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UPED Samādhi (definition)


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What is Samādhi?

Samādhi = Undistractable-Lucidity

“Concentration” is probably the most common translation, but it doesn’t really capture the essence, the heart of the matter, of samādhi, and the crucial indispensable role it plays in realizing Dhamma, nirvana.
These two passages make the case for the translation choice.

AN 5.113 sammā-samādhi can withstand sounds, pain, etc.

AN 5.113 sammā-samādhi-suttaṃ
AN 5.113 right concentration discourse
(Note the title of the sutta. There are many suttas in the EBT called “samādhi”, but this is the only one I’ve found that’s called “sammā samādhi”)
♦ “pañca-hi, bhikkhave, dhammehi samannāgato
“five-of-these, *********, qualities, possessing (them),
bhikkhu bhabbo sammā-samādhiṃ
(a) monk [is] capable (of) righteous-undistractable-lucidity,
upasampajja viharituṃ.
[capable of] entering (and) dwelling (in that).
katamehi pañcahi?
Which five?
idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu
Here, monks, (a) monk
1. khamo hoti rūpānaṃ,
1. (can) patiently-endure **** forms,
2. khamo saddānaṃ,
2. (can) patiently-endure sounds,
3. khamo gandhānaṃ,
3. (can) patiently-endure odors,
4. khamo rasānaṃ,
4. (can) patiently-endure tastes,
5. khamo phoṭṭhabbānaṃ.
5. (can) patiently-endure tactile-objects,

AN 5.139, kings warrior elephant builds on AN 5.113

(key word, khamo = resilience, or patient endurance from AN 5.113)
2. ♦ “kathañca, bhikkhave, rañño nāgo khamo hoti saddānaṃ? idha, bhikkhave, rañño nāgo saṅgāmagato hatthisaddaṃ vā sutvā assasaddaṃ vā sutvā rathasaddaṃ vā sutvā pattisaddaṃ vā sutvā bheripaṇavasaṅkhatiṇavaninnādasaddaṃ vā sutvā na saṃsīdati na visīdati, santhambhati sakkoti saṅgāmaṃ otarituṃ. evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, rañño nāgo khamo hoti saddānaṃ.
2. “And how is a king’s elephant resilient to sounds? There is the case where a king’s elephant, having gone into battle, hears the sound of elephants, the sound of cavalry, the sound of chariots, the sound of foot soldiers, the resounding din of drums, cymbals, conchs, & tom-toms, but he doesn’t falter or faint, he steels himself and engages in the battle. This is how a king’s elephant is resilient to sounds.
3. ♦ “kathañca, bhikkhave, rañño nāgo khamo hoti gandhānaṃ? idha, bhikkhave, rañño nāgo saṅgāmagato ye te rañño nāgā abhijātā saṅgāmāvacarā tesaṃ muttakarīsassa gandhaṃ ghāyitvā na saṃsīdati na visīdati, santhambhati sakkoti saṅgāmaṃ otarituṃ. evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, rañño nāgo khamo hoti gandhānaṃ.
3. “And how is a king’s elephant resilient to aromas? There is the case where a king’s elephant, having gone into battle, smells the stench of the urine & feces of those pedigreed royal elephants who are at home in the battlefield, but he doesn’t falter or faint, he steels himself and engages in the battle. This is how a king’s elephant is not resilient to aromas.
5. ♦ “kathañca, bhikkhave, rañño nāgo khamo hoti phoṭṭhabbānaṃ? idha, bhikkhave, rañño nāgo saṅgāmagato ekena vā saravegena viddho, dvīhi vā tīhi vā catūhi vā pañcahi vā saravegehi viddho na saṃsīdati na visīdati, santhambhati sakkoti saṅgāmaṃ otarituṃ. evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, rañño nāgo khamo hoti phoṭṭhabbānaṃ.
5. “And how is a king’s elephant resilient to tactile sensations? There is the case where a king’s elephant, having gone into battle, is pierced by a flight of arrows, two flights, three flights, four flights, five flights of arrows, but he doesn’t falter or faint, he steels himself and engages in the battle. This is how a king’s elephant is resilient to tactile sensations.

(monk who patiently endures stimuli like warrior elephant is in “samādhi”)

2. ♦ “kathañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu khamo hoti saddānaṃ? idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sotena saddaṃ sutvā rajanīye sadde na sārajjati, sakkoti cittaṃ samādahituṃ. evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu khamo hoti saddānaṃ.
2. “And how is a monk resilient to sounds? There is the case where a monk, on hearing a sound with the ear, feels no passion for a sound that incites passion and can undistractify-&-lucidify his mind. This is how a monk is resilient to sounds.
3. ♦ “kathañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu khamo hoti gandhānaṃ. idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu ghānena gandhaṃ ghāyitvā rajanīye gandhe na sārajjati, sakkoti cittaṃ samādahituṃ. evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu khamo hoti gandhānaṃ.
3. “And how is a monk resilient to aromas? There is the case where a monk, on smelling an aroma with the nose, feels no passion for an aroma that incites passion and can undistractify-&-lucidify his mind. This is how a monk is resilient to aromas.
5. ♦ “kathañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu khamo hoti phoṭṭhabbānaṃ? idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāyena phoṭṭhabbaṃ phusitvā rajanīye phoṭṭhabbe na sārajjati, sakkoti cittaṃ samādahituṃ. evaṃ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu khamo hoti phoṭṭhabbānaṃ.
5. “And how is a monk resilient to tactile sensations? There is the case where a monk, on touching a tactile sensation with the body, feels no passion for a tactile sensation that incites passion and can undistractify-&-lucidify his mind. This is how a monk is resilient to tactile sensations.

Nuances of samādhi (alphabetized eng.)


Ānā-pānas-sati-samādhi, 16 APS is a samādhi, 16 APSS

SN 54, which contains 20 suttas, starting with sutta #7, the latter 14 suttas switch terminologly from16APS to 16APSS (16APS + samādhi). It’s the same 16 steps, nothing different about it, but the Buddha starts labeling the practice a samādhi practice.
SN 54.8 Pa-dīp'-opama-sutta
SN 54.8 (the) **-lamp-simile-discourse
“Ānā-pānas-sati-samādhi, bhikkhave,
"Inhale-exhale-mindful-concentration, monks,
bhāvito bahulīkato
[when] developed (and) pursued,
mahap-phalo hoti mahā-nisaṃso.
{is of} great-fruit ****, great-benefit.

a-nimitta ceto-samādhi: sign-less mind’s-undistractable-lucidity

(see separate article that examines all EBT passsages on animitta)
SN 40.9 a-nimitta-pañhā-suttaṃ
SN 40.9 sign-less-question-discourse
♦ 340. “‘a-nimitto ceto-samādhi,
"'Sign-less concentration-of-mind,
a-nimitto ceto-samādhī’ti vuccati.
Sign-less concentration-of-mind,' (it is) said.
katamo nu kho a-nimitto ceto-samādhīti?
what the heck (is) Sign-less concentration-of-mind?
tassa mayhaṃ, āvuso, etad-ahosi —
Then I, *****, (had) this-[thought]-occur (to me):
‘idha bhikkhu
'Here (a) monk,
sabba-nimittānaṃ a-manasi-kārā
(regarding) all-signs, no-attention-(is)-given (to them).
a-nimittaṃ ceto-samādhiṃ upasampajja viharati.
Sign-less concentration-of-mind (he) enters (and) dwells.
ayaṃ vuccati a-nimitto ceto-samādhī’ti.
This (is) called Sign-less concentration-of-mind.'"

ap-paṇihito samādhi, ap-paṇidhāya bhāvanā, un-directed samadhi

same as (a-vitakka a-vicara) samadhi, second jhana or better.
see SN 47.10

Ariyassa pañc-aṅgikassa sammā-samādhissa

AN 5.28 noble five-factored right-concentration
5 factors = 4 jhānas + reflection-nimitta + 5 similes
AN 5.28 Pañc-aṅgika-sutta
AN 5.28 Five-Factored-discourse
“Ariyassa, bhikkhave, pañc-aṅgikassa sammā-samādhissa
(This) Noble, ********, five-factored right-concentration;
Puna ca-paraṃ, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno
Again, and-furthermore, *********, ********
paccavekkhaṇā-nimittaṃ sug-gahitaṃ hoti
(the) reviewing-sign {has been} well-grasped ****,
su-manasikataṃ sū-(u)padhāritaṃ sup-paṭividdhaṃ paññāya.
well-attended, well-sustained, well-penetrated (by) wisdom.

ariyo sammā-samādhi sa-upaniso itipi sa-parikkhāro itipī

AN 7.45, MN 117, DN 18.9, SN 45.28: noble right concentration 7 factored
AN 7.45 samādhi-parikkhāra-suttaṃ
AN 7.45 concentration-Accessories-discourse
♦ 45. “satt-ime, bhikkhave, samādhi-parikkhārā.
“[There are] seven-(of)-these, *********, concentration-accessories.
katame satta?
What seven?
sammādiṭṭhi, sammāsaṅkappo,
Right view, right intention,
sammāvācā, sammākammanto, sammāājīvo,
right speech, right action, right livelihood,
sammāvāyāmo, sammāsati.
right effort, and right mindfulness.
yā kho, bhikkhave,
what ever, *********,
imehi sattah-aṅgehi
(with) these seven-factors
cittass-ekaggatā parikkhatā,
(that the) mind's-unification (is) equipped (with),
ayaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave,
that (is) called, *********,
ariyo sammā-samādhi sa-upaniso itipi sa-parikkhāro itipī”ti.
noble right-concentration with-supports ***** &-with-accessories *****.’”

a-vitakko a-vicāro samādhi.

♦ “katamo ca, bhikkhave, asaṅkhatagāmimaggo?
what is the way to the unconditioned?
a-vitakko a-vicāro samādhi.
Without-thinking, without-evaluation undistractable lucidity [second jhana or higher]
See AN 8.63 for how the “3 ways of samadhi” correspond to 4 jhanas.

a-vitakko vicāra-matto samādhi.

♦ “katamo ca, bhikkhave, asaṅkhatagāmimaggo?
what is the way to the unconditioned?
a-vitakko vicāra-matto samādhi.
Without-thinking, with-some-evaluation undistractable lucidity [between first and second jhana]
See AN 8.63 for how the “3 ways of samadhi” correspond to 4 jhanas.

bala = power (samādhi-bala is one of 5bal)

The 5bal = 5ind.
5 bala = 5 indriya. See indriya, samadhi-indriya.

bhāvanā = development, (samādhi-bhāvanā)

MN 44
katamā samādhi-bhāvanā”ti?
what (is) undistractable-lucidity-development?
yā tesaṃyeva dhammānaṃ
Whichever of these Dhammas [right-effort, right-remembering, right-samādhi]; (their)
āsevanā bhāvanā bahulī-kammaṃ,
cultivation, development, abundant-pursuit,
ayaṃ ettha samādhi-bhāvanā”ti.
that there (is) undistractable-lucidity-development.
AN 4.41 samādhi-bhāvanā-sutta
(1. STED Four Jhānas for pleasant abiding now)
(2. STED smd-asnd: For knowledge and vision)
(3. For sati and sampajaññāya)
(4. For destroying Āsava's)

bojjhanga (samādhi-sambojjhanga)

AN 10.3, AN 11.3: shows that samādhi-sambojjhanga is sammā samādhi
1. Sīlavato, bhikkhave, sīla-sampannassa
1. “(for a) virtuous [person], *********, (who has) virtuous-behavior -- in possession,
upanisa-sampanno hoti a-vippaṭisāro;
(the) proximate-cause-is-possessed (by) non-regret.
2. a-vippaṭisāre sati a-vippaṭisāra-sampannassa
2. (when there is) non-regret ****, (for one with) non-regret- in possession,
upanisa-sampannaṃ hoti pāmojjaṃ;
(the) proximate-cause-is-possessed (by) mirth.
3. pāmojje sati pāmojja-sampannassa
3. (When there is) mirth ****, (for one with) mirth- in possession,
upanisa-sampannā hoti pīti;
(the) proximate-cause-is-possessed (by) rapture.
4. pītiyā sati pīti-sampannassa
4. (When there is) rapture ****, (for one with) rapture- in possession,
upanisa-sampannā hoti passaddhi;
(the) proximate-cause-is-possessed (by) pacification.
5. passaddhiyā sati passaddhi-sampannassa
5.(When there is) pacification ****, (for one with) pacification- in possession,
upanisa-sampannaṃ hoti sukhaṃ;
(the) proximate-cause-is-possessed (by) pleasure.
6. sukhe sati sukha-sampannassa
6. (When there is) pleasure ****, (for one with) pleasure- in possession,
upanisa-sampanno hoti sammā-samādhi;
(the) proximate-cause-is-possessed (by) righteous - undistractable-lucidity.
7. sammā-samādhimhi sati sammā-samādhi-sampannassa
7. (When there is) righteous - undistractable-lucidity ****, (for one with) righteous - undistractable-lucidity- in possession,
upanisa-sampannaṃ hoti yathā-bhūta-ñāṇa-dassanaṃ;
(the) proximate-cause-is-possessed (by) knowledge and vision of things as they really are.
8. yathā-bhūta-ñāṇa-dassane sati yathā-bhūta-ñāṇa-dassana-sampannassa
8. (When there is) knowledge and vision of things as they really are ****, (for one with) knowledge and vision of things as they really are - in possession,
upanisa-sampanno hoti nibbidā-virāgo;
(the) proximate-cause-is-possessed (by) disenchantment and dispassion
9. nibbidā-virāge sati nibbidā-virāga-sampannassa
9. (When there is) disenchantment and dispassion ****, (for one with) disenchantment and dispassion - in possession,
10. upanisa-sampannaṃ hoti vimutti-ñāṇa-dassanaṃ.
10. (the) proximate-cause-is-possessed (by) liberation's - knowledge and vision.

SN 46.2 and 46.3

give especially good descriptions about the nutriments for samadhi-bojjhanga, and how it works with the other factors in 7sb (awakening factors)

chanda-samādhip-padhāna-saṅkhāra… of 4ip

see iddhi-pada entry for more details on 4ip.
chanda-samādhip-padhāna-saṅkhāra-samannāgataṃ
desire-(based)-undistractable-lucidity--;--exertion-fabrications-(it)-possesses.
iddhi-pādaṃ bhāveti,
(this) [spiritual] power-base (he) develops.

citta-samādhip-padhāna-saṅkhāra… of 4ip

see iddhi-pada entry for more details on 4ip.
citta-samādhip-padhāna-saṅkhāra-samannāgataṃ
mind-(based)-undistractable-lucidity--;--exertion-fabrications-(it)-possesses.
iddhi-pādaṃ bhāveti,
(this) [spiritual] power-base (he) develops.

ekaggata: samādhi = cittassa ekaggata = mind’s unification

refer to entry: samādhi = cittassa ekaggata = mind’s unification
for passsages supporting that

ekodi-bhava: synonymous with ekaggata

refer to entry: samādhi = cittassa ekaggata = mind’s unification
for passsages supporting that

iddhi-pāda: 4ip = 4 [spiritual] power bases

SN 51 iddhi-pāda samyutta. The 4ip are a commentary on how right effort and right exertion (4pd) are used to perfect 4th jhana (see AN 6.29). Notice the lack of pleasure factors in 4ip, compared to first 3 jhanas. And notice the words chanda, viriya, citta are key words in the standard 4pd and right effort formulas.

indriya = faculty (samādhi-indriya is one of 5ind)

Note that what makes this interesting and distinctive from the STED sammā samādhi is that it must be directed towards attaining Nirvana to make it right concentration.

SN 48.9 samādhi-indriya definition is ekagga citta directed towards nirvana

♦ “katamañ-ca, bhikkhave, samādh-indriyaṃ?
"{And}-what, monks, (is) undistractable-lucidity-faculty?
idha, bhikkhave, ariya-sāvako
Here, monks, (a) disciple-of-the-noble-ones,
vossagg-ārammaṇaṃ karitvā
{having made} release-(as the)-object
labhati samādhiṃ,
(he) obtains undistractable-lucidity,
labhati cittassa ekaggataṃ —
(he) obtains mind’s singularity -
idaṃ vuccati, bhikkhave, samādh-indriyaṃ.
this (is) called, *********, undistractable-lucidity-faculty.

jhāna, 4j, 4 jhānas

see entry under sammā-samādhi

khandha = aggregate: (samādhi-khandha)

MN 44
yo ca sammā-vāyāmo yā ca sammā-sati yo ca sammā-samādhi
Right-effort, right-remembering, & righteous-undistractable-lucidity
ime dhammā samādhik-khandhe saṅgahitā.
those Dhammas {come under the} undistractable-lucidity-aggregate.

nimitta = sign, theme (samādhi-nimittā = 4sp)

MN 44
katame dhammā samādhi-nimittā,
which Dhammas are undistractable-lucidity-themes?
cattāro sati-’paṭṭhānā samādhi-nimittā;
four remembrance-establishings (are) undistractable-lucidity-themes.

paṇihito samādhi, paṇidhāya bhāvanā, directed samadhi

same as (sa-vitakka sa-vicara) samadhi, first jhana with thinking & evaluation.
see SN 47.10

parikkhārā = requisites, equipment, indispensables (samādhi-parikkhārā = 4pd)

MN 44
katame dhammā samādhi-parikkhārā,
what Dhammas are undistractable-lucidity-requisites?
cattāro sammap-padhānā samādhi-parikkhārā.
four right-exertions (are) undistractable-lucidity-requisites.
note: 4pd defined exactly same as sammā vāyāmo (right effort)

also see: ariyo sammā-samādhi sa-upaniso itipi sa-parikkhāro itipī


samādhi = cittassa ekaggata = mind’s unification

MN 44

exhibit 1: MN 44

♦ “katamo panāyye, samādhi,
“Now what, lady, (is) undistractable-lucidity?
♦ “yā kho, āvuso visākha, cittassa ekaggatā ayaṃ samādhi;
“friend Visākha, mind’s unification is undistractable-lucidity.

exhibit 2: see: ariyo sammā-samādhi sa-upaniso itipi sa-parikkhāro itipī

exhibit 3: samadhi-indriya also supports the ekaggata equivalence

exhibit 4: AN 4.29 samma samadhi not explicitly defined, but see verse

♦ “sammā-samādhi, bhikkhave, dhammapadaṃ
(4) Righteous-undistractable-lucidity is a Dhamma footstep,
aggaññaṃ rattaññaṃ
primal, of long standing,
vaṃsaññaṃ porāṇaṃ
traditional, ancient,
asaṃkiṇṇaṃ asaṃkiṇṇapubbaṃ,
un-mixed and never before mixed [with impurities],
na saṃkīyati na saṃkīyissati,
which are not being mixed and will not be mixed,
appaṭikuṭṭhaṃ samaṇehi brāhmaṇehi viññūhi.
which are not repudiated by wise ascetics and brahmins.

(verse)

♦ “an-abhijjhālu vihareyya,
free-(from)-longing (one) should-dwell,
A-byāpannena cetasā.
no-ill-will (in) mind.
♦ sato ekagga-cittassa,
mindful, singular-mind,
ajjhattaṃ su-samāhito”ti.
internally, thoroughly,-undistractably-lucid [samādhi].

samatha: a nutriment for samādhi, samatha is not samādhi

SN 46.2: (6. Samādhi ← Samatha-nimittaṃ, A-by-agga-nimittaṃ)

Ko ca, bhikkhave,
“{And} what, monks, [is the]
āhāro an-uppannassa vā
nutriment (for) un-arisen
samādhi-sam-bojjh-aṅgassa uppādāya,
undistractable-lucidity-awakening-factor's arising,
uppannassa vā samādhi-sam-bojjh-aṅgassa
(and) arisen undistractable-lucidity-awakening-factor's
bhāvanāya pāripūriyā?
development (and) fulfillment?
Atthi, bhikkhave,
There-is, monks,
Samatha-nimittaṃ
stillness-sign,
A-by-agga-nimittaṃ.
non-distraction-sign.
Tattha yoniso-manasi-kāra-bahulī-kāro–
(To) that-there, wise-mental-production-frequently-done,
ayam-āhāro an-uppannassa vā
is-the-nutriment (for) un-arisen
samādhi-sam-bojjh-aṅgassa uppādāya,
undistractable-lucidity-awakening-factor's arising,
uppannassa vā samādhi-sam-bojjh-aṅgassa
(and) arisen undistractable-lucidity-awakening-factor's
bhāvanāya pāripūriyā.
development (and) fulfillment.

sam-bojjhanga (samādhi-sambojjhanga)

see bojjhanga

sammā-samādhi = righteous-undistractable-lucidity

SN 45.8 defines that as STED 4 jhānas,
but really, the 4 jhānas should be seen as an expression of samma-samadhi,
rather than equivalent or the definition of it. See “STED sammā-samādhi” article,
especially the section “it ain’t samma samadhi unless it contains A PASS to nirvana”

sa-vitakko sa-vicāro samādhi

♦ “katamo ca, bhikkhave, asaṅkhatagāmimaggo?
what is the way to the unconditioned?
sa-vitakko sa-vicāro samādhi.
With-thinking, with-evaluation undistractable lucidity [first jhana]
See AN 8.63 for how the “3 ways of samadhi” correspond to 4 jhanas.

suññato samādhi: emptiness samadhi

see separate article surveying all passages on this topic.

vīmaṃsā-samādhip-padhāna-saṅkhāra… of 4ip

see iddhi-pada entry for more details on 4ip.
vīmaṃsā-samādhip-padhāna-saṅkhāra-samannāgataṃ
discrimination-(based)-undistractable-lucidity--;--exertion-fabrications-(it)-possesses.
iddhi-pādaṃ bhāveti,
(this) [spiritual] power-base (he) develops.

vi-passana: clear seeing

vipassana in the 4 jhānas is done with S&S&U (sati & sampajano & upekkha).
upekkha is equanimous-observation (ikkhati), not just passive equanimity.
Sati & sampjano does vipassana (see AN 4.41, MN 111, SN 9.36, etc).
In first jhana, V&V (vitakka & vicara) does a coarser version of S&S&U with thinking & evaluation.
If you’re in a frozen meditation state, such as VRJ (vism. Redefinition of jhana) where S&S&U can’t function, you’re not in the 4 jhānas.

vīriya-samādhip-padhāna-saṅkhāra… of 4ip

see iddhi-pada entry for more details on 4ip.
vīriya-samādhip-padhāna-saṅkhāra-samannāgataṃ
vigor-(based)-undistractable-lucidity--;--exertion-fabrications-(it)-possesses.
iddhi-pādaṃ bhāveti,
(this) [spiritual] power-base (he) develops.

UPED: user friendly pali english dictionary
#2

This message is a wiki

(first post is an essay, not an editable wiki ). I'm sure I missed words that have a direct relationship to samadhi, so please edit this wiki post with corrections, additions to suggest for the essay above.

Especially wanted are obscure sutta citations most people
never knew about that elucidate the meaning of one of the terms.

dhamma samadhi seems to only occur once in the suttas:

SN 4, 8. gāmaṇisaṃyuttaṃ, 13. pāṭaliyasuttaṃ (SN 42.13), para. 21 ⇒

“atthi, gāmaṇi, dhammasamādhi. tatra ce tvaṃ cittasamādhiṃ paṭilabheyyāsi. evaṃ tvaṃ imaṃ kaṅkhādhammaṃ pajaheyyāsi. katamo ca, gāmaṇi, dhammasamādhi? idha, gāmaṇi, ariyasāvako pāṇātipātaṃ pahāya pāṇātipātā paṭivirato hoti, adinnādānaṃ pahāya adinnādānā paṭivirato hoti, kāmesumicchācāraṃ pahāya kāmesumicchācārā paṭivirato hoti, musāvādaṃ pahāya musāvādā paṭivirato hoti, pisuṇaṃ vācaṃ pahāya pisuṇāya vācāya paṭivirato hoti, pharusaṃ vācaṃ pahāya pharusāya vācāya paṭivirato hoti, samphappalāpaṃ pahāya samphappalāpā paṭivirato hoti, abhijjhaṃ pahāya anabhijjhālu hoti, byāpādapadosaṃ pahāya abyāpannacitto hoti, micchādiṭṭhiṃ pahāya sammādiṭṭhiko hoti.