborn spontaneously; there are good and virtuous recluses and brahmins in the world who have themselves realised by direct knowledge and declare this world and the other world.’ (MN 60).
Cause of kamma:
Cause of bad kamma:
Ignorance of law of Kamma – wrong view of law of Kamma – wrong volitions [craving for sensual pleasures, craving for existence or extermination] – wrong volitional actions
Cause of good kamma:
Knowledge of law of Kamma – Right view of law of Kamma – Right volitions [non-craving for sensual pleasures, non-craving for existence or extermination] – right volitional actions
Diversity in kamma:
Kamma to be experienced in hell, in the realm of common animals, in the realm of the ghosts, in the human world, and in the world of the devas.
Spheres of Devas:
Kamma-Loka (The Sense-Sphere realm): the gods of the heaven of the Four Great Kings, the gods of the heaven of the Thirty-three; the Yāma gods, the gods of the Tusita heaven, the gods who delight in creating, the gods who wield power over others’ creations;
Rupa-Loka (Fine-Material World): the gods of Brahmā’ s retinue, the gods of Radiance, the gods of Limited Radiance, the gods of Immeasurable Radiance, the gods of Streaming Radiance, the gods of Glory, the gods of Limited Glory, the gods of Immeasurable Glory, the gods of Refulgent Glory, the gods of Great Fruit, the Aviha gods, the Atappa gods, the Sudassa gods, the Sudassī gods, the Akaniṭṭha gods;
Arupa-Loka (Formless Realms): the gods of the base of infinite space…the gods of the base of infinite consciousness…the gods of the base of nothingness…the gods of the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception’
Result of kamma:
that which arises right here & now, that which arises later [in this lifetime], and that which arises following that.
Cessation of bad kamma:
From the cessation of wrong view and craving (lust for sensual pleasure and continued existence) is the cessation of bad kamma; just this noble eightfold path—right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right samādhi—is the path of practice leading to the cessation of bad kamma.
Why Beings Fare as They Do after Death: Ten unwholesome deeds for bad rebirth and ten wholesome deeds for good rebirth (see three-fold conducts below) (MN 41, SN 42.6)
Ten wholesome deeds:
Right bodily conduct: no killing sentient beings, no taking what is not given, no sexual misconduct
Right verbal conduct: no lying, no gossiping, no harsh/malicious speech, no pointless speech
Right mental conduct: no covetousness, no ill will, no wrong view of law of kamma
Kamma and Its Fruits (MN 60, MN 135, AN 5.57)
“… beings are owners of their actions, heirs of their actions; they originate from their actions, are bound to their actions, have their actions as their refuge. It is action that distinguishes beings as inferior and superior.”
The Perils of Saṃsāra
The Stream of Tears (SN 15.3)
The Stream of Blood (SN 15.13)
B. Supramundane right view (the Four Noble Truths):
“Now this, bhikkhus, is the noble truth of suffering: birth is suffering, aging is suffering, illness is suffering, death is suffering; union with what is displeasing is suffering; separation from what is pleasing is suffering; not to get what one wants is suffering; in brief, the five aggregates subject to clinging are suffering.
“Now this, bhikkhus, is the noble truth of the origin of suffering: it is this craving which leads to continued existence, accompanied by delight and lust, seeking delight here and there; that is, craving for sensual pleasures, craving for existence, craving for extermination.
“Now this, bhikkhus, is the noble truth of the cessation of suffering: it is the remainderless fading away and cessation of that same craving, the giving up and relinquishing of it, freedom from it, nonreliance on it.
“Now this, bhikkhus, is the noble truth of the way leading to the cessation of suffering: it is this Noble Eightfold Path; that is, right view, right resolve, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right Samadhi (stillness)”. (SN 56.11)
(SN 56.1; MN 114, MN 9, DN 15, DN 16, DN 22, SN 45.8; AN 9.1)
Cultivate right intention/thinking/resolve to overcome unwholesome underline tendencies:
Read the suttas (see the list below) to truly understand the drawback, danger and degradation of sensual desire/ill will/cruelty, and rewards of renunciation/good will/compassion/rejoicing;
Repeatedly contemplate the dukkha and danger inherent in sensual desire/sensual pleasures, and the benefits flowing from renunciation to overcome underlying tendency for desire and passion for sensual pleasures; develop the mind on loving-kindness (e.g. by repeatedly reciting the Metta Sutta and radiating Metta), compassion (can be combined with Metta practice), rejoicing and equanimity as the antidotes to hate/ill will, cruelty, envy/jealousy, and aversion respectively;
Before mental, speech, and bodily actions reflect on our intentions: out of sensual desire, ill will, harming? Or out of non-sensual desire, good will, compassion?
Become mindful of the arising of thoughts
Divide thinking and thoughts into two kinds: “set on one side thoughts of sensual desire, thoughts of ill will, and thoughts of cruelty, and set on the other side thoughts of renunciation, thoughts of non-ill will, and thoughts of non-cruelty”; reflect on the drawback, danger and degradation of sensual desire/ill will/cruelty, and rewards of renunciation/good will/compassion [MN 19]
Abandon thoughts of sensual desire/ill will/cruelty with determination and discipline; directing/applying the mind to and cultivate thoughts of renunciation/good will/compassion.
Resolve/sustain our mind on non-sensual desire, non-ill will, and harmlessness, be mindful that these states are there, and make such thinking become the inclination of the mind to overcome underline tendencies.
(MN 13, MN 45, MN 46, MN 54, MN 75, MN 129, 130, MN 149, SN 35.244, SN 35.101, SN 35.28, SN 35.115, SN 35.199, SN 35.203; MN 19, MN 20, MN 22, MN 62*, MN 21, MN 55; AN 11.15)
Repeated reflect/examine on Kamma and Its Fruits (MN 60, MN 135, AN 5.57); Establish conscience/prudence about bad bodily/verbal/mental conduct and unwholesome qualities as well as fear of their consequences; seeing danger in the slightest fault; understand the rewards of sila (MN 54, AN 3.65, AN 4.111, AN 4.54, AN 8.7, AN 8.39-40, AN 10.1-3, AN 10.76, AN 11.12, DN 16, T 211.31 SuttaCentral ; SN 3.25);
Purify the three fold conduct (see ten wholesome deeds above) and livelihood by living restrained in precepts and by repeated reflection/examination (DN 1, DN 2, AN 10.176, MN 61, MN 114, AN 5.57, AN 11.12);
Precepts:

  • Abstaining from the taking of life (panatipata veramani): “Herein someone avoids the taking of life and abstains from it. Without stick or sword, conscientious, full of sympathy, he is desirous of the welfare of all sentient beings.” (AN 10.176).
  • Abstaining from taking what is not given (adinnadana veramani): “He avoids taking what is not given and abstains from it; what another person possesses of goods and chattel in the village or in the wood, that he does not take away with thievish intent.” (AN 10.176) “… Accepting and expecting only what is given, he dwells in honesty and rectitude of heart.” (DN 1)

    *Abstaining from false speech: “He speaks only the truth, he lives devoted to truth; trustworthy and reliable, he does not deceive anyone in the world.” (DN 1) “… he doesn’t consciously tell a lie for his own sake, for the sake of another, or for the sake of any reward. (AN 10.176)
  • Abstaining from harsh/malicious speech: “He speaks in a way that is gentle, pleasing to the ear, endearing, going to the heart, polite, likable, and agreeable to many people”. (DN 1)
  • Right Livelihood for monastics: see DN1.

Establish sense restraint & moderation in eating
How is someone restrained? (SN 35.115)
When seeing a sight with the eye, hearing a sound … smelling an odor … tasting a flavor … feeling a touch … knowing a thought with the mind, if it’s pleasant they don’t hold on to it, and if it’s unpleasant they don’t dislike it. They live with mindfulness established. They guard their sense doors like a tortoise with its limbs withdrawn in its shell, so that Mara would not get any opportunity (SN 35.199).
How to establish sense restraint?
By right understanding (MN 45, MN 46, MN 54, MN 75, SN 35.244; SN 35.101, SN 35.28, SN 35.115, SN 35.199, SN 35.203; MN 27; MN 2);
Sensual pleasure is:
Mara’s bait;
a creeper that might wind its “pleasant” tender, soft, and downy tendrils around the sal tree and eventually strangled/kill the tree;
a cup of beverage possessing a good colour, smell, and taste but mixed with poison;
a hawk that seized a piece of meat chased after by others;
fruits on a tree — the first man climbed this tree to eat the fruits and the second man cut the tree down;
a dream, and borrowed goods;
a thicket full of thorns; “whatever in the world seems nice and pleasant is called a thorn in the training of the noble one”;
an anomalous “pleasure”, like a leper with sores and blisters on his limbs scratching the scabs off the openings of his wounds with his nails, cauterising his body over a burning charcoal pit; although the fire was actually painful to touch, he acquired a mistaken perception of it as pleasant due to impaired faculties.
The origin of sensual pleasures: contact dependent upon six-fold sense bases
The ending sensual pleasures: end of contact
The gratification of sensual pleasures: the pleasure that arises from six kinds (six senses) of sensual stimulation; although such pleasure is an anomalous “pleasure”, a mistaken perception of it as pleasant was acquired (see above); the more beings indulge in sensual pleasures, the more their craving for sensual pleasures increases and the more they are burned by their fever for sensual pleasures (as the leper did by a burning charcoal pit), yet they find a certain measure of satisfaction and enjoyment.
The drawback/danger of sensual desire/pleasures: sensual desire is invariably bound up with dukkha, which manifests 1) as a constant strain of discontent, 2) as struggles and even deadly suffering for fulfilling the desire, 3) as disappointment and despair when failing to satisfy the desire as well as when failing to safeguard the gained, 4) as even more struggles and pain for securing the gained and for gaining more. But all the objects of sensual desire are impermanent, and could change into undesirable states that bring suffering. In addition, separation from the beloved is inevitable, so pain and suffering always mark the end of each cycle of sensual desire. Furthermore, sensual desire brings suffering not only to this life, but also to future life, due to misconduct of body, speech, and mind.
The escape from sensual pleasures: Removing and giving up desire and lust for sensual pleasures (renunciation). The yoke is not sense pleasure in and of itself; it’s the chasing after and clinging to sense pleasure.
By right reflection and contemplation:
Contemplating the drawback/danger inherent in sensual desire
Contemplating the benefits of escaping from sensual pleasures
By right attention: do not attend to things unfit for attention that arouse and increase the taint of sensual desire, but only attend to things fit for attention that abandon and decrease the taint of sensual desire. On seeing a form with the eye …, do not grasp at any theme or details but rather attending to its repulsiveness and impermanence (MN 2, Iti16 SuttaCentral, AN 3.68, SN 9.11).
By keeping up with mindfulness: If every so often one’s mindfulness is lost, and bad unwholesome memories/thoughts prone to fetters arise, one should arouse his mindfulness to quickly get rid of those thoughts (SN 35.244).
By developing jhana for more superior / healthier pleasure: achieving the rapture and bliss or something more peaceful than that to avoid returning to sensual pleasures that are inferior (MN 14, MN 75).
By developing the meditation on foulness/repulsiveness (MN 10).
Practice wakefulness/vigilance: “Practice walking and sitting meditation by day, purifying your mind from hindrances. In the evening, continue to practice walking and sitting meditation. In the middle of the night, lie down in the lion’s posture—on the right side, placing one foot on top of the other—mindful and aware, and focused on the time of getting up. In the last part of the night, get up and continue to practice walking and sitting meditation, purifying your mind from obstacles.” (MN 107*, AN 4.13-14, AN 7.74, MN 20).
Obtain noble contentment (MN 27).
“He becomes content with robes to protect his body and with almsfood to maintain his stomach, and wherever he goes, he sets out taking only these with him. Just as a bird, wherever it goes, flies with its wings as its only burden, so too the bhikkhu becomes content with robes to protect his body and with almsfood to maintain his stomach, and wherever he goes, he sets out taking only these with him. Possessing this aggregate of noble virtue, he experiences within himself a bliss that is blameless.”
Establish mindfulness/awareness and clear comprehension of the body: the basic part of MN 10 – only the mindfulness/awareness of breathing / the four postures / bodily activities, without insight contemplation; can be practiced during daily activities.
Mindfulness of breathing: sitting meditation
Exercise 1: MN10
Breathing in deeply he comprehends, ‘I am breathing in deeply’; breathing out … ; breathing in shallowly he comprehends, ‘I am breathing in shallowly’; breathing out … ;
He trains himself: ‘I shall breathe in experiencing the whole body of the breath; I shall breathe out experiencing the whole body of the breath.’
He trains himself: ‘I shall breathe in tranquillising the breath. I shall breathe out tranquillising the breath.’
Mindfulness of the four postures: MN 10
“… when a mendicant is walking they know: ‘I am walking.’ When standing they know: ‘I am standing.’ When sitting they know: ‘I am sitting.’ And when lying down they know: ‘I am lying down.’ Whatever posture their body is in, they know it.”
Mindfulness of the bodily activities: MN 10
“… acts in a clearly conscious way when going out and coming back; when looking ahead and aside; when bending and extending the limbs; when bearing the outer robe, bowl and robes; when eating, drinking, chewing, and tasting; when urinating and defecating; when walking, standing, sitting, sleeping, waking, speaking, and keeping silent.”
Establish mindfulness/awareness and clear comprehension of feeling: MN 10 only the mindfulness/awareness practices without insight contemplation; can be practiced during daily activities.
“And how does a mendicant meditate observing an aspect of feelings?
It’s when a mendicant who feels a pleasant feeling knows: ‘I feel a pleasant feeling.’
When they feel a painful feeling, they know: ‘I feel a painful feeling.’
When they feel a neutral feeling, they know: ‘I feel a neutral feeling.’
When they feel a material pleasant feeling, they know: ‘I feel a material pleasant feeling.’
When they feel a spiritual pleasant feeling, they know: ‘I feel a spiritual pleasant feeling.’
When they feel a material painful feeling, they know: ‘I feel a material painful feeling.’
When they feel a spiritual painful feeling, they know: ‘I feel a spiritual painful feeling.’
When they feel a material neutral feeling, they know: ‘I feel a material neutral feeling.’
When they feel a spiritual neutral feeling, they know: ‘I feel a spiritual neutral feeling.’

Establish mindfulness/awareness and clear comprehension of mind: (MN 10 – only the mindfulness/awareness practices without insight contemplation; can be practiced during daily activities.)
“… know mind with greed as ‘mind with greed,’ and mind without greed as ‘mind without greed.’ They know mind with hate as ‘mind with hate,’ and mind without hate as ‘mind without hate.’ They know mind with delusion as ‘mind with delusion,’ and mind without delusion as ‘mind without delusion.’ They know constricted mind as ‘contracted mind,’ and scattered (distracted) mind as ‘scattered mind.’ They know mind that has become great as ‘mind that has become great,’ and mind that has not become great as ‘mind that has not become great,’ They know mind that is not supreme as ‘mind that is not supreme,’ and mind that is supreme as ‘mind that is supreme.’ They know mind immersed in samādhi as ‘mind immersed in samādhi,’ and mind not immersed in samādhi as ‘mind not immersed in samādhi.’ They know freed mind as ‘freed mind,’ and unfreed mind as ‘unfreed mind.’
Establish mindfulness/awareness and clear comprehension of five hindrances (MN 10 – only the mindfulness/awareness practices without insight contemplation).
“And how does a mendicant meditate observing an aspect of Dhammas?
It’s when a mendicant meditates by observing an aspect of Dhammas with respect to the five hindrances. And how does a mendicant meditate observing an aspect of principles with respect to the five hindrances?
It’s when a mendicant who has sensual desire in them understands: ‘I have sensual desire in me.’ When they don’t have sensual desire in them, they understand: ‘I don’t have sensual desire in me.’ They understand how sensual desire arises; how, when it’s already arisen, it’s given up; and how, once it’s given up, it doesn’t arise again in the future.
When they have ill will (aversion and anger) in them, they understand: ‘I have ill will in me.’ When they don’t have ill will in them, they understand: ‘I don’t have ill will in me.’ They understand how ill will arises; how, when it’s already arisen, it’s given up; and how, once it’s given up, it doesn’t arise again in the future.
When they have (bodily and mental) dullness and drowsiness in them, they understand: ‘I have dullness and drowsiness in me.’ When they don’t have dullness and drowsiness in them, they understand: ‘I don’t have dullness and drowsiness in me.’ They understand how dullness and drowsiness arise; how, when they’ve already arisen, they’re given up; and how, once they’re given up, they don’t arise again in the future.
When they have (bodily and mental) restlessness and agitation in them, they understand: ‘I have restlessness and agitaton in me.’ When they don’t have restlessness and agitation in them, they understand: ‘I don’t have restlessness and agitation in me.’ They understand how restlessness and agitation arise; how, when they’ve already arisen, they’re given up; and how, once they’re given up, they don’t arise again in the future.
When they have doubt in them, they understand: ‘I have doubt in me.’ When they don’t have doubt in them, they understand: ‘I don’t have doubt in me.’ They understand how doubt arises; how, when it’s already arisen, it’s given up; and how, once it’s given up, it doesn’t arise again in the future.

Overcome five hindrances (AN 1.11-20; AN 10.51; DN 10).
Sensual desire:
Aversion, anger: practice equanimity
“Rāhula, meditate like the earth. For when you meditate like the earth, pleasant and unpleasant contacts will not occupy your mind. Suppose they were to toss both clean and unclean things on the earth, like feces, urine, spit, pus, and blood. The earth isn’t horrified, repelled, and disgusted because of this. In the same way, meditate like the earth. For when you meditate like the earth, pleasant and unpleasant contacts will not occupy your mind.
Meditate like water. For when you meditate like water, pleasant and unpleasant contacts will not occupy your mind. Suppose they were to wash both clean and unclean things in the water, like feces, urine, spit, pus, and blood. The water isn’t horrified, repelled, and disgusted because of this. In the same way, meditate like water. For when you meditate like water, pleasant and unpleasant contacts will not occupy your mind.
Meditate like fire. For when you meditate like fire, pleasant and unpleasant contacts will not occupy your mind. Suppose a fire were to burn both clean and unclean things, like feces, urine, spit, pus, and blood. The fire isn’t horrified, repelled, and disgusted because of this. In the same way, meditate like fire. For when you meditate like fire, pleasant and unpleasant contacts will not occupy your mind.
Meditate like wind. For when you meditate like wind, pleasant and unpleasant contacts will not occupy your mind. Suppose the wind were to blow on both clean and unclean things, like feces, urine, spit, pus, and blood. The wind isn’t horrified, repelled, and disgusted because of this. In the same way, meditate like the wind. For when you meditate like wind, pleasant and unpleasant contacts will not occupy your mind.
Meditate like space. For when you meditate like space, pleasant and unpleasant contacts will not occupy your mind. Just as space is not established anywhere, in the same way, meditate like space. For when you meditate like space, pleasant and unpleasant contacts will not occupy your mind. “ [MN 62]
(3) Mental and physical lethargy:
(4) Mental and physical restless/agitation: observe breath …
(5) Doubt: the doubts that prevent samadhi.
Development of Five Aggregates (MN 10):
Develop the meditation on impermanence (MN 125, MN 10 emphasizing insight meditation, MN 118, MN 62*; AN 8.6); understand the impersonal nature (anicca/dukkha/anatta) of five aggregates,
“Furthermore, a mendicant meditates by observing an aspect of Dhammas with respect to the five grasping aggregates. And how does a mendicant meditate observing an aspect of Dhammas with respect to the five grasping aggregates? It’s when a mendicant contemplates: ‘Such is form, such is the origin of form, such is the ending of form. Such is feeling, such is the origin of feeling, such is the ending of feeling. Such is perception, such is the origin of perception, such is the ending of perception. Such is volition, such is the origin of volition, such is the ending of volition. Such is consciousness, such is the origin of consciousness, such is the ending of consciousness.’
And so they meditate observing an aspect of the five aggregates internally, externally, and both internally and externally. They meditate observing the five aggregaes as liable to originate, as liable to vanish, and as liable to both originate and vanish.”
12. Contemplate The Awakening Factors and Four Noble Truths
The Awakening Factors:
Furthermore, a mendicant meditates by observing an aspect of principles with respect to the seven awakening factors. And how does a mendicant meditate observing an aspect of principles with respect to the seven awakening factors?
It’s when a mendicant who has the awakening factor of mindfulness in them understands: ‘I have the awakening factor of mindfulness in me.’ When they don’t have the awakening factor of mindfulness in them, they understand: ‘I don’t have the awakening factor of mindfulness in me.’ They understand how the awakening factor of mindfulness that has not arisen comes to arise; and how the awakening factor of mindfulness that has arisen becomes fulfilled by development.
When they have the awakening factor of study/rehearsal of the Buddha’s teaching … energy … piti/sukha … tranquility … immersion … equanimity in them, they understand: ‘I have the awakening factor of equanimity in me.’ When they don’t have the awakening factor of equanimity in them, they understand: ‘I don’t have the awakening factor of equanimity in me.’ They understand how the awakening factor of equanimity that has not arisen comes to arise; and how the awakening factor of equanimity that has arisen becomes fulfilled by development.”
Four Noble Truths:
“Furthermore, a mendicant meditates by observing an aspect of principles with respect to the four noble truths.
And how does a mendicant meditate observing an aspect of principles with respect to the four noble truths? It’s when a mendicant truly understands: ‘This is suffering’ … ‘This is the origin of suffering’ … ‘This is the cessation of suffering’ … ‘This is the practice that leads to the cessation of suffering.’
Obtain right concentration – four Jhanas equipped with right view, right resolve/thoughts, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, and right mindfulness ( AN 7.67, DN 10, DN22, MN 125, MN 44, MN 62; AN 4.41, MN 208).
Obtain right knowledge/deliverance: directly seeing the death and rebirth of sentient beings (the law of kamma), and experiencing the ending of cravings (craving for sensual pleasures, renewed existence, and extermination) which is Nibbana by truly understanding the Four Noble Truths (MN 125).
Not The Buddha’s teaching:
Minor, Other, Abhidhamma; Dhammapada,
MN 18, MN 120, MN 117, MN 135, MN 149,
DN 27, DN 29, DN 31,
AN3.80, AN 5.177, AN 8.54, AN 7.49, AN 9.36, AN 10.177, AN 10.29,
SN 6.1, SN 35.135, SN 56.46, sn56.47,
Maṅgala Sutta Kp 5

There are more errors in suttas than in Vinaya; Fewer errors in the suttas of my Sequence.

Errors: DN 10 (no rejoicing 17and equanimity), DN 21 [sense restraint section is helpful]

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Hey @Starter , the idea of the “Q & A” category is to get answers for specific questions.
I don’t think the topic you started is aligned with that principle.
Please consider changing it to the “Discussion” category.
Also, as always, have a look at the link below to understand what is expected of you when participating in this virtual space:

:anjal:

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As @Gabriel_L so gently pointed out, this post is misplaced in this topic; but before the post may be moved or perhaps disappear, I’d like to point out a fundamental misunderstanding that it reveals [edit: since they posted it in Q&A surely to gain feedback].

The writer clearly is very sincere and has put many hours into this work. Yet this list inadvertently misrepresents the Buddha’s gradual training. His gradual training begins with generosity, followed by virtue!

Here is a lovely concise analysis of the Buddha’s gradual training:

  1. Generosity (dana)
  2. Virtue (sila)
  1. Heaven (sagga)
  1. Drawbacks (adinava)
  2. Renunciation (nekkhamma)
  3. The Four Noble Truths (cattari ariya saccani)
  4. The Noble Truth of Dukkha (dukkha ariya sacca)
    * Dukkha
    * The round of rebirth (samsara)
  5. The Noble Truth of the Cause of Dukkha (dukkha samudayo ariya sacca)
    * Craving (tanha)
    * Ignorance (avijja)
  6. The Noble Truth of the Cessation of Dukkha (dukkha nirodho ariya sacca)
    * Nibbana
  7. The Noble Truth of the Path Leading to the Cessation of Dukkha (dukkha nirodha gamini patipada ariya sacca) — The Noble Eightfold Path. The Commentaries group the eight path factors into three divisions:

Discernment (pañña) :

* 1. [Right View](https://www.accesstoinsight.org/ptf/dhamma/sacca/sacca4/samma-ditthi/index.html)  *(samma-ditthi)*
  * [Intentional action](https://www.accesstoinsight.org/ptf/dhamma/sacca/sacca4/samma-ditthi/kamma.html)  *(kamma)*
  * [Admirable friendship](https://www.accesstoinsight.org/ptf/dhamma/sacca/sacca4/samma-ditthi/kalyanamittata.html)  *(kalyanamittata)*
* 2. [Right Resolve](https://www.accesstoinsight.org/ptf/dhamma/sacca/sacca4/samma-sankappo/index.html)  *(samma-sankappo)*

Virtue (sila) :

* 3. [Right Speech](https://www.accesstoinsight.org/ptf/dhamma/sacca/sacca4/samma-vaca/index.html)  *(samma-vaca)*
* 4. [Right Action](https://www.accesstoinsight.org/ptf/dhamma/sacca/sacca4/samma-kammanto/index.html)  *(samma-kammanto)*
* 5. [Right Livelihood](https://www.accesstoinsight.org/ptf/dhamma/sacca/sacca4/samma-ajivo/index.html)  *(samma-ajivo)*

Concentration (samadhi) :

* 6. [Right Effort](https://www.accesstoinsight.org/ptf/dhamma/sacca/sacca4/samma-vayamo/index.html)  *(samma-vayamo)*
* 7. [Right Mindfulness](https://www.accesstoinsight.org/ptf/dhamma/sacca/sacca4/samma-sati/index.html)  *(samma-sati)*
* 8. [Right Concentration](https://www.accesstoinsight.org/ptf/dhamma/sacca/sacca4/samma-samadhi/index.html)  *(samma-samadhi)*
  * [ *Jhana* ](https://www.accesstoinsight.org/ptf/dhamma/sacca/sacca4/samma-samadhi/jhana.html)

So how could someone work so hard at this topic and yet get it so wrong? The same source explains:

Many Westerners first encounter the Buddha’s teachings on meditation retreats, which typically begin with instructions in how to develop the skillful qualities of right mindfulness and right concentration. It is worth noting that, as important as these qualities are, the Buddha placed them towards the very end of his gradual course of training. The meaning is clear: to reap the most benefit from meditation practice, to bring to full maturity all the qualities needed for Awakening, the fundamental groundwork must not be overlooked. There is no short-cutting this process.

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Hi friends! Well done @starter on putting this list together. It’s a great way to learn more about the suttas and put them into practice!

With deep respect Ayya, I think you are not correct in this. Actually, it’s a common misunderstanding.
Often we mistakenly conflate two similar but separate gradual methods from the suttas; Anupubbikathā and Anupubbasikkhā.

Anupubbikathā = step-by-step “Gradual Instruction” (kathā meaning speech)
Anupubbasikkhā = the "Gradual Training (sikkha meaning training)

Gradual Instruction was given by the Buddha, often to lay people, such as in the talk directed to Suppabuddha in the Udana, below. This Gradual instruction is the sequence that starts with generosity, virtue, etc, ending in the the 4 Noble Truths (right view):

“This one here is able to understand the Dhamma”, and having regard to the leper Suppabuddha he related a gradual talk, that is to say: talk on giving, talk on virtue, talk on heaven, the danger, degradation, and defilement of sensual desires, and the advantages in renunciation—these he explained. When the Gracious One knew that the leper Suppabuddha was of ready mind, malleable mind, unhindered mind, uplifted mind, trusting mind, then he explained the Dhamma teaching the Awakened Ones have discovered themselves: suffering, origination, cessation, path.
(Suppabuddhakuṭṭhi Sutta Ud 5.3)

Then there’s Anupubbasikkhā , Gradual Training, which is different to the Gradual Instruction sequence but has similarities, which laregly accounts for so much confusion about the two. The Gradual Training is explained in detail in suttas such as Cūḷahatthipadopama Sutta MN 27 and describe the entirety of the holy life, especially the life of monastics. The Gradual Training starts with the arising of the Buddha in the world (this is also the arising of Right View) who teaches the Dhamma (also Right View):

… a Realized One arises in the world, perfected, a fully awakened Buddha, accomplished in knowledge and conduct, holy, knower of the world, supreme guide for those who wish to train, teacher of gods and humans, awakened, blessed. He realizes with his own insight this world—with its gods, Māras and Brahmās, this population with its ascetics and brahmins, gods and humans—and he makes it known to others. He teaches Dhamma that’s good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, meaningful and well-phrased. And he reveals a spiritual practice that’s entirely complete and pure.

A householder hears that teaching, or a householder’s child, or someone reborn in some good family. They gain faith in the Realized One, and reflect, ‘Living in a house is cramped and dirty, but the life of one gone forth is wide open. It’s not easy for someone living at home to lead the spiritual life utterly full and pure, like a polished shell. Why don’t I shave off my hair and beard, dress in ocher robes, and go forth from the lay life to homelessness?’ After some time they give up a large or small fortune, and a large or small family circle. They shave off hair and beard, dress in ocher robes, and go forth from the lay life to homelessness.

Once they’ve gone forth, they take up the training and livelihood of the mendicants. They give up killing living creatures, renouncing the rod and the sword. They’re scrupulous and kind, living full of compassion for all living beings…

There follows in detail large sections on virtue, sense restraint, mindfulness and clear comprehension, contentment, , the bliss of blamelessness, overcoming hindrances etc which is what I believe @Starter is referring to above, looking at the flow and sequence ( the formatting could be made a bit clearer with headings etc which would be easier to read)

Here, the author is right to start with Right View for the gradual training.

I love this aspiration!

Many people feel right view is something that only develops at the very end of the path. But Right View is a bit of a recursive loop, in that a modicum of Right View is always required on the spiritual path, even at the very beginning, otherwise we would never make any progress toward the full Right View which liberates. This seems a bit of a paradox especially when we look at the gradual instruction and see that Right View is at the end of the sequence. The reason for this, I think, is that the Buddha is building up confidence in the listener in his teaching and making sure that the development of understanding is based on experiential wisdom, not just faith; so he begins with things that are easy to know for oneself - generosity is good. Ethics are good. You want to go to heaven? The deities got there doing these things… but… there are some drawbacks… can you see them? And so on… only when the Buddha is convinced of his listeners’ ability to l understand does he introduce the 4 Noble Truths, which is probably the classic way we think of Right View, however, the Buddha has been developing the seeds of right view in the conversation all along and those things that he mentioned are also right view.

Right View is needed at the beginning:

“Mendicants, the dawn is the forerunner and precursor of the sunrise. In the same way, right view is the forerunner and precursor of skillful qualities.

Right view gives rise to right thought. Right thought gives rise to right speech. Right speech gives rise to right action. Right action gives rise to right livelihood. Right livelihood gives rise to right effort. Right effort gives rise to right mindfulness. Right mindfulness gives rise to right immersion. Right immersion gives rise to right knowledge. Right knowledge gives rise to right freedom.”
Pubbangama Sutta AN 10.121

Often in the suttas, Right View is defined in various clear and practical ways which seem more applicable to our daily lives and perhaps more easy to attain compared to the lofttier Right View that liberates:

Right View In Brief:

“One understands wrong view as wrong view and right view as right view: this is one’s right view.”
Mahācattārīsaka Sutta MN 117

Right View as the Standard pericope on Kamma and Knowledge

‘There is what is given and what is offered and what is sacrificed; there is fruit and result of good and bad actions; there is this world and the other world; there is mother and father; there are beings who are reborn spontaneously; there are in the world good and virtuous recluses and brahmins who have realised for themselves by direct knowledge and declare this world and the other world.’ This is Right View…"

I like that definition above tells us that generosity is actually right view, which neatly dove-tails together the Gradual Instruction (starting with generosity) and (Gradual Training) starting with Right View, doesnt it? And here, we also see the mention of heavens, which also forms part of the gradual instruction sequence too.

Two-fold Division of Right View
This is often called Mundane and Transcendental Right View, the mundane version being worldly and conditioned " that is affected by taints, partaking of merit, ripening in the acquisitions" is the same definition given just above, about giving, sacrifice, rebirth, other worlds etc, and the transcendental being “noble, taintless and surpamundane”, which is Right View as the Path Factor :

“And what, bhikkhus, is right view that is noble, taintless, supramundane, a factor of the path? The wisdom, the faculty of wisdom, the power of wisdom, the investigation-of-states enlightenment factor, the path factor of right view in one whose mind is noble, whose mind is taintless, who possesses the noble path and is developing the noble path: this is right view that is noble, taintless, supramundane, a factor of the path.

“One makes an effort to abandon wrong view and to enter upon right view: this is one’s right effort. Mindfully one abandons wrong view, mindfully one enters upon and abides in right view: this is one’s right mindfulness. Thus these three states run and circle around right view, that is, right view, right effort, and right mindfulness…Mahācattārīsaka Sutta MN 117

Right View as the Ten Wholesome Actions
Here again we see the recursive loop where right view is needed to understand what is skillful but is also part of what is skillful.

A noble disciple understands the unskillful and its root, and the skillful and its root. When they’ve done this, they’re defined as a noble disciple who has Right View, whose view is correct, who has experiential confidence in the teaching, and has come to the true teaching…
And what is the skillful? Avoiding killing living creatures, stealing, and sexual misconduct; avoiding speech that’s false, divisive, harsh, or nonsensical; contentment, good will, and right view. This is called the skillful. And what is the root of the skillful? Contentment, love, and understanding. This is called the root of the skillful. Sammādiṭṭhi Sutta MN 9

Right View is Seeing the Four Noble Truths

“And what is right view? Knowing about suffering, the origin of suffering, the cessation of suffering, and the practice that leads to the cessation of suffering. This is called right view.”
Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta MN10

Right View is also knowing Dependent Origination, which is how most people think of right view, which seems to put right view far out of reach somehow, making us feel like it is not something we can see right here and now in front of us, when actually, looking at the various ways the Buddha defined Right View, is very tangible and visible to us. Seeing those things mentioned above as right view would very much propel us on the path!

When we see the exclamation of people’s delight in hearing the dhamma and understanding something they had previously been ignorant of, that is a little bit of Right View, too:

“Excellent, sir! Excellent! As if he were righting the overturned, or revealing the hidden, or pointing out the path to the lost, or lighting a lamp in the dark so people with good eyes can see what’s there, the Buddha has made the teaching clear in many ways.
Sāmaññaphala Sutta DN 2

For many of us, hearing the Dhamma for the very first time, and on subsequent hearing is that spark of Right View that spurs us onto the path. In a way, it is that small bit of Right View which we need to make progress, which is why Right View is also at the beginning of the Noble Eightfold Path. This is why it is placed at the beginning of the Gradual Training and also at the end!

Also important of course is yoniso manasakara (wise attention); it wouldn’t matter how much we hear about gradual training or gradual instruction if we aren’t paying wise attention!

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IMHO, the gradual training too seems to occur at two levels.

The Mundane training (for want of a better term) is aimed at the layperson. It is chiefly concerned with understanding the law of Kamma, analyzing one’s defects of character/action and fixing them with a view to achieving a better rebirth. This just skims the basics of Anicca, Anatta, Dukkha and Dependent Origination - all that is needed is to develop sufficient understanding so as to be able to let go of Desire/ Aversion to the extent that one does not commit unskillful actions and becomes more ethical. Samadhi is not essential, but is encouraged. Becoming a stream enterer is the apex of this path.

The Transcendental training is for those with a taste for the higher teachings- Monks and certain motivated laypeople. This digs deeper into the Dhamma, with the aim of going beyond Kamma and therefore, transcending Dukkha. To do this, one must investigate the ultimate nature of what we take to be our Self, Reality and the Experience thereof. This leads to a much deeper understanding of concepts such as Anicca, Anatta and Dependent Origination. Developing good Samadhi (at least first Jhana) is essential to the development of Tranquility and Insight to a level where things can be experientially understood. Once there arises an understanding of the central role of Craving in keeping the process of Everything going, the hindrances can be seen through and put aside. Doing it just once is the fruit of Stream entry. Having let go of it all finally and forever is Nibbana.

This is my current understanding. Please confirm it with a teacher. I feel it may help to be able to classify the suttas better.
:pray: :smiley: :pray:

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Hi @Starter, thank you for sharing your personal sutta research with us for comment, and thereby stimulating an interesting discussion.
Seeing how it didn’t ask a simple question that is easily answered, I’ve moved the discussion to the Discussion category.

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