UPED ekagga, ekodi, Ekaggatā, Ekodi-bhāva

Table of Contents

Ekaggatā, Ekodi

Ekodi-bhava appears in the STED right concentration second jhāna formula, but not in the other 4 jhānas. One reasonable inference is that in first jhāna, with the thinking and evaluation performed by vitakka and vicāra, the samādhi of first jhāna is considered inferior, not qualified as “ekodi”.
We can infer that if Ekodi is in the 2nd jhāna, it’s in the higher jhānas and samādhi attainments as well.

limitations of existing translations

* one-pointed (mind): that's just wrong. See Ven. Thanissaro’s article “how pointy is one pointed (below)”
* unification of mind
* singular mind
* 'unification' and 'singular' are good translations, and they work, but they're vague and abstract. It doesn't tell you exactly what you're supposed to do in meditation to make the mind 'unified'.
* after surveying the different articles and approaches, I found the KN Ps explanation the most sensible, practical, and usable (you can teach someone how to meditate using those translations). Ajahn Lee’s (and Ven. Thanissaro’s translation of his Thai) for ekaggata-arammana (single preoccupation of mind) also matches the KN Ps definition very well.

ek'-agga = single-preoccupation

* following KN Ps, ek'-agga = single-predominant [theme], arammana = (object of) preoccupation
* citta ek'-agga = mind (has a) single-preoccupation
* mental energy is gathered, unified, into a single 'place', and fills the entire bandwidth of one's attention so that only this 'single-preoccupation' dominates one's awareness.
* There is single-minded focus on this single preoccupation, one is not distracted by other objects competing for the mind's attention.
* the 'preoccupation', theme of focus of one's attention, can be broad, narrow, big, small, vast, tiny, physical or mental. It is not restricted to a pin point in space, or a single "thing".
* One preoccupation, the theme, can have "many" attribute. For example, if the breath is the theme, then heat, pressure, eletrical currents, powerful vibrations, euphoria, are all part of the single theme of experiencing the breath in the entire body. Similarly, if one's theme is an 'earth kasina', the many attributes could entail size, spatial location (3 dimensional coordinates in space), brightness, quality of color, shape, etc.

ekodi-bhava = become-singular

* synonymous with ek'-agga


ek'-agga = eka + agga = one place
The other meaning of 'agga': the best, supreme, peak (of a mountain), the foremost, predominant
ek'-agga citta perhaps has this intended figurative meaning:
* one-peak mind (a mind operating at peak efficiency)
* singular-supreme mind ('singular' means exceptional, outstanding, of noteworthy distinction).
A mind that has attained second jhana is certainly exceptional and noteworthy.
Perhaps, the sense of 'agga' as a physical 'place', is represented by a mental place where one’s mental energy gathers, consolidates, in this one place, centered on a single-mental-preoccupation.
KN Ps definition gives 'agga' as the 'predominant (theme)' that the mind is focused on.
There's actually a preexisting English expression that matches 'ekagga citta' that agrees with KN Ps. It's called "being single minded."
In the EBT, it seems to be synonymous with ekagga. Therefore:
ekodi-bhava = singular-(it has)-become = become-singular

now it makes sense

When MN 44 says samadhi = citassa ekaggata,
undistractable-lucidity = mind (with) single-preoccupation.
* you undistractify the mind, don't get distracted.
* you make the mind lucid, very sharp, very clear. Not dull, not fuzzy.
* you only have one preoccupation, not two, not three, not jumping around like a monkey.
You add passaddhi-bojjhanga (pacification-awakening-factor), then you get four jhanas. That's all there is to it, as far as instructions go.

4 jhanas in 1 step

1. pacify (exactly like 'fan song' in taiji).

4 jhanas in 2 steps

1. pacify
2. undistractify

4 jhanas in 3 steps

1. pacify body and mind, deeply relax, exactly like 'fan song' in taiji.
2. undistractify the mind, down to just a single preoccupation.
3. don't pacify the mind to the point of dullness or sleep, it needs to be sharp and clear, but deeply relaxed. That takes practice, and it requires a healthy body to tune and balance the mental energy between sharp clarity and drowsiness. It's not hard, but it takes time to train, and assiduity to not give up from impatience and frustration. Just like a child needs to eat day after day before growing to full strength. You can't stop eating for 3 months and expect to grow up healthy. You need to eat everyday. It's that easy. It's just that people want quick results and give up too quickly. Not enough assiduity, not enough resilience to adversity.

the secret is

assiduity (appamada) and learning to love the theme of your single-preoccupation. That’s what the first 4 factors of awakening are for (that precede passadhi/pacification). Techniques to use inspiring V&V (thinking and evaluation) that leads to willingly and gladly relinquishing V&V.

SN 48.9 STED samādhi-indriya of 5ind

♦ “katamañ-ca, bhikkhave, samādh-indriyaṃ?
"{And}-what, monks, (is) undistractable-lucidity-faculty?
idha, bhikkhave, ariya-sāvako
Here, monks, (a) disciple-of-the-noble-ones,
vossagg-ārammaṇaṃ karitvā
{having made} release-(as one’s)-preoccupation
labhati samādhiṃ,
(he) obtains undistractable-lucidity,
labhati cittassa ek’-aggataṃ —
(he) obtains mind (with) single-preoccupation -
idaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, samādh-indriyaṃ.
this (is) called, *********, undistractable-lucidity-faculty.

Dictionary definitions


CPD; critical pali dict.

ek'-agga; CPD defn.

ek'-agga, m. and mfn. (eka + agga),
1. (m.) peace of mind, internal tranquillity;
2. (mfn.) single-pointed, agreed, closely attentive;
— 1. Abh 1035;
— aladdhā cittass' ~aṁ, Th 406 (= °-taṁ, Th-a II 173,9);
— 2. devā Tāvatiṁsā ~ā samāpajjiṁsu, D II 210,2 = 226,6 (Ee °-tā);
samāhitaṁ cittaṁ ~aṁ, Vin III 4,6 (samāhi- tattā eva ca ~aṁ acalaṁ nipphandanaṁ, Sp 141,19 = Ps I 124,18 = Mp II 243,32 = IV 88,12) = M I 21,33 = A I 147,6 = II 14,24 = Paṭis I 173,16 (= avikkhittaṁ, Paṭis-a 483,14);
cittaṁ bhāvehi ~aṁ, S I 188,21 = Sn 341 (Pj II 343,23) = Th 1225 = Thī 19 = 82 = Ap 549,3 = 609,13;
~o satthusāsane, 43,10 (buddhasāsane aham eva "eko" vinayadharānaṁ "aggo" seṭṭho uttamo ti attho, Ap-a 283,26);
~o naṁ damem' ahaṁ, Ap 67,12 (Ap-a 343,15);
cittaṁ ~aṁ karoti, Mil 139,32;
tassa pa- ṇītabhojanaṁ bhuttass' eva cittaṁ ~aṁ ahosi, Spk I 350,18;
nisinnassa ~assa sukhasamappitakālo viya yogi- no, II 83,9;
ekodiṁ karohī ti ~aṁ karohi, 233,23;
cittaṁ ~aṁ hoti, Sp 237,25 = 408,5 = Ps I 264,11 = II 215,22,29;
~ā hutvā dhammadesanaṁ paṭicchituṁ na sakkuṇissati, IV 76,18 ≠ 76,19;
so hi ~o hutvā appeti, As 115,13;
atha satto ~o hoti, 330,28;
tassa cittaṁ nānā- rammaṇesu vidhāvati, ~aṁ na hoti, Th-a I 189,6;
anto cittavikkhepābhāvena ~aṁ, III 192,27 ad Th 1225;
ekaṁ ārammaṇaṁ aggaṁ uttamaṁ assā ti ~o;
~assa bhāvo °-tā, Paṭis-a 230,7;
310,8 = Mhv-ṭ 8,1;
~o ti °-citto, Ap-a 374,25 ad Ap 101,1;
~aṁ °-cittaṁ susamā- hitaṁ, Ap-a 446,30;
vinīvaraṇaṁ ~aṁ, Saddh 458;
— ifc. an-°;
— °-citta, mfn., having a concentrated mind;
te kulaputtā . . . samāhitā ~ā, M I 32,22 = III 6,25 = S V 144,22 = A I 70,13;
ahaṁ . . . samāhito ~o, M I 210,27;
puggalo . . . samāhito ~o, A I 266,27 ≠ III 391,23;
sato ~' assa ajjhattaṁ susamāhito, II 29,21 (sa- tiyā samannāgato ārammaṇe ~o assa, Mp III 61,17);
~o yoniso ca manasikaroti, A III 175,4;
~o arahā c' amhi khīṇāsavo, Ud 46,7 (= avikkhittacitto, Ud-a 268,22);
yathā ~assa sammā dhammaṁ vipassato, Th 398 (Th-a II 169,24) = 1071;
taṁ ~ā suṇātha, Ja VI 292,7;
~ā (add pi?) ekamekā rahasi gatā atthaṁ nicintayitvā, 352,7*;
~o avikkhittacitto, Nidd I 478,13 (ad "ekodi") = 501,17 = 509,6;
ayaṁ parisā ~ā dhammaṁ suṇāti, Sp 202,31;
sabbe ~ā sannisinnā nisīdiṁsu, 1006,20;
abyag- gamanaso ti ~o, Spk I 163,23;
ekodi-nipakā ti ~ā, 109,20;
ekaggo ti ~o, Ap-a 374,25 ad Ap 101,1;
ekag- gaṁ ~aṁ susamāhitaṁ, Ap-a 446,30;
~ā, Mhv-ṭ 579,24 ad Mhv XXXI 100 ("ekaggamānasā");
udarapaṭalaṁ muñcitvā vatthusmiṁ gahite °-tā, As 311,11;
— ifc. an-°;
— °(a)ṭṭha, m., onepointedness as the meaning;
cittassa ~o abhiññeyyo, Paṭis I 17,14 ≠ 15,22 (samādhivasena cittassa ~o, Paṭis-a 98,7;
tesaṁ yeva samādhivasena ekārammaṇapariggahaṁ apekkhitvā ~o, 94,5);
~aṁ bujjhantī ti bojjhaṅgā, Paṭis II 118,28 ≠ 120,18;
tesaṁ yeva samādhivasena ekārammaṇaṁ apekkhitvā ~ena, Paṭis-a 236,27 ad Paṭis I 49,20 ("~ena samādhi");
— ifc. an-°;
— °-tā, f abstr., see below;
— °-bhâva, m., state of being concentrated;
ekaggatan ti ~aṁ, Paṭis-a 509,7;
cittassa ~o cittekaggatā, samādhiss' etaṁ nāma, As 118,16;
— °-mana(s), n., a concentrated mind;
~asā sabbe vaṇṇayissaṁ, Ap 461,24;
— °-mānasa, mfn., hav- ing a concentrated mind;
taṁ pāṭihāriyaṁ disvā pasann' ~ā devāmanussā arahattaṁ pattā, Mhv XXXI 100 (= pasannā ekaggacittā, Mhv-ṭ 579,23);
kāyavivekacittavi- vekānaṁ lābhena ~o, Att 21,33;
— Makkhaṇa, mfn., having concentration as a mark;
~o samādhi, Nett 28,14.

ekodi; CPD defn.

ekodi, m. and mfn. [eka + *ūti "web " or "effort";
BHS ekot[ī/i];
v. ūdi (for t > d cf. Geiger PLL § 38.3)], 1. (m.) concentration (of mind), "singleness (of mind)" (Ñm, Paṭis-Trsl.);
a calm, concentrated state of mind associated with jhāna = samādhi or ekagga(tā);
for earlier interpretations cf. Morris, JPTS 1885, pp. 32 foll., Levi, JAs 1916, p. 502, Renou, JAs 1939, p. 393 n. 1;
the proposed derivation < ekodhi is perhaps supported by the v.l. ekodhi, q. v.;
— Rem.: the trsl.s "predominance" and "aloofness" are supported by the etym. in the ct.s (eka = seṭṭha, asahāya;
udi [q. v.] < udeti, udāyati [see 1. below]) and in Sadd 315,21 (īdi udi ~i paṇḍito), but they do not fit the earliest canonical usage;
they were probably influenced by the etym. of the syn. ekagga(tā), which later replaced ~ ;
2. (mfn.) (a) unified, single, concen- trated;
(b) aloof, (mentally) secluded;
(c) predominant, pre-eminent;
— 1. (m.) athavā sampayuttadhamme ud- āyatī (As: udayatī) ti udi (v. l. udi;
As om.), uṭṭhapetī ti attho;
seṭṭhaṭṭhena eko ca so udi cā ti (As Ee w.r. udiccā), samādhiss' etam adhivacanaṁ, iti imam ~iṁ bhāveti vaḍḍhetī ti idaṁ dutiyajjhānaṁ °-bhāvaṁ, Vism 156,24-27 = As 169,26-29;
so panâyaṁ ~i yasmā cetaso, na sattassa, na jīvassa, tasmā etaṁ cetaso °-bhāvan ti vuttaṁ, As 169,29-31 = Vism 156,28-29 = Moh 174,5-6;
°-bhūto ti eko seṭṭho (Ee w.r.) asahāyo va hutvā udetī ti ~i, It-a I 175,16;
°-bhāvan ti ettha vitakka-vicārehi anajjhārūḷhattā eko aggo seṭṭho udetī ti ~i, samādhi, Moh 174,4;
— 2. (mfn.) (a) in connection with jhāna: te jhānāni upasampajja ~i (pl.) nipakā (Ee prints as one word) satā, S I 52,6* (ekaggacittā c' eva paññā- nepakkena ca samannāgatā, Spk I 109,20) ≠ A III 354,22* (Mp III 378,2) ≠ Sn 962 (Pj II 572,20);
~ī ti ekaggacitto avikkhittacitto avisāhaṭamānaso (Mss. Bp S and Be add [inappropriately] samatho samādhindriyaṁ samādhibalaṁ ... pe ... sammāsamādhi) ti ~i, Nidd I 478,13-14 (ad Sn 962);
~ī ti adhicittasikkhaṁ pucchati, 478,20;
— cittaṁ ~iṁ karohi, S II 273,27 (~iṁ karohī ti ekaggaṁ karohi, Spk II 233,23);
— 2.(b) meaning differs only in Sv: jhānena ~i nipako sato, D II 267,5* (~ī ti ekībhāvaṁ gato, Sv 703,12);
— 2.(c) v. s. v. ekodibhāva;
— °-karoti, pr. 3 sg., to make single (of the mind), to concentrate (= samādahati);
sometimes printed as two words;
— forms: pres. 1 sg. ~omi, 3 sg. ~oti;
imper. 2 sg. ~ohi;
ger. ~-kātabbaṁ;
— cittaṁ saṇṭhapemi sannisādemi ~omi samādahāmi, M I 116,15 (ekodiṁ karomī ti ekaggaṁ karomi, Ps II 83,12);
cittaṁ ~omi, 249,30;
cittaṁ ~oti, III 111,21;
Peṭ 41,9;
pathame jhāne cittaṁ ~ohi (v.l. ~iṁ karohi), S IV 263,21;
... samādhinimittt[sic ->OHP]e ... cittaṁ ... ~-kātabbaṁ, M III 112,17;
cittaṁ ~-kātabbaṁ, A II 94,22 (Mp III 116,22 prints as two words);
— Rem.: with karoti (both active and passive) ~ may be a separate word, a neuter nom. or acc. agreeing with cittaṁ, nom. or acc.;
with bhāvita ~ is certainly a cpd., and so it is probably a cpd. with hoti and bhūta, although the construction would allow the possibility of two separate words;
we nowhere find in Pāli the -ī- form which we should expect in a cpd.;
BHS has both -i- and -ī-;
the later ct.s perhaps regarded ~ as a noun;
— °(i)-aṭṭha, m. [ekodi + aṭṭha], "singleness as a meaning" (Ñm);
ekatte ~o abhiññeyyo, Paṭis I 18,2;
~aṁ bujjhantī ti bojjhaṅgā, II 120,23;
samādhissa ~o, Paṭis-a 98,12;
— °-nāmaka, mfn., called "e.";
ayañ ca ~o samādhi, Vism 156,30 = As 169,33 = Moh 174,7;
— °-bhāva, m. [BHS ekotībhāva], 1. singleness, unity (of mind), concentration;
2. solitude;
3. pre-eminence;
— 1. in set phrase with ref to second jhāna: ... ajjhattaṁ sampasādanaṁ cetaso ~aṁ, Vin III 4,10 (Sp 147,32-148,4) = D I 37,13 (Franke, D-Trsl. p. 39 n. 6 "Erhebung und Zusammenschluss des Geistes" is based upon a wrong etym.) = III 78,8 = 131,24 = 222,8 = M I 21,37 = 117,10 = III 14,26 = S II 273,15-31 (Spk II 233,23, v. supra s.v. ekodi-karohi) = III 236,14 = IV 264,2-17 = A II 127,2 = IV 66,25 = 112,4 = Nidd I 39,24 (Nidd-a I 135,3-20) qu. Paṭis-a 75,31;
Dhs 161 (As 169,21-170,30;
"supremely exalted", As-Trsl.) = Vibh 245,8 ("exalted development of mind" Vibh-Trsl.);
— Rem.: both tr sis are based on meaning 3., found only in ct.s;
v. infra and Rem. s.v. ekodi;
— in expl. of sammāsamādhi: Vibh 105,31 = Paṭis I 41,38 (Paṭis-a 184,31-185,4);
cetaso ~an ti: yā cittassa ṭhiti ... (= Dhs 24, which is expl. of sammāsamādhi) ... , Vibh 258,10 (ad Vibh 245,8);
— in expl. of adhicittasikkhā: Nidd I 39,24 (Nidd-a I 135,3-20): — tesaṁ (i. e. vitakka- vicārānaṁ) vūpasamā ~aṁ cittekaggataṁ hoti, tassa ~ena pīti pāripūriṁ gacchati, Peṭ 143,17-18 ("singleness", Ñm Peṭ-Trsl. § 586);
a jhānaṅga in second and fourth jhānas: Peṭ 147,3,5;
but cf. ekaggatā at Abhidh-s 33,8;
— expl. in ct.s: ~an ti ... eko aggo seṭṭho udetī ti ekodi, samādhi;
taṁ bhāveti vaḍḍheti ti dutiyajjhānaṁ ~aṁ, Moh 174,3-4 (based on expl. in Sp 147,32-148,4 = Nidd-a I 135,3-20 = Paṭis-a 184,31-185,12 = Vism 156,20-157,9 (quoting Vibh 258,10) = As 169,21-170,27 (v. s.v. udi);
— 2. alternative rendering suggested in ct.s;
Ja V 256,5' (= ekavihārikaṁ);
— 3. a late etym.: cetaso ~an (D I 37,13) ti ādisu seṭṭhe (Be so;
Ee w.r. saṁsaṭṭhe), Ud-a 18,25 ≠ It-a I 37,16;
see also expl. in ct. s given in 1.;
— °-bhāvagata;
Th-a III 73,4 (ad Th 916 "°-bhāvita", q. v.);
— °-bhāvâdhigata, mfn., 1. having attained single- ness (of mind);
— 2. having attained (mental) aloofness;
— 1. the fourth item in the list of pañcañānika sammā- samādhi: D III 279,3 (ekodibhāvena adhigatattā ekodibhāvaṁ eva vā adhigatattā ~o, Sv 1060,10-11) = A III 24,19 (Mp III 231,28-29) = Vibh 334,15 (Vibh-a 421,11-13) = Nett 89,4 (pañcavidhā samādhi, Nett-a Be 1960 151,25);
— ekodibhāva explained as ekaggabhāva: A I 254,30 (Mp II 363,3) = III 425,14;
426,8 (Mp III 411,5);
— 2. ekodibhāva explained as ekavihārika: Ja V 255,6* (256,5';
EeSe so;
Tr. conjectures ekavihāritaṁ);
— °-bhāvita, mfn. (pp. of caus. of ekodihoti, q. v.), = prec.;
Th 916 (~e ti ekodibhāvagate suciṇṇe vasī-bhāvapatte, Th-a in 73,3);
— °-bhūta, mfn. (pp. of ekodihoti, q. v.), 1. become single(-minded), concentrated;
= ekaggabhūta, -samādhīhi samāhita;
— 2. become aloof, secluded;
= ekībhūta;
— 3. become pre-eminent;
— 1. ātāpino sampajānā ~ā vippasannacittā samāhitā ekaggacittā, S V 144,21-145,13 (khanikasamādhinā ekaggabhūtā samāhitā, Spk III 200,4);
Sn "975 qu. Nidd I 507,3;
expl. 509,6-7 (ekaggacitto, Pj II 574,25 = Nidd-a I 469,8-9);
°-samā- dhissa padaṭṭhānaṁ, Peṭ 173,12;
— 2. ~o ti ekībhūto eko tiṭṭhanto eko nisīdanto ti vacan'-attho pan' ettha eko udeti pavattatī ti ekodi, tādiso bhūto ti ~o, Sv 665,6-8 (ad D II 241,13* "ekodibhūto");
~o ti eko udeti pavattatī ti ~o ekībhūto, ekena kāyavivekaṁ dasseti;
athavā eko udetī ti ekodi samādhi, tam bhūto patto ti ~o, upacārappaṇāsamādhīhi samāhito ti attho, Cp-a 49,26-29 (ad Cp-a 48,30* = D II 241,13*);
— 3. late etym.: eko seṭṭho hutvā udetī ti ekodi samādhi;
so ekodi bhūto jāto uppanno etassa ~o ... ekodiṁ vā bhūto patto ti ~o;
ettha ca ekodi ti maggasamādhi-adhippeto, It-a I 175,5-8 (ad It 42,4*);
— °-hoti, pr. 3 sg., to become single(-minded), concentrated;
cittaṁ ... ~oti samādhiyati, S IV 196,24 (tatiyajjhānavasena ~oti [Ee two words] catuttha- jjhānavasena samādhiyati, Spk III 66,12) ≠ A I 254,32 (ekaggaṁ hoti, Mp H 363,17) = JJ. 157,22 (Mp III 144,4) = Paṭis H 93,5 (Paṭis-a 586,3) = 101,7.


agga, n., a house (perhaps related to agāra, as sa. °jñu : jānu°;
cf. Tr. PM 56);
only ifc. [°gga], see: uposatha°, uposatha-pavāraṇa°, khura°, gira°, dāna°, dhamma-savana°, bhatta°, yāga°, vassa°, salāka°. '

agga 1

1agga, [sa. agra and agrya], 1. mfn., first, fore- most;
— eminent, chief, most excellent;
highest, best (cf. adutiya +);
Abh 1162 (giving the signification 'excellence or greatness' of prp. pa-);
696, 715, 843 (cf. Ps I 136,26 = Sp I 173,5 (Sp-ṭ));
Vin I 24,14 (~o pamukho pāmokkho);
Pp 70,2 (~o seṭṭho pāmokkho uttamo);
DN II 15,10 (~o ahaṁ asmi lokassa, + jeṭṭho, seṭṭho) = MN III 123,21, cf. Ja I 53,18;
Mil 216,22;
— SN III 264,10 (~o seṭṭho [pā]- mokkho uttamo pavaro) = AN III 219,16 = V 182,5 = Vin I 278,28;
MN I 383,15 (~aṁ + seṭṭhaṁ, uttamaṁ, paṇītaṁ);
— SN IV 315,12 (khettaṁ ~aṁ, + majjhimaṁ, hīnaṁ);
It 98,12* (~amhi khettamhi);
AN V 63,3 (opp. hīna);
AN II 35,3* (~aṁ dhammaṁ) = It 88,19* (cf. Sn 696: dhamma-maggaṁ, by Pj alternatively taken = dham- maṁ aggaṁ);
Mil 162,27 (~o niyamo);
Ps I 99,20 (desanā ~ā ca garukā ca) ;
Vin III 90,20 (Sp: 'ayaṁ aggo mahācoro' ti = ayaṁ imesaṁ mahā- corānaṁ jeṭṭhacoro). — 2. n., (a) the first portion, forepart, beginning, Abh 843 (ādi-koṭṭhāsa-koṭīsu);
also first-fruits (cf. °-dāna);
Pj II 270,6 (pañca ~āni);
— (b) point, tip, top (of a tree), summit (of a mountain), Abh 542 (siro ~aṁ sikharo);
MN III 94,1 (opp. inula);
Pj I 192,6 (phussitāni ~āni);
— (c) the most excellent or principal thing or person, AN III 202,7;
AN II 17,14, 25, (Buddho);
often in the phrase: ~aṁ akkhā- yati (q. v.);
— Ja V 377,19* (= a precious gift, if not an error for agghaṁ (Tr.));
— 4 aggāni: AN II 79,1 (Mp;
Ed. by error aṅgāni);
— (d) the highest state (of holiness), ~āya parenti, AN V 2,19 (= arahatta, Mp) = 312,13;
It 82,2 (~e pasannā);
— loc. agge (adv.), instr. aggena (adv.), and abl. aggato (adv.), see separately;
cf. agga° in agga-dvāra, aggaṅguli, etc. — Ifc. ['gga] see: akkh'-a°, agg'-a°, agga-m-a°, aṅgul'-a°, adh'-a°, an-a°, anamata°, anīka°, anna°, ambila°, ayo°, aruṇa°, āyata°, āra°, uccha°, ud-a°, uddha°, eka°, etad-a°, ettāvat-a°, kaṭuka°, kanaka°, kaṇaya°, kara°, kalāpa°, kalīra°, kāma°, kuñcita°, kunta°, kumbha° (kumbhi-a°), kula°, kusa°, kūpa°, kesa°, koṭṭha°, khala°, khalabhaṇḍa°, khura°, khetta°, gandhab- ba-sura°, garuḷa°, gira°, chadana°-, chinna°, jalaja°, jina°, jivha°, tikkha°, tikhiṇa°, tiṇa°, tittaka° (tittika°), tūlika°, toraṇa° dāya°, dāy- ana° (or lāyana°), duma°, dhaja°, dhana°, nakha°, nata°, nara°, (nāna°-rasa), nāsika°, pañca°, pañña°, pabbata°, pariveṇa°, pāta°, pāda°, puthuka°, phala°, phussiṭa°, bala°, bhatta°, bhava°, bhikkha°, maṇḍala°, mad- da(na)°, madhura°, yasa°, (raja°?), rasa°, rāsa°, rukkha°, rūpa°, lābha°, lāyana° (or dāyana°), loka°, loma°, va° (vy-a°), vajira°, vāla°, vippa- sūna°, vimutt'-a° vihāra°, veṇi-y-a°, veṭṭa°, vedana°, veḷa°, vellita°, sañña°, satthavāha°, sam-a°, samādh'-a°, sambodhi-y-a°, sayana°, sāvaka°, sīla°, sukha°, (suta°-rūpa), sūna°, sūla°, seyya°, harita°.

English words of interest


ˈˌsiNGɡəl ˈˌmīndid/
adjective: single-minded; adjective: singleminded
having or concentrating on only one aim or purpose.
"the single-minded pursuit of profit"
synonyms: determined, committed, unswerving, unwavering, resolute, purposeful, devoted, dedicated, uncompromising, tireless, tenacious, persistent, indefatigable, dogged;
formal - pertinacious
"I got where I am with hard work and single-minded determination"


adjective: singular
(of a word or form) denoting or referring to just one person or thing.
single; unique.
"she always thought of herself as singular, as his only daughter"
exceptionally good or great; remarkable.
"the singular beauty of the desert"
synonyms: remarkable, extraordinary, exceptional, outstanding, signal, notable, noteworthy; rare, unique, unparalleled, unprecedented, amazing, astonishing, phenomenal, astounding;
informal - fantastic, terrific
"the gallery's singular capacity to attract sponsors"


noun: singularity
the state, fact, quality, or condition of being singular.
"he believed in the singularity of all cultures"
synonyms: uniqueness, distinctiveness
"the singularity of their concerns"
a peculiarity or odd trait.
plural noun: singularities
synonyms: idiosyncrasy, quirk, foible, peculiarity, oddity, eccentricity
"his singularities"
a point at which a function takes an infinite value, especially in space-time when matter is infinitely dense, as at the center of a black hole.

Dmytro ekaggata thread


Pali Term: Ekaggatā

Patisambhidamagga-Atthakatha 1.230

The term 'ekaggatā' is defined in the following way:
Tattha cittassa ekaggatāti nānārammaṇavikkhepābhāvato ekaṃ ārammaṇaṃ aggaṃ uttamaṃ assāti ekaggo, ekaggassa bhāvo ekaggatā.
Here the 'ekaggatā' of the mind is the state (bhāvo) when one thing is predominant (ekaggo). One thing is predominant when there's no perplexity (vikkhepa) on multiple bases and one basis (ārammaṇa) is predominant (agga) and preeminent (uttama).
In practical terms, this means that the perceptual image (nimitta) of the meditation object colours all perception, - as, for example, in the practice of earth kasina:
Cattāri ārammaṇāni
181. Katame dhammā kusalā? Yasmiṃ samaye rūpūpapattiyā maggaṃ bhāveti vivicceva kāmehi…pe… paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati parittaṃ parittārammaṇaṃ pathavīkasiṇaṃ, tasmiṃ samaye phasso hoti…pe… avikkhepo hoti…pe… ime dhammā kusalā.
182. Katame dhammā kusalā? Yasmiṃ samaye rūpūpapattiyā maggaṃ bhāveti vivicceva kāmehi…pe… paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati parittaṃ appamāṇārammaṇaṃ pathavīkasiṇaṃ – tasmiṃ samaye phasso hoti…pe… avikkhepo hoti…pe… ime dhammā kusalā.
183. Katame dhammā kusalā? Yasmiṃ samaye rūpūpapattiyā maggaṃ bhāveti vivicceva kāmehi…pe… paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati appamāṇaṃ parittārammaṇaṃ pathavīkasiṇaṃ, tasmiṃ samaye phasso hoti…pe… avikkhepo hoti…pe… ime dhammā kusalā.
184. Katame dhammā kusalā? Yasmiṃ samaye rūpūpapattiyā maggaṃ bhāveti vivicceva kāmehi…pe… paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati appamāṇaṃ appamāṇārammaṇaṃ pathavīkasiṇaṃ, tasmiṃ samaye phasso hoti…pe… avikkhepo hoti…pe… ime dhammā kusalā.
Dhammasangani 37
Metta, Dmytro

Saddhammöpāyana 460

by Dmytro » Sun Mar 17, 2013 11:24 am
I have looked up a CPD article on ekaggatā and found another useful gloss:
ekaggatā ti cittassa ekālambanasaṇṭhiti
Saddhammöpāyana 460
which accords well with the above mentioned gloss from Patisambhidamagga-Atthakatha about the predominance of one ārammaṇa (Sanskrit ālambana).


Dmytro wrote:
"Tattha cittassa ekaggatāti nānārammaṇavikkhepābhāvato ekaṃ ārammaṇaṃ aggaṃ uttamaṃ assāti ekaggo, ekaggassa bhāvo ekaggatā."
Patisambhidamagga-Atthakatha 1.230
"Here the 'ekaggatā' of the mind is the state (bhāvo) when one thing is predominant (ekaggo). One thing is predominant when there's no perplexity (vikkhepa) on multiple bases and one basis (ārammaṇa) is predominant (agga) and preeminent (uttama)."
Similarly Vasubandhu writes in Abhidharmakosha-bhashya:
10. Concentration (samādhi; ting nge 'dzin) is the one-pointedness of thought (cittaikāgratā) toward a cognitive object (agra = ālambana; i. 33); this is the factor by virtue of which thought, in an uninterrupted stream, remains focused on a cognitive object (viii.1).
[Question:] - What should one understand by ''allpication to a sinle object" (aikāgrya) or [the mental factor] samādhi?
[Answer:] - The fact that thoughts have a single cognitive object (ekālambanatā cittānām).

Patanjali says in Yoga-sutra

Sarvārthataikāgratayoḥ kṣayodayau cittasya samādhipariṇāmaḥ||11||
Diminution (kṣaya) of attention to all (objects) (sarva-arthatā) and the emergence/development --udaya-- (udayau) of one-pointedness --ekāgratā-- (ekāgratayoḥ) (is) the mutation (pariṇāmaḥ) of Samādhi --perfect concentration or absorption-- (samādhi) of mind (cittasya)||11||
http://www.sanskrit-sanscrito.com.ar/en ... sutras/629

How Pointy is One-pointedness?

by Thanissaro Bhikkhu
(converted from PDF file with some reformatting and hyperlinks added for easy access to sutta references)

MN 44 samādhi = cittass’ek’aggatā

A Pali sutta, MN 44, defines concentration as cittass’ek’aggatā, which is often translated as “one-pointedness of mind”:
cittassa = “of the mind” or “of the heart,”
eka = one, agga = point,
-tā = -ness.

MN 43 one-pointedness is factor in 1st jhāna

MN 43 states further that one-pointedness is a factor of the first jhāna, the beginning level of right concentration.
From these passages, it has been argued that if one’s awareness in concentration or jhāna is truly one-pointed, it should be no larger than a point, which means that it would be incapable of thinking, of hearing sounds, or even of being aware of the physical body. However, this interpretation imposes too narrow a meaning on the word ek’aggatā, one that is foreign to the linguistic usage of the Pali Canon.

agga is also summit, topmost, supreme

A. To begin with, agga has many other meanings besides “point.” In fact, it has two primary clusters of meanings, in neither of which is “point” the central focus.
The first cluster centers on the fact that a summit of a mountain is called its agga. Clustered around this meaning are ideas of agga as the topmost part of something (such as the ridge of a roof), the tip of something (such as the tip of a blade of grass), and the best or supreme example of something (such as the Buddha as the agga of all beings).

AN 5:80 plays with these meanings of agga

when it criticizes monks of the future who will “search for the tiptop flavors (ras’agga) with the tip of the tongue (jivh’agga).”

agga is a meeting place

The second cluster of meanings for agga centers on the idea of “meeting place.” A hall where monks gather for the uposatha, for example, is called an uposath’agga. The spot where they gather for their meals is called a bhatt’agga.
Given that the object of concentration is said to be a dwelling (vihāra), and that a person enters and dwells (viharati) in the levels of jhāna, this second cluster of meanings may be the more relevant one here. A mind with a single agga, in this case, would simply be a mind gathered around one object, and need not be reduced to a single point.
B. An even more telling way to determine the meanings of ek’agga and ek’aggatā is, instead of dividing these words into their roots, to look at the ways in which the Canon uses them to describe minds.
1. Two passages, one from the Vinaya and one from a sutta, show what ek’agga means in the everyday context of listening to the Dhamma.

Mv.II.3.4 “We listen with an ek’agga mind, an unscattered...

In Mv.II.3.4, the phrase, “we pay attention,” in the instructions for how to listen to the Pāṭimokkha, is defined as: “We listen with an ek’agga mind, an unscattered mind, an undistracted mind.” Even if ek’agga were translated as “one-pointed” here, the “point” is obviously not so restricted as to make the ears fall silent. Otherwise, we would not be able to hear the Pāṭimokkha at all. And the fact that the mind is ek’agga doesn’t mean that we can’t also hear other sounds aside from the Pāṭimokkha. It’s just that those sounds don’t make the mind lose its focus on a single theme.

AN 5:151 with ek'agga mind one can listen and think

In AN 5:151, the Buddha lists five qualities that enable one, when listening to the true Dhamma, to “alight on assuredness, on the rightness of skillful qualities.” The five qualities are:
“One doesn’t hold the talk in contempt.
“One doesn’t hold the speaker in contempt.
“One doesn’t hold oneself in contempt.
“One listens to the Dhamma with an unscattered mind, an ek’agga mind.
“One attends appropriately.”
Because appropriate attention means to contemplate experiences in terms of the four noble truths (see MN 2), this passage shows that when the mind is ek’agga, it’s not only able to hear. It can also think at the same time. If it couldn’t hear or think, it couldn’t make sense of the Dhamma talk. So again, even if we translate ek’agga as “one-pointed,” the one-pointed mind is not so pointy that it cannot think or hear sounds. This would defeat the purpose of listening to the Dhamma and would get in the way of “alighting on assuredness.”

MN 43 ek'agga as jhāna factor, can think

2. As for the way in which ek’agga is used in describing the mind in concentration, a passage in MN 43 defines the factors of the first jhāna as these:
“directed thought, evaluation, rapture, pleasure, and one-pointedness of mind.”
It has been argued that this statement contains a contradiction, in that the compilers of MN 43 did not realize that one-pointedness precluded thought and evaluation. But perhaps they knew their own language well enough to realize that ek’aggatā—being gathered into oneness—did not preclude the powers of thought.

AN 5.28 4th jhāna simile, whole body

3. The standard similes for right concentration (DN 2; AN 5:28; MN 119) all emphasize that the mind in right concentration is aware of the entire body. For example, here is the simile for the highest level of jhāna, the fourth:
“Then, with the abandoning of pleasure & pain—as with the earlier disappearance of joys & distresses—he enters & remains in the fourth jhāna:
purity of equanimity & mindfulness, neither-pleasure-nor-pain. He sits, permeating the body with a pure, bright awareness. Just as if a man were sitting covered from head to foot with a white cloth so that there would be no part of his body to which the white cloth did not extend; even so, the monk sits, permeating the body with a pure, bright awareness. There is nothing of his entire body unpervaded by pure, bright awareness.
To get around the reference to “entire body” in these similes, those who propose that a one-pointed mind can be aware of only one point interpret “body” in this context as meaning a purely mental body, such as the body of one’s thoughts. But that would mean
(a) that the similes’ emphasis on pervading the entire body would meaningless if the mental body is reduced to a small point and
(b) that the Buddha was extremely sloppy and misleading in his choice of similes to describe concentration. If the purpose of jhāna is blot out awareness of the body, why would he choose a simile for the fourth jhāna in which the entire body is pervaded with awareness?

MN 52, MN 111, and AN 9:36 awakening during jhāna

4. MN 52, MN 111, and AN 9:36 show that the ability to use appropriate attention to analyze any of the four jhānas while still in the state of ek’aggatā is an important skill in reaching awakening. In each case, this analysis entails applying appropriate attention: seeing the experience of the jhāna in terms of the four noble truths, and applying the appropriate duty to each truth:
comprehending stress, abandoning its cause, realizing its cessation, and developing the path to its cessation. For instance, AN 9:36 describes how, after mastering the first jhāna, one might analyze it in a way that leads to release:
“Suppose that an archer or archer’s apprentice were to practice on a straw man or mound of clay, so that after a while he would become able to shoot long distances, to fire accurate shots in rapid succession, and to pierce great masses. In the same way, there is the case where a monk, quite secluded from sensuality secluded from unskillful qualities, enters & remains in the first jhāna: rapture & pleasure born of seclusion, accompanied by directed thought & evaluation. He regards whatever phenomena there that are connected with form, feeling, perception, fabrications, & consciousness, as inconstant, stressful, a disease, a cancer, an arrow, painful, an affliction, alien, a disintegration, an emptiness, not-self. He turns his mind away from those phenomena, and having done so, inclines his mind to the property of deathlessness: ‘This is peace, this is exquisite—the resolution of all fabrications; the relinquishment of all acquisitions; the ending of craving; dispassion; cessation; unbinding.’
“Staying right there, he reaches the ending of the effluents. Or, if not, then—through this very Dhamma-passion, this Dhamma-delight, and from the total ending of the five lower fetters [self-identification views, grasping at habits & practices, uncertainty, sensual passion, and irritation]—he is due to arise spontaneously (in the Pure Abodes), there to be totally unbound, never again to return from that world.”
As MN 111 makes especially clear, this sort of analysis can be accomplished while one is still in the state of jhāna. To view the phenomena experienced in the first jhāna in terms of form, feeling, perception, fabrication, and consciousness is to regard them as instances of the five clinging-aggregates, which is the definition of the first noble truth. To regard them as inconstant, etc., is to apply the duty appropriate to the first noble truth, which is to comprehend that truth to the point of dispassion (SN 22:23).
In this way, the Buddha’s recommendations for alighting on the Dhamma while in jhāna parallel those for alighting on the Dhamma while listening to a Dhamma talk: Don’t hold the Buddha in contempt, i.e., give his teachings a fair hearing and a fair test. Show your lack of contempt for your meditation object by giving it your full attention and mastering concentration. Show your lack of
contempt for yourself by convincing yourself that you can do this. Gather the mind around its one object. And analyze the component factors of the mind’s one-pointedness with appropriate attention.
This ability to analyze a state of concentration in this way while the mind is still gathered around its single object is a crucial skill in attaining release. For this reason, the term that defines concentration— cittass’ek’aggatā—shouldn’t be defined in so narrow a sense that it would obstruct any efforts to master that skill and gain its benefits.

Ekodi essay by Bhante Sujato

(some hyperlinks added to essay for easy navigation as reference)
In the grand old tradition of Buddhist studies, we have spent a lot of time discussing various aspects of meditation, especially to do with samadhi. As you know, like all translators I struggle with trying to render these well in English.
One term that is perhaps unduly neglected is ekodi. This is found very centrally in the formula for the second jhana, usually translated "unification" or "oneness".

Ekodi perhaps used 10 times more than ekaggata

The curious thing is that mostly we discuss its cousin, ekaggatā, and relegate ekodi to a footnote, as a synonym. But the fact is that ekodi occurs far more often in the EBTs, maybe ten times as often (although counting is difficult due to abbreviations).
Even more significantly, it is placed right in the middle of the jhana formula, which by any account must be the oldest and most important statement on samadhi/jhana in the EBTs. By contrast, ekaggatā occurs only in more marginal cases, where it serves to define or act as synonym for samādhi.
In form, ekaggatā feels like a formal, obvious word, whereas ekodi feels more quirky, less standard.

ekaggatā was introduced to normalize the unfamiliar ekodi

In fact, it feels like ekaggatā was introduced to normalize the unfamiliar ekodi, and in later texts it came to virtually supplant it. I am not suggesting that this shift postdates the Buddha. It could well have been introduced by him. But its takeover of Buddhist meditation vocabulary is certainly an artifact of the Abhidhamma age.
That ekodi was sidelined is no mystery when we realize that its etymology and exact meaning are obscure. This has been debated by scholars for over a hundred years, without any really compelling conclusion.
The PTS Dictionary suggests the correct reading should be ekodhi, and traces its etymology to ava-dahati. If correct, this would be nice and simple, as it becomes simply a variant of samādhi, from the same root.
The problem, though, is that the reading ekodi is very widely attested, and the Sanskrit version ekoti does not support this derivation. Thus Edgerton in his Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit (BHS) Dictionary supports Lévi and Renou in tracing oti to ūti in the sense of “web”. This is an obscure word, not otherwise found in Pali, and not very well attested in Sanskrit either.

Ekoti as "web" or "effort"

The Critical Pali Dictionary accepts ūti, but allows as possible meanings either “web” or “effort”. But it seems hard to understand what “effort” could mean here, so this should be discounted. Cone’s Dictionary of Pali says “perhaps” it means web, citing the BHS usage.
Why the tendency to ascribe the sense to such an obscure term? These references all hark back to a single reference in the Śatapatha Brahmaṇa. This is a text on interpretation and practice of Vedic ritual, which preceded the Buddha, and was probably located in a similar area. In other words, it is a relevant text for the linguistic culture of the EBTs. The passage occurs at SB (Titus text, with translation by Eggeling. If anyone has a more modern translation, that would be useful!)
pṛṣṭhyābhiplavau tantre kurvīteti ha smāha paiṅgyaḥ
‘Let him make the Prishthya and Abhiplava two warps,’ said Paiṅgya;
tayo stotrāṇi ca śastrāṇi ca saṃcārayed iti sa yat saṃcārayati tasmād ime prāṇā nānā santa ekotayaḥ samānam ūtim anusaṃcaranty atha yan na saṃcārayet pramāyuko yajamānaḥ syād eṣa ha vai pramāyuko yo 'ndho vā badhiro vā
let him make their Stotras and Sastras run together:’ inasmuch as he makes them run together, these (channels of the) vital airs, though separate from one another, run together, with one and the same aim, into a common web; but were he not to make them run together, the Sacrificer would be liable to perish; and liable to perish, indeed, is one who is either blind or deaf.
The text answers an obscure problem of interpretation of the ritual. The question had been asked as two how different rituals, the Prishthya and Abhiplava, could be reconciled. The answer calls upon a metaphor of weaving. The “two warps" (tantra) are the webs of cloth that are woven together to become one. Like this:
Or this: (picture)
It’s a lovely image, showing how in the Vedic tradition, the different approaches to ritual were integrated, with the idea that what results is better, stronger, and more beautiful than the individual rituals.
This metaphor works nicely in the context of samādhi. The different “strands” of the mind are woven together to produce a whole that’s greater than the sum of the parts.
If this is, indeed, the correct derivation, then the question is to what extent is it still relevant in the EBTs. This reference is obscure, and it would hardly have been known to anyone outside of brahmanical ritual specialists. It’s not like, say, the Gayatri Mantra, which would have been familiar to everyone. Nowhere in the Buddhist texts is there a specific evocation of this metaphor in this context; the imagery of weaving is, rather, associated with craving and rebirth.

ekaggata = unification, ekodi-bhāva = unity

Perhaps, then, the metaphor had already receded, and the term was felt to mean simply “unified”. But as a more idiomatic term, it was gradually replaced with the clearer ekaggatā. We could reflect this difference by using “unification” for ekaggatā and “unity” for ekodibhāva.

Every occurence of "ekodi" oustide STED 2nd jhana

process: use DPR in waterfox, search for “ekodi”, use water fox browser search for “cetaso ekodibhavam avitakkam” and choose “highlight all” to make it easy to ignore all 2nd jhana standard formuula references. Then in another use suttacentral B.sujato pali+english mode , looking up the sutta references found, then with firefox browser search for “ekodi” jump to spot and scrape pali+english piece. About 3 hours work total.


DN 19 unusual def: meditating in secluded place

‘Ekodibhūto’ti ahaṃ, bhoto, ājānāmi.
46.4 Sir, I understand what ‘oneness’ means.
Idhekacco vivittaṃ senāsanaṃ bhajati
46.5 It’s when someone frequents a secluded lodging—
araññaṃ rukkhamūlaṃ pabbataṃ kandaraṃ giriguhaṃ susānaṃ vanapatthaṃ abbhokāsaṃ palālapuñjaṃ,
a wilderness, the root of a tree, a hill, a ravine, a mountain cave, a charnel ground, a forest, the open air, a heap of straw.
(the buddha in this sutta, with that statement is talking about a previous life where he was onlly able to attain rebirth in brahma realm practicing 4bv)

DN 19 verse

“Hitvā mamattaṃ manujesu brahme,
45.12“He among men, O brahmin, has given up possessions,
Ekodibhūto karuṇedhimutto;
45.13become one, compassionate,
Nirāmagandho virato methunasmā,
45.14free from the stench of decay, and refraining from sex.

DN 21 verse of jhana

1.5.41Absorbed, the Sakyan meditates, Sakyaputtova jhānena,
1.5.42at one, self-controlled, and just mindful, ekodi nipako sato;
1.5.43the sage aims right at the deathless state—Amataṃ muni jigīsāno,

DN 34 santo paṇīto paṭippassaddhaladdho ekodibhāvādhigato

1.6.73‘This immersion is peaceful and sublime and tranquil and unified, not held in place by forceful suppression.’ ‘Ayaṃ samādhi santo paṇīto paṭippassaddhaladdho ekodibhāvādhigato, na sasaṅkhāraniggayhavāritagato’ti paccattaṃyeva ñāṇaṃ uppajjati.


mn 19

mn 20

MN 36 samādhinimitte ajjhattameva cittaṃ saṇṭhapemi sannisādemi ekodiṃ

When that talk is finished, I still, settle, unify, and immerse my mind in samādhi internally, using the same meditation subject as a basis of immersion that I used before, which is my usual meditation.” So kho ahaṃ, aggivessana, tassāyeva kathāya pariyosāne, tasmiṃyeva purimasmiṃ samādhinimitte ajjhattameva cittaṃ saṇṭhapemi sannisādemi ekodiṃ karomi samādahāmi, yena sudaṃ niccakappaṃ viharāmī”ti.

MN 119 every kayagata exercise has ekodi 4j

MN 3, 2. anupadavaggo, 9. kāyagatāsatisuttaṃ (MN 119.1), para. 2 ⇒
154. “kathaṃ bhāvitā ca, bhikkhave, kāyagatāsati kathaṃ bahulīkatā mahapphalā hoti mahānisaṃsā? idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu araññagato vā rukkhamūlagato vā suññāgāragato vā nisīdati pallaṅkaṃ ābhujitvā ujuṃ kāyaṃ paṇidhāya parimukhaṃ satiṃ upaṭṭhapetvā. so satova assasati satova passasati; dīghaṃ vā assasanto ‘dīghaṃ assasāmī’ti pajānāti, dīghaṃ vā passasanto ‘dīghaṃ passasāmī’ti pajānāti; rassaṃ vā assasanto ‘rassaṃ assasāmī’ti pajānāti, rassaṃ vā passasanto ‘rassaṃ passasāmī’ti pajānāti; ‘sabbakāyapaṭisaṃvedī assasissāmī’ti sikkhati, ‘sabbakāyapaṭisaṃvedī passasissāmī’ti sikkhati; ‘passambhayaṃ kāyasaṅkhāraṃ assasissāmī’ti sikkhati, ‘passambhayaṃ kāyasaṅkhāraṃ passasissāmī’ti sikkhati. tassa evaṃ appamattassa ātāpino pahitattassa viharato ye gehasitā sarasaṅkappā te pahīyanti . tesaṃ pahānā ajjhattameva cittaṃ santiṭṭhati sannisīdati ekodi hoti samādhiyati. evaṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāyagatāsatiṃ bhāveti.

MN 122 ekodi = do 4j


SN 35.246 antiṭṭhati, sannisīdati, ekodi

SN 4, 1. saḷāyatanasaṃyuttaṃ, 19. āsīvisavaggo, 9. vīṇopamasuttaṃ (SN 35.199), para. 3 ⇒
In the same way, when a mendicant’s mind is subdued, well subdued when it comes to the six fields of contact, becomes stilled internally; it settles, unifies, and becomes immersed in samādhi. Evameva kho, bhikkhave, yato kho bhikkhuno chasu phassāyatanesu cittaṃ udujitaṃ hoti sudujitaṃ, ajjhattameva santiṭṭhati, sannisīdati, ekodi hoti, samādhiyati.

SN 40 suttas 1-9 all 9 attainments "do ekodi"

SN 47.4 all 4sp has ekodi and ekkaga

Please, reverends, meditate observing an aspect of the body—keen, aware, at one, with a clear mind, immersed in samādhi, so as to truly know the body. Etha tumhe, āvuso, kāye kāyānupassino viharatha ātāpino sampajānā ekodibhūtā vippasannacittā samāhitā ekaggacittā, kāyassa yathābhūtaṃ ñāṇāya;


AN 3.102 paṃsudhovakasuttaṃ (AN 3.102), para. 2 ⇒

AN 4.94 tatiya-samādhi-suttaṃ

As for the person who has discernment but not serenity: they should approach someone who has serenity and ask: Tatra, bhikkhave, yvāyaṃ puggalo lābhī adhipaññādhammavipassanāya na lābhī ajjhattaṃ cetosamathassa, tena, bhikkhave, puggalena yvāyaṃ puggalo lābhī ajjhattaṃ cetosamathassa so upasaṅkamitvā evamassa vacanīyo: 3.2‘Reverend, how should the mind be stilled? ‘kathaṃ nu kho, āvuso, cittaṃ saṇṭhapetabbaṃ? 3.3How should it be settled? Kathaṃ cittaṃ sannisādetabbaṃ? 3.4How should it be unified? Kathaṃ cittaṃ ekodi kātabbaṃ? 3.5How should it be immersed in samādhi?’ Kathaṃ cittaṃ samādahātabban’ti? 3.6That person would answer from their own experience: Tassa so yathādiṭṭhaṃ yathāviditaṃ byākaroti: 3.7‘Reverend, this is how the mind should be stilled, settled, unified, and immersed in samādhi.’ ‘evaṃ kho, āvuso, cittaṃ saṇṭhapetabbaṃ, evaṃ cittaṃ sannisādetabbaṃ, evaṃ cittaṃ ekodi kātabbaṃ, evaṃ cittaṃ samādahātabban’ti.

AN 4.170 yuganaddha, santiṭṭhati sannisīdati ekodi

Another mendicant’s mind is seized by restlessness to realize the teaching. Puna caparaṃ, āvuso, bhikkhuno dhammuddhaccaviggahitaṃ mānasaṃ hoti. 6.2But there comes a time when their mind is stilled internally; it settles, unifies, and becomes immersed in samādhi. Hoti so, āvuso, samayo yaṃ taṃ cittaṃ ajjhattameva santiṭṭhati sannisīdati ekodi hoti samādhiyati. 6.3The path is born in them. Tassa maggo sañjāyati. 6.4They cultivate, develop, and make much of it. So taṃ maggaṃ āsevati bhāveti bahulīkaroti. 6.5By doing so, they give up the fetters and eliminate the underlying tendencies. Tassa taṃ maggaṃ āsevato bhāvayato bahulīkaroto saṃyojanāni pahīyanti, anusayā byantīhonti.

AN 5.27 santo paṇīto paṭippassaddhaladdho ekodibhāvādhigato

‘This immersion is peaceful and sublime and tranquil and unified, not held in place by forceful suppression.’ … ‘ayaṃ samādhi santo paṇīto paṭippassaddhaladdho ekodibhāvādhigato, na sasaṅkhāraniggayhavāritagato’ti paccattaññeva ñāṇaṃ uppajjati,

AN 6.45 ekodi jhana verse

They give up the five hindrances, Pañca nīvaraṇe hitvā,
25.2constantly energetic, niccaṃ āraddhavīriyo;
25.3and enter the absorptions, Jhānāni upasampajja,
25.4unified, self-disciplined, and mindful. ekodi nipako sato.

AN 6.70 samādhi (JST, suggests ekodi 4th jhana prereq.)

“Mendicants, it’s totally impossible that a mendicant without immersion that is peaceful, refined, tranquil, and unified will wield the many kinds of psychic power: multiplying themselves and becoming one again; appearing and disappearing; going unimpeded through a wall, a rampart, or a mountain as if through space; diving in and out of the earth as if it were water; walking on water as if it were earth; flying cross-legged through the sky like a bird; touching and stroking with the hand the sun and moon, so mighty and powerful. They control the body as far as the Brahmā realm. “‘So vata, bhikkhave, bhikkhu na santena samādhinā na paṇītena na paṭippassaddhiladdhena na ekodibhāvādhigatena anekavihitaṃ iddhividhaṃ paccanubhavissati—ekopi hutvā bahudhā bhavissati, bahudhāpi hutvā eko bhavissati … pe … yāva brahmalokāpi kāyena vasaṃ vattessatī’ti netaṃ ṭhānaṃ vijjati.
(same for all 6 abhinna)


KN It, 2. dukanipāto, 2. dutiyavaggo, 10. jāgariyasuttaṃ (KN 4.47), para. 6 ⇒

kālena so sammā dhammaṃ parivīmaṃsamāno, ekodibhūto vihane tamaṃ so.

KN Sn, 4. aṭṭhakavaggo, 16. sāriputtasuttaṃ (KN 5.54), para. 25 ⇒

“kaṃ so sikkhaṃ samādāya, ekodi nipako sato.

KN Sn, 4. aṭṭhakavaggo, 16. sāriputtasuttaṃ (KN 5.54), para. 68 ⇒

ekodibhūto vihane tamaṃ so”ti.

KN Th, 16. vīsatinipāto, 9. anuruddhattheragāthā (KN 8.256), para. 75 ⇒

“pañcaṅgike samādhimhi, sante ekodibhāvite.

KN Nidd I, 16. sāriputtasuttaniddeso, para. 183 ⇒

kaṃ so sikkhaṃ samādāya, ekodi nipako sato.

KN Nidd I, 16. sāriputtasuttaniddeso, para. 186 ⇒

ekodi nipako satoti. ekodīti ekaggacitto avikkhittacitto avisāhaṭamānaso samatho samādhindriyaṃ samādhibalaṃ . pe . sammāsamādhi. nipakoti nipako paṇḍito paññavā buddhimā ñāṇī vibhāvī medhāvī. satoti catūhi kāraṇehi sato — kāye kāyānupassanāsatipaṭṭhānaṃ bhāvento sato, vedanāsu . pe . citte . pe . dhammesu dhammānupassanāsatipaṭṭhānaṃ bhāvento sato. so vuccati satoti — sato. kaṃ so sikkhaṃ samādāyāti adhisīlasikkhaṃ pucchati. ekodīti adhicittasikkhaṃ pucchati. nipakoti adhipaññāsikkhaṃ pucchati. satoti pārisuddhiṃ pucchatīti — kaṃ so sikkhaṃ samādāya, ekodi nipako sato.

KN Nidd I, 16. sāriputtasuttaniddeso, para. 192 ⇒

“kaṃ so sikkhaṃ samādāya, ekodi nipako sato.
KN Nidd I, 16. sāriputtasuttaniddeso, para. 367 ⇒
kāle so sammā dhammaṃ parivīmaṃsamāno, ekodibhūto vihane tamaṃ so. [iti bhagavā]

KN Nidd I, 16. sāriputtasuttaniddeso, para. 387 ⇒

ekodibhūto vihane tamaṃ so, iti bhagavāti. ekodīti ekaggacitto avikkhittacitto avisāhaṭamānaso samatho samādhindriyaṃ samādhibalaṃ sammāsamādhīti — ekodibhūto. vihane tamaṃ soti rāgatamaṃ dosatamaṃ mohatamaṃ diṭṭhitamaṃ mānatamaṃ kilesatamaṃ duccaritatamaṃ andhakaraṇaṃ acakkhukaraṇaṃ aññāṇakaraṇaṃ paññānirodhikaṃ vighātapakkhikaṃ anibbānasaṃvattanikaṃ haneyya vihaneyya pajaheyya vinodeyya byantiṃ kareyya anabhāvaṃ gameyya.

KN Nidd I, 16. sāriputtasuttaniddeso, para. 388 ⇒

bhagavāti gāravādhivacanaṃ. api ca bhaggarāgoti bhagavā, bhaggadosoti bhagavā, bhaggamohoti bhagavā, bhaggamānoti bhagavā, bhaggadiṭṭhīti bhagavā, bhaggakaṇḍakoti bhagavā, bhaggakilesoti bhagavā, bhaji vibhaji pavibhaji dhammaratananti bhagavā, bhavānaṃ antakaroti bhagavā, bhāvitakāyo bhāvitasīlo bhāvitacitto bhāvitapaññoti bhagavā, bhaji vā bhagavā araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni appasaddāni appanigghosāni vijanavātāni manussarāhasseyyakāni paṭisallānasāruppānīti bhagavā, bhāgī vā bhagavā cīvarapiṇḍapātasenāsanagilānapaccayabhesajjaparikkhārānanti bhagavā, bhāgī vā bhagavā attharasassa dhammarasassa vimuttirasassa adhisīlassa adhicittassa adhipaññāyāti bhagavā, bhāgī vā bhagavā catunnaṃ jhānānaṃ catunnaṃ appamaññānaṃ catunnaṃ arūpasamāpattīnanti bhagavā, bhāgī vā bhagavā aṭṭhannaṃ vimokkhānaṃ aṭṭhannaṃ abhibhāyatanānaṃ navannaṃ anupubbavihārasamāpattīnanti bhagavā, bhāgī vā bhagavā dasannaṃ saññābhāvanānaṃ dasannaṃ kasiṇasamāpattīnaṃ ānāpānassatisamādhissa asubhasamāpattiyāti bhagavā, bhāgī vā bhagavā catunnaṃ satipaṭṭhānānaṃ catunnaṃ sammappadhānānaṃ catunnaṃ iddhipādānaṃ pañcannaṃ indriyānaṃ pañcannaṃ balānaṃ sattannaṃ bojjhaṅgānaṃ ariyassa aṭṭhaṅgikassa maggassāti bhagavā, bhāgī vā bhagavā dasannaṃ tathāgatabalānaṃ catunnaṃ vesārajjānaṃ catunnaṃ paṭisambhidānaṃ channaṃ abhiññānaṃ channaṃ buddhadhammānanti bhagavā, bhagavāti netaṃ nāmaṃ mātarā kataṃ na pitarā kataṃ na bhātarā kataṃ na bhaginiyā kataṃ na mittāmaccehi kataṃ na ñātisālohitehi kataṃ na samaṇabrāhmaṇehi kataṃ na devatāhi kataṃ; vimokkhantikametaṃ buddhānaṃ bhagavantānaṃ bodhiyā mūle saha sabbaññutañāṇassa paṭilābhā sacchikā paññatti yadidaṃ bhagavāti — ekodibhūto vihane tamaṃ so iti bhagavā.

KN Nidd I, 16. sāriputtasuttaniddeso, para. 391 ⇒

kālena so sammā dhammaṃ parivīmaṃsamāno, ekodibhūto vihane tamaṃ so”. [iti bhagavāti]

KN Paṭis, 2. yuganaddhavaggo, 1. yuganaddhakathā, , para. 6 ⇒

“puna caparaṃ, āvuso, bhikkhuno dhammuddhaccaviggahitaṃ mānasaṃ hoti. so, āvuso, samayo yaṃ taṃ cittaṃ ajjhattameva santiṭṭhati sannisīdati ekodi hoti samādhiyati. tassa maggo sañjāyati. so taṃ maggaṃ āsevati bhāveti bahulīkaroti. tassa taṃ maggaṃ āsevato bhāvayato bahulīkaroto saññojanāni pahīyanti, anusayā byantīhonti.

KN Paṭis, 2. yuganaddhavaggo, 1. yuganaddhakathā, 2. dhammuddhaccavāraniddeso, para. 1 ⇒

6. kathaṃ dhammuddhaccaviggahitaṃ mānasaṃ hoti? aniccato manasikaroto obhāso uppajjati, obhāso dhammoti obhāsaṃ āvajjati, tato vikkhepo uddhaccaṃ. tena uddhaccena viggahitamānaso aniccato upaṭṭhānaṃ yathābhūtaṃ nappajānāti, dukkhato upaṭṭhānaṃ yathābhūtaṃ nappajānāti, anattato upaṭṭhānaṃ yathābhūtaṃ nappajānāti. tena vuccati — “dhammuddhaccaviggahitamānaso hoti so samayo, yaṃ taṃ cittaṃ ajjhattameva santiṭṭhati sannisīdati ekodi hoti samādhiyati . tassa maggo sañjāyatī”ti kathaṃ maggo sañjāyati . pe . evaṃ maggo sañjāyati, evaṃ saññojanāni pahīyanti, anusayā byantīhonti.

KN Paṭis, 2. yuganaddhavaggo, 1. yuganaddhakathā, 2. dhammuddhaccavāraniddeso, para. 2 ⇒

aniccato manasikaroto ñāṇaṃ uppajjati, pīti uppajjati, passaddhi uppajjati, sukhaṃ uppajjati, adhimokkho uppajjati, paggaho uppajjati, upaṭṭhānaṃ uppajjati, upekkhā uppajjati, nikanti uppajjati, ‘nikanti dhammo’ti nikantiṃ āvajjati. tato vikkhepo uddhaccaṃ. tena uddhaccena viggahitamānaso aniccato upaṭṭhānaṃ yathābhūtaṃ nappajānāti, dukkhato upaṭṭhānaṃ yathābhūtaṃ nappajānāti, anattato upaṭṭhānaṃ yathābhūtaṃ nappajānāti. tena vuccati — “dhammuddhaccaviggahitamānaso hoti so samayo, yaṃ taṃ cittaṃ ajjhattameva santiṭṭhati sannisīdati ekodi hoti samādhiyati. tassa maggo sañjāyatī”ti. kathaṃ maggo sañjāyati . pe . evaṃ maggo sañjāyati, evaṃ saññojanāni pahīyanti, anusayā byantīhonti.

KN Paṭis, 2. yuganaddhavaggo, 1. yuganaddhakathā, 2. dhammuddhaccavāraniddeso, para. 4 ⇒

rūpaṃ aniccato manasikaroto . pe . rūpaṃ dukkhato manasikaroto. rūpaṃ anattato manasikaroto. vedanaṃ . pe . saññaṃ. saṅkhāre. viññāṇaṃ. cakkhuṃ . pe . jarāmaraṇaṃ aniccato manasikaroto . pe . jarāmaraṇaṃ dukkhato manasikaroto, jarāmaraṇaṃ anattato manasikaroto obhāso uppajjati . pe . ñāṇaṃ uppajjati, pīti uppajjati, passaddhi uppajjati, sukhaṃ uppajjati, adhimokkho uppajjati, paggaho uppajjati, upaṭṭhānaṃ uppajjati, upekkhā uppajjati, nikanti uppajjati, ‘nikanti dhammo’ti nikantiṃ āvajjati. tato vikkhepo uddhaccaṃ. tena uddhaccena viggahitamānaso. jarāmaraṇaṃ anattato upaṭṭhānaṃ yathābhūtaṃ nappajānāti. jarāmaraṇaṃ aniccato upaṭṭhānaṃ yathābhūtaṃ nappajānāti, jarāmaraṇaṃ dukkhato upaṭṭhānaṃ yathābhūtaṃ nappajānāti. tena vuccati — “dhammuddhaccaviggahitamānaso hoti. so samayo, yaṃ taṃ cittaṃ ajjhattameva santiṭṭhati sannisīdati ekodi hoti samādhiyati. tassa maggo sañjāyatī”ti. kathaṃ maggo sañjāyati . pe . evaṃ maggo sañjāyati. evaṃ saññojanāni pahīyanti, anusayā byantīhonti. evaṃ dhammuddhaccaviggahitaṃ mānasaṃ hoti.

KN Nett, 4. paṭiniddesavāro, 2. vicayahārasampāto, para. 4 ⇒

54. so samādhi pañcavidhena veditabbo. ayaṃ samādhi “paccuppannasukho”ti itissa paccattameva ñāṇadassanaṃ paccupaṭṭhitaṃ bhavati, ayaṃ samādhi “āyatiṃ sukhavipāko”ti itissa paccattameva ñāṇadassanaṃ paccupaṭṭhitaṃ bhavati, ayaṃ samādhi “ariyo nirāmiso”ti itissa paccattameva ñāṇadassanaṃ paccupaṭṭhitaṃ bhavati, ayaṃ samādhi “akāpurisasevito”ti itissa paccattameva ñāṇadassanaṃ paccupaṭṭhitaṃ bhavati, ayaṃ samādhi “santo ceva paṇīto ca paṭippassaddhiladdho ca ekodibhāvādhigato ca na sasaṅkhāraniggayhavāritagato cā”ti itissa paccattameva ñāṇadassanaṃ paccupaṭṭhitaṃ bhavati. taṃ kho panimaṃ samādhiṃ “sato samāpajjāmi sato vuṭṭhahāmī”ti itissa paccattameva ñāṇadassanaṃ paccupaṭṭhitaṃ bhavati. tattha yo ca samādhi paccuppannasukho yo ca samādhi āyatiṃ sukhavipāko ayaṃ samatho. yo ca samādhi ariyo nirāmiso, yo ca samādhi akāpurisasevito, yo ca samādhi santo ceva paṇīto paṭippassaddhiladdho ca ekodibhāvādhigato ca na sasaṅkhāraniggayhavāritagato ca yañcāhaṃ taṃ kho panimaṃ samādhiṃ sato samāpajjāmi sato vuṭṭhahāmīti, ayaṃ vipassanā.
KN Peṭ, 2. sāsanapaṭṭhānadutiyabhūmi, , para. 65 ⇒
21. tattha saddhindriyena sabbaṃ vicikicchitaṃ pajahati, paññindriyena udayabbayaṃ passati, samādhindriyena cittaṃ ekodi karoti vīriyindriyena ārabhati. so imehi pañcahi indriyehi saddhānusārī aveccappasāde nirato anantariyaṃ samādhiṃ uppādeti. indriyehi suddhehi dhammānusārī appaccayatāya anantariyaṃ samādhiṃ uppādeti. so “idaṃ dukkhan”ti yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti. saccāni idaṃ dassanabhāgiyaṃ suttaṃ. tassa pañcannaṃ orambhāgiyānaṃ saṃyojanānaṃ tīṇi saṃyojanāni dassanapahātabbāni sabbena sabbaṃ pahīnāni dve puggalakatāni. tattha tīṇi akusalamūlāni bhāvanāpahātabbāni uparikkhittāni cha bhave nibbattenti. tattha tesu abhijjhāya ca byāpādesu tanukatesu cha bhavā parikkhayā mariyādaṃ gacchanti, dve bhavā avasiṭṭhā. tassa abhijjhā ca byāpādo ca sabbena sabbaṃ parikkhīṇā honti. eko bhavo avasiṭṭho hoti. so ca mānavasena nibbatteti. kiñcāpi ettha aññepi cattāro kilesā rūparāgo bhavarāgo avijjā uddhaccaṃ ketusmimānabhūtā nappaṭibalā asmimānaṃ vinivattetuṃ, sabbepi te asmimānassa pahānaṃ ārabhate. khīṇesu na ca tesu idamuttaridassanabhūmiyaṃ pañcasu sekkhapuggalesu tīsu ca paṭippannakesu dvīsu ca phalaṭṭhesu bhāvanābhāgiyaṃ suttaṃ. taduttari asekkhabhāgiyasuttaṃ, katthaci bhūmi nipīḷiyati. idañca pañcamaṃ suttaṃ. tiṇṇaṃ puggalānaṃ desitaṃ puthujjanassa sekkhassa asekkhassa saṃkilesabhāgiyaṃ vāsanābhāgiyaṃ. puthujjanassa dassanabhāgiyaṃ. bhāvanābhāgiyaṃ pañcannaṃ sekkhānaṃ. yaṃ paṭhamaniddiṭṭhaṃ asekkhabhāgiyaṃ sabbesaṃ arahantānaṃ. sā pana pañcavidhā sattavīsāakāre pariyesitabbaṃ. etesu tassa gatīnaṃ tato uttari. tañca kho saṅkhepena paññāsāya ākārehi sampatati, ye paññāsa ākārā sāsane niddiṭṭhā, te saṅkhipiyantā dasahi ākārehi patanti. ye ariyasaccaṃ nikkhepena ṭhite saṅkhipiyattā aṭṭhasu ākāresu patanti. catūsu ca sādhāraṇesu suttesu yā hārasampātassa bhūmi, te saṅkhipiyantā pañcasu suttesu patanti. saṃkilesabhāgiye vāsanābhāgiye bhāvanābhāgiye nibbedhabhāgiye asekkhabhāgiye ca. te saṅkhipiyantā catūsu suttesu patanti. saṃkilesabhāgiye vāsanābhāgiye nibbedhabhāgiye asekkhabhāgiye ca. te saṅkhipiyamānā tīsu suttesu patanti, puthujjanabhāgiye sekkhabhāgiye asekkhabhāgiye ca. te saṅkhipiyantā dvīsu suttesu patanti nibbedhabhāgiye ca pubbayogabhāgiye ca. yathā vuttaṃ bhagavatā dve atthavase sampassamānā tathāgatā arahanto sammāsambuddhā dhammaṃ desenti suttaṃ geyyaṃ . pe . satthā pubbayogasamannāgate appakasirena maññamānā vasiyanti pubbayogā ca bhavissanti santānaṃ maññamānādharāya. tattha paññāvemattataṃ attano samanupassamānena aṭṭhavidhe suttasaṅkhepe, yattha yattha sakkoti, tattha tattha yojetabbaṃ. tattha tattha yojetvā suttassa attho niddisitabbo. na hi sati vedanā mano dhāretvā sakkā yena kenaci suttassa attho yathābhūtaṃ niddisituṃ.
KN Peṭ, 7. hārasampātabhūmi, para. 4 ⇒
tesaṃyeva vitakkavicārānaṃ abhikkhaṇaṃ āsevanāya tassa tappoṇamānasaṃ hoti. tassa vitakkavicārā oḷārikā khāyanti. yañca pītisukhañca nekkhammañca oḷārikaṃ bhavati. api ca samādhijā pīti rati ca jāyati. tassa vicārārammaṇaṃ. tesaṃ vūpasamā ajjhattaṃ ceto sampasīdati. ye vitakkavicārā dve dhammānussaritabbā. paccuppannā daraṇitabbaṃ. tesaṃ vūpasamā ekodibhāvaṃ cittekaggataṃ hoti. tassa ekodibhāvena pīti pāripūriṃ gacchati. yā pīti, taṃ somanassindriyaṃ, yaṃ sukhaṃ, taṃ sukhindriyaṃ. yā cittekaggatā, ayaṃ samādhi. taṃ dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ caturaṅgasamannāgataṃ. so pītiyā virāgā yāti ojahi jallasahagataṃ.
KN Peṭ, 7. hārasampātabhūmi, para. 12 ⇒
74. yāni cattāri jhānāni, tesaṃ jhānānaṃ imāni aṅgāni, tesaṃ aṅgānaṃ samūho assa aṅgā, ayaṃ jhānabhūmi ko visesoti assa viseso. ime sambhārā tehi ayaṃ samudāgamo, tassa samudāgamassa ayaṃ upanisā, tāya upanisāya ayaṃ bhāvanā. tassā bhāvanāya ayaṃ ādīnavo. tena ayaṃ parihāni. kassa parihānīti tadupagajjhāyino . taṃ yathā bhaṇitaṃ paccavekkhanto ayaṃ viseso. tena visesena ayaṃ assādo, so kassa assādo ajhāniyā jhāyino, tassā ajhāniyā jhāyino, idaṃ kallitā kosalle ṭhitajjhānaṃ anomaddiyataṃ gacchati jhānabalaṃ, jhānabale ṭhitassa ayaṃ pāramippattassa imāni jhānaṅgāni anāvilasaṅkappo paṭhame jhāne jhānaṅgāni bhāvī. so pīti tadanusārittāva paṭhame jhāne jhānaṅgaṃ tassaṅguno ca dhammā tadabhisannitāya ca. pīti dutiye jhāne jhānaṅgadhammatā kho pana tathā pavattassa sahagataṃ jhānaṅgadhammaṃ sasukhatāya ajjhattaṃ sampasādo dutiye jhāne jhānaṅgaṃ manosampasādanatāya tadabhisannitāya ca. pīti dutiye jhāne jhānaṅgaṃ ajjhattaṃ sampasādanaṃ samādhitā pīti dutiye jhāne jhānaṅgaṃ, cetaso ekodibhāvo dutiye jhāne jhānaṅgaṃ, upekkhā phassatā tatiye jhāne jhānaṅgaṃ, sukhaṃ tassa aṅganti ca. cetaso ekodibhāvo catutthe jhāne jhānaṅgaṃ, upekkhā adukkhamasukhā catutthe jhāne jhānaṅgaṃ, abhinisābhūmi upekkhāsatipārisuddhi catutthe jhāne jhānaṅgaṃ. satipārisuddhi ca anekajjhābhūmīsu jhānaṅgasamāyuttā pīti cetaso ekodibhāvo catutthe jhāne jhānaṅgaṃ.
KN Peṭ, 7. hārasampātabhūmi, para. 72 ⇒
tattha katamo padaṭṭhāno hāro? yamidaṃ cittaṃ dīgharattaṃ paribhāvitaṃ saddhāya sīlena cāgena paññāya samādhinā paṭhamajjhānassa padaṭṭhānaṃ. yā saddhā assa anāvilasaṅkappo, taṃ dutiyajjhānassa padaṭṭhānaṃ. tīṇi ca aveccappasādā yaṃ sīlaṃ, taṃ ariyakantaṃ, taṃ sīlakkhandhassa padaṭṭhānaṃ. yā paññā, sā paññākkhandhassa padaṭṭhānaṃ. ime ca dhammā idañca cittaṃ ekodibhūtasamādhissa padaṭṭhānaṃ. saddhā saddhindriyassa padaṭṭhānaṃ. cāgo samādhindriyassa padaṭṭhānaṃ. paññā paññindriyassa padaṭṭhānaṃ. saddhā ca paññā ca vipassanā padaṭṭhānaṃ. sīlañca cāgo ca samathassa padaṭṭhānaṃ. saddhā ca paññā ca avijjā virāgāya paññāvimuttiyā padaṭṭhānaṃ. sīlañca cāgo ca rāgavirāgāya cetovimuttiyā padaṭṭhānaṃ.
KN Peṭ, 7. hārasampātabhūmi, para. 100 ⇒
yaṃ puriso bhāvanābhūmiyaṃ sīlāni ārabbha sīlena saṃyutto hoti evaṃ yāva vimutti tathā sīlakkhandho. tattha yo ca avippaṭisāro anusayavasena niddiṭṭho, tañca sīlaṃ ayaṃ sīlakkhandho. pāmojjapītipassaddhīti ca samādhindriyena, ayaṃ samādhikkhandho. yaṃ samāhito yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, ayaṃ paññākkhandho. ime tayo khandhā sīlaṃ samādhi paññā ca tathā sīlaṃ paripūreti yaṃ vīriyindriyaṃ tena kāraṇena so sīlaṃ paripūreti, anuppannassa ca akusalassa anuppādāya vāyamati, uppannassa ca pahānāya anuppannassa ca kusalassa uppādāya, uppannassa ca kusalassa bhiyyobhāvāya iti vīriyindriyaṃ niddiṭṭhaṃ. tattha yo samādhikkhandho, idaṃ samādhindriyaṃ. paññākkhandho paññindriyaṃ, taṃ catūsu sammappadhānesu daṭṭhabbaṃ. tathā yo anuppannassa ca akusalassa anuppādāya vāyamati, idaṃ paṭhamaṃ sammappadhānaṃ. yaṃ uppannassa, idaṃ dutiyaṃ. cattāri sammappadhānāni catūsu jhānesu passitabbāni. tathā sīlakkhandhena nekkhammadhātu ca adhikā, tayo ca vitakkā nekkhammavitakko abyāpādavitakko avihiṃsāvitakko ca. sādhāraṇabhūtā. yā piyāyamānassa pāmojjena idaṃ kāyikaṃ sukhaṃ ānitaṃ aniyamītipemena, idaṃ dukkhaṃ. yo tattha avikkhepo, ayaṃ samādhi. idaṃ pañcaṅgikaṃ paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ. yā cetasikā passaddhi savitakkaṃ savicāraṃ virodhanaṃ, yo kileso ca paridāho, so paṭhame jhāne niruddho. tathā yā ca kilesapassaddhi yā ca vitakkavicārānaṃ passaddhi, ubhayepi ete dhamme passaddhāyaṃ. tattha kāyassa cittassa ca sukhaṃ sukhāyanā, idaṃ pītisukhino passaddhi. yopi ekodibhāvo cittassa, tena ekodibhāvena yaṃ cittassa ajjhattaṃ sampasādanaṃ, idaṃ catutthaṃ jhānaṅgaṃ. iti ajjhattañca sampasādo cetaso ca ekodibhāvo pīti ca sukhañca, idaṃ dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ caturaṅgikaṃ. yo passaddhakāyo sukhaṃ vedeti, tena adhimattena sukhena pharitvā sukhaṃ cetasikaṃ yaṃ, so pītivītarāgo evaṃ tassa pītivītarāgatāya upekkhaṃ paṭilabhati. so pītiyā ca virāgā upekkhaṃ paṭilabhati. sukhañca paṭisaṃvedeti. sati ca sammā paññāya paṭilabhati. sace sati ekaggatā idaṃ pañcaṅgikaṃ tatiyaṃ jhānaṃ. yaṃ sukhino cittaṃ samādhiyati, ayaṃ ekaggatāya parāvidhānabhāgiyā, paṭhame jhāne atthi cittekaggatā no cakkhussa vedanā sabbaṃ pāripūriṃ gacchati. yathā catutthe jhāne, tathā yā upekkhā passambhayaṃ satisampajaññaṃ cittekaggatā ca, idaṃ catutthaṃ jhānaṃ.

Every occurence of "ekagga"


(work in progress)

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I wish Sir, I could rely to your wonderful and outstanding work; but you rely too much on suttas with no parallels.
Too bad.

A more restricted approach - that is to say, from suttas with parallels leads to following:

Ekodi comes from “Vedo-Sanskrit” Eka+ud+√ i

Eka in Pali & Sanskrit means: “one of two or many”.
Ud: is particle and prefix to verbs and nouns implying superiority in place.
Root √ i: means to arise and escape.

That is to say, literally "rising and escaping to superior “one” (of two).
Escaping to “one” (internal), from two (external + internal).
Escaping to one, from manifoldness.

As in transcending to liberated citta (cetovimutti), through samadhi.

Samadhi meaning: “to direct (pro-actively) citta towards constant, right homogeneity” (& towards oneself [internal]) .
(transcendence of one’s homogeneous citta; over mano’s bilateral “external & internal “ processing).
[Much meaning, I agree, for a single word - but this is general meaning, derived from suttas with parallels] .

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This is an interesting discussion to me, as I was involved in the compilation of CPD in the 1980’s, when the fascicle containing eka- and its compounds was being compiled.

As Pali is older than classical Sanskrit, the influence of Vedic Sanskrit is to be expected.
ek’-odi seems to be an older word, that was slowly replaced by ek’-agga.

In the vast collection of material brought together by @frankk it also becomes noticable that the terms discussed have a distinctive pattern of distribution within the Pali literature.
It would be interesting to examine this in more detail.

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Sanskrit-Pali controversy is just red herring.
(Eka)-udi, in Panini Sanskrit appears in Bṛhad-āraṇyaka and Chandogya Up.
How it is written in Panini’s Sanskrit does not matter. What import is how Veda was conveyed through oral tradition, and put into written Panini’s form.
Sanskrit-Pali controversy is useless talk.

In suttas, ekagga, ekodi, and ekaggatta must be seen as ways of transcendence toward oneness - and that, across the board of suttas with parallels.

And controversy about Ekaggatta is since settled in this sense.

Firstly, historically, pre-Buddhist √ gam prevails on post Buddhist √aṅg.
Therefore, meaning of ek-“agra”-ta as “prominent” (foremost, chief) is dubious.

Secondly, grammar settles case.

Example of ekaggatta are found in suttas with parallels as SN 48.9 and SN 48.50 - always in this context:

Idha, bhikkhave, ariyasāvako vossaggārammaṇaṃ karitvā labhati samādhiṃ, labhati cittassa ekaggataṃ
SN 48.9

This extract encompasses genitive absolute - (genitive absolute, yes ! - very special case); with nouns ( samādhiṃ & citassa ,) and participle ( ekaggataṃ) , both inflected in the genitive.
Proper translation should be:

Here, bhikkhus, the noble disciple, having undertaken the relinquishing of the support, gains concentration and gains a citta, caused to become one. This is called the faculty of concentration (SN 48.9).

Again this is example of transcendence.
That is to say, relinquishing support, to enter oneness of citta - concentrated citta.
In Buddhism one has to relinquish something; not to make one with that thing.
Most of times, it is relinquishing one ayatana (field of experience) out of two. Transcending to the highest.

But who wants to hear about transcendence in secular buddhisms.
So I suppose this controversy will surface again in the future; … as usual.

Ekaggataṃ is accusative singular.


Not in this case.
But I know how hard it is for some beings, to admit the transcendence towards liberated citta.

May I add that, indeed, more correct translation of above extract should be:

sam-adha means indeed: placing-with (or to be more English: placing-in).

Here, bhikkhus, the noble disciple, having undertaken the relinquishing of the support, places himself with (citta) and gains a citta, caused to become one. This is called the faculty of placing (oneself) with (citta) (SN 48.9).

And while we’re at it, let see what a support means:

Ārammaṇa means a support, and something to grasp on (Sk: grabhaṇa - √grah - to perceive (with the organs of sense or with [mánas] ). It is best defined in the following:

When there is a support (ārammaṇa) there is a resting place [a dwelling to strive, prosper & spread from] (patiṭṭhā) for the establishing of consciousness. SN 12.38
Consciousness, bhikkhus, while standing (ongoing), might stand engaged [combined, connected] with (ūpaya) form; supported upon form (rūpārammaṇaṃ), established upon form (rūpappatiṭṭhaṃ). SN 22.53
If a bhikkhu has abandoned lust for the form element, with the abandoning of lust, the support is cut off (vocchijjatārammaṇaṃ). SN 22.53

As it’s a feminine noun in -ā, the genitive would be ekaggatāya.
But I know how hard it is for some beings to read a Pali primer.


Do you mean agamas ? What about patisambhidamagga it’s the oldest non ebt work in the world

i’m only part way through, but i just wanted to say thank you - this is wonderful.