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What does ñāya mean, exactly?

Warning! This essay was originally quite different, I ended up rejecting my initial proposal, the following has been completely revised.

The Pali word ñāya is a bit tricky to translate. It’s not all that common, but it’s used in a few significant passages, so clearly it is a meaningful doctrinal term.

It’s from ni + i so there’s a sense of “going, proceeding” to it. It’s used much more commonly in later texts in the sense of “logic, reason, logical principle”. However the exact nuance in the early texts is not obvious.

Here they are, with the Pali, a reference (usually only one of several occurrences), and translations by myself and (usually) Ven Bodhi. I start with the simplest senses.

“Right way”, “correct method” in worldy contexts

  1. SN 47.19

“So tattha ñāyo”ti bhagavā etadavoca, “yathā medakathālikā antevāsī ācariyaṃ avoca.
“That’s the right way,” said the Buddha, “as the apprentice Medakathālikā said to her teacher.”

“Principles” of goodness, righteousness, the right way to behave

  1. AN 4.35

bahu’ssa janatā ariye ñāye patiṭṭhāpitā, yadidaṃ kalyāṇadhammatā kusaladhammatā.
Sujato: They’ve established many people in the noble method, that is, the rightness of goodness and wholesomeness.
Bodhi: he is one who has established many people in the noble method, that is, in the goodness of the Dhamma, in the wholesomeness of the Dhamma

Note that above ñāya is eulogized as ariya, whereas below, though the meaning is the same, ariya is omitted.

  1. AN 2.40

Gihī vā, bhikkhave, pabbajito vā micchāpaṭipanno micchāpaṭipattādhikaraṇahetu na ārādhako hoti ñāyaṃ dhammaṃ kusalaṃ.
Sujato: Because of wrong practice, neither laypeople nor renunciants complete the method of the wholesome teaching.
Bodhi: Whether it is a layperson or one gone forth who is practicing wrongly, because of wrong practice, they do not attain the true way, the Dhamma that is wholesome.

  1. AN 4.35:

Hitaṃ devamanussānaṃ, ñāyaṃ dhammaṃ pakāsayi
He explained the method of the teaching for the welfare of gods and humans.

The correct manner of practicing, “methodical”, practicing according to the right procedure

  1. AN 3.70

suppaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, ujuppaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, ñāyappaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, sāmīcip­paṭi­panno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho
Sujato: The Saṅgha of the Buddha’s disciples is practicing the way that’s good, direct, methodical, and proper
Bodhi: The Saṅgha of the Blessed One’s disciples is practicing the good way, practicing the straight way, practicing the true way, practicing the proper way

  1. DN 29

addhāyasmā ñāyappaṭipanno ñāyamārādhessati
‘Clearly the venerable is practicing methodically and will succeed in completing that method.’

Dependent origination, the “noble process” of cessation of the round

  1. AN 10.92

ariyo ñāyo paññāya sudiṭṭho hoti suppaṭividdho
Sujato: the noble ñāya that they have clearly seen and penetrated with wisdom
Bodhi: has clearly seen and thoroughly penetrated with wisdom the noble method

Here the word ariya is used again, although the context is much more specific.

The goal of the practice

  1. AN 3.74

sattānaṃ visuddhiyā soka­pari­devā­naṃ samatikkamāya duk­kha­do­manas­sā­naṃ atthaṅgamāya ñāyassa adhigamāya nibbānassa sacchikiriyāya
Sujato: in order to purify sentient beings, to get past sorrow and crying, to make an end of pain and sadness, to achieve the ñāya, and to realize extinguishment.
Bodhi: for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, for the passing away of pain and dejection, for the achievement of the method, for the realization of nibbāna

After trying out a range of different approaches, I have usually come back to the rendering used by Ven Bodhi, “method”. However the last couple of passages are still unclear. Here’s the reasoning—the ñāya, if you will—I used to arrive at my renderings.

I put the texts in this order because they roughly correlate to how specific and meaningful the context is. If we can determine the meaning based on a relatively clear context, we can see if that applies in less clear contexts.

The first passage is useful, it gives a simple practical example of how the word is used in everyday contexts. The ñāya is the right method to achieve the results that you want.

This meaning seems to still pertain in examples 2–4, where because it sets up a relationship between ñāya and dhammatā. Dhammatā is an abstractive from dhamma, and it is used in the sense of a “law of nature”, a “natural principle”, etc. Here it seems the noble ñāya is simply the principle of goodness; a system or set of rules that, if followed, lead to the desired result.

Next, we have the very common passage on the qualities of the Saṅgha, and a related passage. Once again the idea seems to be that there is a system of ideas or concepts, a method or procedure, which if implemented correctly, lead to the desired result.

Example 7, where the noble ñāya is in the context of dependent origination, is harder to pin down. It seems to be saying that dependent origination itself is the noble ñāya. Which seems a little odd, until we remember that dependent origination is elsewhere said to be the “right practice”. Thus the teaching of dependent origination—remembering that the full thing always includes the cessation of the round, i.e. nibbana—not only encapsulates the problem of transmigration, but the method to follow to transcend it.

Next we come to example 8, which famously appears in the Satipatthana Sutta, although it is not limited to that context. It’s a list of items, all of which are in some way indicating the attaining of the goal of practice.

Now, the commentary explains this as the noble path, and most translators seem to accept this definition as is. However it is not unproblematic. How is it that one can “attain” or “achieve” the path? The language and the context strongly suggest that what is meant here is the end of the path, as all the other terms in the passage indicate enlightenment, culminating in the mention of nibbana itself. In thinking of this as the path, the commentary invokes its own idea of the momentary transcendental path (lokuttara), rather than the gradual practice envisaged in the suttas, which the commentaries refer to as “mundane” (lokiya).

ñāyo vuccati ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo, tassa adhigamāya, pattiyāti vuttaṃ hoti. Ayañhi pubbabhāge lokiyo satipaṭṭhānamaggo bhāvito lokuttarassa maggassa adhigamāya saṃvattati
The ñāya is said to be the noble eightfold path; what is said is that one reaches it, attains it. For in this preliminary stage the mundane path of satipatthana is developed, leading to the realization of the transcendental path.

However the notion of the lokuttara path is not found in the suttas, and any explanation that invokes it must be rejected. It then becomes much less clear what it could mean to “attain” or “achieve” the path.

What then might it mean? In this case we should come back to first principles, the “principle of least meaning”, and recognize that in such lists, the terms are usually functional synonyms. Since all the other terms here indicate nibbana, and since the relevant action (“to achieve or attain”) is normally used in that sense as well, it seems that in this context ñāya must indicate nibbana in some way.

How though? The general sense of “goodness, right method” seems inadequate. The only sense that seems fitting is that of dependent origination, as the cessation sequence is, in fact, nibbana. Thus the whole round of origination and cessation, and the realization of that, can stand for the completion of the noble path and the realization of nibbana. It’s not easy to capture this in a fluid translation.

Perhaps we can translate the last two passages as “cycle”:

  1. AN 10.92

ariyo ñāyo paññāya sudiṭṭho hoti suppaṭividdho
the noble cycle that they have clearly seen and penetrated with wisdom

  1. AN 3.74

sattānaṃ visuddhiyā soka­pari­devā­naṃ samatikkamāya duk­kha­do­manas­sā­naṃ atthaṅgamāya ñāyassa adhigamāya nibbānassa sacchikiriyāya
in order to purify sentient beings, to get past sorrow and crying, to make an end of pain and sadness, to end the cycle of suffering, and to realize extinguishment.

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In Tamil, ñāyam means ‘justice’ or similar. It’s also used to describe the righteousness of a path, view etc.

In Sri Lankan language it means theory,
This is a common word used by high school and university students.

These musings are well worth engaging in. It is as if we must unearth (again) why the population must find the bhikkhu sangha inspiring. What is it about their path, manner and practice that is truly worthy of giving rise to faith (saddha) and is inspirational, and render accordingly.

A few thoughts:
supatipanno : the good or wholesome path, good for oneself and society at large.

ujupatipanno : I thought I saw the Buddha stating the Noble Eightfold Path was the ‘direct or straight’ path in this sutta, which I cannot find right now. ‘Uju’ carries with it moral implications (not ‘crooked’) as well. ‘sakko ujuca sujuca’ from the karaniyamatta sutta).

nayapatipanno : a path with an underlying principle. One could ask what is so inspiring about that? Just sit! But it is more than ‘just sit’. The spiritual dynamics of it is a series of chained mental states, cognitive and emotional, one leading to the next. It is incredibly complicated, especially if it is to give rise to true attainment, including arahathood. The path is discovered by a Buddha and the underlying principle is lost when left in anyone else’s hands after his demise. This suggests the ‘principle’ should read something akin to ‘blueprint’ in terms of its complexity, if only to reflect its inspiratational nature. Its important to bring the emotion.

samicipatipanno : I wondered if this meant the teacher and the student was in concord, not discord. How the sangha behaved towards their teacher would be something that the layity would take note of, the lack of concordance would stand out. Such a community won’t make for a community that would give rise to faith in the Buddha’s sangha, as each bhikkhu is a representative of the as they are an individual.

with metta

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