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MN 78 Eng+Pali, B.Sujato, MN 78's || MA 179 from Chinese to English, B.Analayo

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MN 78 samaṇa-muṇḍika (the contemplative named mundika)

Samaṇamuṇḍikasutta
With Samaṇamuṇḍika
(cst4)
(b.sujato trans.)
Evaṃ me sutaṃ— ekaṃ samayaṃ bhagavā sāvatthiyaṃ viharati jetavane anāthapiṇḍikassa ārāme. Tena kho pana samayena uggāhamāno paribbājako samaṇamuṇḍikāputto samayappavādake tindukācīre ekasālake mallikāya ārāme paṭivasati mahatiyā paribbājakaparisāya saddhiṃ pañcamattehi paribbājakasatehi. Atha kho pañcakaṅgo thapati sāvatthiyā nikkhami divā divassa bhagavantaṃ dassanāya. Atha kho pañcakaṅgassa thapatissa etadahosi: “akālo kho tāva bhagavantaṃ dassanāya; paṭisallīno bhagavā. Manobhāvaniyānampi bhikkhūnaṃ asamayo dassanāya; paṭisallīnā manobhāvaniyā bhikkhū. Yannūnāhaṃ yena samayappavādako tindukācīro ekasālako mallikāya ārāmo yena uggāhamāno paribbājako samaṇamuṇḍikāputto tenupasaṅkameyyan”ti. Atha kho pañcakaṅgo thapati yena samayappavādako tindukācīro ekasālako mallikāya ārāmo yena uggāhamāno paribbājako samaṇamuṇḍikāputto tenupasaṅkami.
So I have heard. At one time the Buddha was staying near Sāvatthī in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s monastery. Now at that time the wanderer Uggāhamāna Samaṇamuṇḍikāputta was residing together with around three hundred wanderers in Mallikā’s single-halled monastery for group debates, set among the flaking pale-moon ebony trees. Then the master builder Pañcakaṅga left Sāvatthī in the middle of the day to see the Buddha. Then it occurred to him: “It’s the wrong time to see the Buddha, as he’s in retreat. And it’s the wrong time to see the esteemed mendicants, as they’re in retreat. Why don’t I go to Mallikā’s monastery to visit the wanderer Uggāhamāna?” So that’s what he did.
Tena kho pana samayena uggāhamāno paribbājako samaṇamuṇḍikāputto mahatiyā paribbājakaparisāya saddhiṃ nisinno hoti unnādiniyā uccāsaddamahāsaddāya anekavihitaṃ tiracchānakathaṃ kathentiyā, seyyathidaṃ—rājakathaṃ corakathaṃ mahāmattakathaṃ senākathaṃ bhayakathaṃ yuddhakathaṃ annakathaṃ pānakathaṃ vatthakathaṃ sayanakathaṃ mālākathaṃ gandhakathaṃ ñātikathaṃ yānakathaṃ gāmakathaṃ nigamakathaṃ nagarakathaṃ janapadakathaṃ itthikathaṃ sūrakathaṃ visikhākathaṃ kumbhaṭṭhānakathaṃ pubbapetakathaṃ nānattakathaṃ lokakkhāyikaṃ samuddakkhāyikaṃ itibhavābhavakathaṃ iti vā.
Now at that time, Uggāhamāna was sitting together with a large assembly of wanderers making an uproar, a dreadful racket. They engaged in all kinds of unworthy talk, such as talk about kings, bandits, and ministers; talk about armies, threats, and wars; talk about food, drink, clothes, and beds; talk about garlands and fragrances; talk about family, vehicles, villages, towns, cities, and countries; talk about women and heroes; street talk and well talk; talk about the departed; motley talk; tales of land and sea; and talk about being reborn in this or that state of existence.
Addasā kho uggāhamāno paribbājako samaṇamuṇḍikāputto pañcakaṅgaṃ thapatiṃ dūratova āgacchantaṃ. Disvāna sakaṃ parisaṃ saṇṭhāpesi: “appasaddā bhonto hontu, mā bhonto saddamakattha; ayaṃ samaṇassa gotamassa sāvako āgacchati pañcakaṅgo thapati. Yāvatā kho pana samaṇassa gotamassa sāvakā gihī odātavasanā sāvatthiyaṃ paṭivasanti ayaṃ tesaṃ aññataro pañcakaṅgo thapati. Appasaddakāmā kho pana te āyasmanto appasaddavinītā appasaddassa vaṇṇavādino; appeva nāma appasaddaṃ parisaṃ viditvā upasaṅkamitabbaṃ maññeyyā”ti. Atha kho te paribbājakā tuṇhī ahesuṃ.
Uggāhamāna saw Pañcakaṅga coming off in the distance, and hushed his own assembly: “Be quiet, good sirs, don’t make a sound. Here comes Pañcakaṅga, a disciple of the ascetic Gotama. He is included among the white-clothed lay disciples of the ascetic Gotama, who is residing in Sāvatthī. Such venerables like the quiet, are educated to be quiet, and praise the quiet. Hopefully if he sees that our assembly is quiet he’ll see fit to approach.” Then those wanderers fell silent.

(Uggāhamāna's invincible ascetic— no bad body action, word, thought, livelihood)

Atha kho pañcakaṅgo thapati yena uggāhamāno paribbājako samaṇamuṇḍikāputto tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā uggāhamānena paribbājakena samaṇamuṇḍikāputtena saddhiṃ sammodi. Sammodanīyaṃ kathaṃ sāraṇīyaṃ vītisāretvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi. Ekamantaṃ nisinnaṃ kho pañcakaṅgaṃ thapatiṃ uggāhamāno paribbājako samaṇamuṇḍikāputto etadavoca: “catūhi kho ahaṃ, gahapati, dhammehi samannāgataṃ purisapuggalaṃ paññapemi sampannakusalaṃ paramakusalaṃ uttamapattipattaṃ samaṇaṃ ayojjhaṃ. Katamehi catūhi? Idha, gahapati, na kāyena pāpakammaṃ karoti, na pāpakaṃ vācaṃ bhāsati, na pāpakaṃ saṅkappaṃ saṅkappeti, na pāpakaṃ ājīvaṃ ājīvati—imehi kho ahaṃ, gahapati, catūhi dhammehi samannāgataṃ purisapuggalaṃ paññapemi sampannakusalaṃ paramakusalaṃ uttamapattipattaṃ samaṇaṃ ayojjhan”ti.
Then Pañcakaṅga approached Uggāhamāna, and exchanged greetings with him. When the greetings and polite conversation were over, he sat down to one side. Uggāhamāna said to him: “Householder, when an individual has four qualities I describe them as an invincible ascetic—accomplished in the skillful, excelling in the skillful, attained to the highest attainment. What four? It’s when they do no bad deeds with their body; speak no bad words; think no bad thoughts; and don’t earn a living by bad livelihood. When an individual has these four qualities I describe them as an invincible ascetic.”
Atha kho pañcakaṅgo thapati uggāhamānassa paribbājakassa samaṇamuṇḍikāputtassa bhāsitaṃ neva abhinandi nappaṭikkosi. Anabhinanditvā appaṭikkositvā uṭṭhāyāsanā pakkāmi: “bhagavato santike etassa bhāsitassa atthaṃ ājānissāmī”ti. Atha kho pañcakaṅgo thapati yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṃ abhivādetvā ekamantaṃ nisīdi. Ekamantaṃ nisinno kho pañcakaṅgo thapati yāvatako ahosi uggāhamānena paribbājakena samaṇamuṇḍikāputtena saddhiṃ kathāsallāpo taṃ sabbaṃ bhagavato ārocesi.
Then Pañcakaṅga neither approved nor dismissed that mendicant’s statement. He got up from his seat, thinking: “I will learn the meaning of this statement from the Buddha himself.” Then he went to the Buddha, bowed, sat down to one side, and informed the Buddha of all that had been discussed.

(Buddha makes fun of him, compare to baby)

Evaṃ vutte, bhagavā pañcakaṅgaṃ thapatiṃ etadavoca: “evaṃ sante kho, thapati, daharo kumāro mando uttānaseyyako sampannakusalo bhavissati paramakusalo uttamapattipatto samaṇo ayojjho, yathā uggāhamānassa paribbājakassa samaṇamuṇḍikāputtassa vacanaṃ. Daharassa hi, thapati, kumārassa mandassa uttānaseyyakassa kāyotipi na hoti, kuto pana kāyena pāpakammaṃ karissati, aññatra phanditamattā. Daharassa hi, thapati, kumārassa mandassa uttānaseyyakassa vācātipi na hoti, kuto pana pāpakaṃ vācaṃ bhāsissati, aññatra roditamattā. Daharassa hi, thapati, kumārassa mandassa uttānaseyyakassa saṅkappotipi na hoti, kuto pana pāpakaṃ saṅkappaṃ saṅkappissati, aññatra vikūjitamattā. Daharassa hi, thapati, kumārassa mandassa uttānaseyyakassa ājīvotipi na hoti, kuto pana pāpakaṃ ājīvaṃ ājīvissati, aññatra mātuthaññā. Evaṃ sante kho, thapati, daharo kumāro mando uttānaseyyako sampannakusalo bhavissati paramakusalo uttamapattipatto samaṇo ayojjho, yathā uggāhamānassa paribbājakassa samaṇamuṇḍikāputtassa vacanaṃ.
When he had spoken, the Buddha said to him: “Master builder, if what Uggāhamāna says is true, a little baby boy is an invincible ascetic—accomplished in the skillful, excelling in the skillful, attained to the highest attainment. For a little baby doesn’t even have a concept of ‘a body’, so how could they possibly do a bad deed with their body, apart from just wriggling? And a little baby doesn’t even have a concept of ‘speech’, so how could they possibly speak bad words, apart from just crying? And a little baby doesn’t even have a concept of ‘thought’, so how could they possibly think bad thoughts, apart from just whimpering? And a little baby doesn’t even have a concept of ‘livelihood’, so how could they possibly earn a living by bad livelihood, apart from their mother’s breast? If what Uggāhamāna says is true, a little baby boy is an invincible ascetic—accomplished in the skillful, excelling in the skillful, attained to the highest attainment.

(Buddha’s ideal ascetic)

Catūhi kho ahaṃ, thapati, dhammehi samannāgataṃ purisapuggalaṃ paññapemi na ceva sampannakusalaṃ na paramakusalaṃ na uttamapattipattaṃ samaṇaṃ ayojjhaṃ, api cimaṃ daharaṃ kumāraṃ mandaṃ uttānaseyyakaṃ samadhigayha tiṭṭhati. Katamehi catūhi? Idha, thapati, na kāyena pāpakammaṃ karoti, na pāpakaṃ vācaṃ bhāsati, na pāpakaṃ saṅkappaṃ saṅkappeti, na pāpakaṃ ājīvaṃ ājīvati—imehi kho ahaṃ, thapati, catūhi dhammehi samannāgataṃ purisapuggalaṃ paññapemi na ceva sampannakusalaṃ na paramakusalaṃ na uttamapattipattaṃ samaṇaṃ ayojjhaṃ, api cimaṃ daharaṃ kumāraṃ mandaṃ uttānaseyyakaṃ samadhigayha tiṭṭhati.
When an individual has four qualities I describe them, not as an invincible ascetic—accomplished in the skillful, excelling in the skillful, attained to the highest attainment—but as having achieved the same level as a little baby. What four? It’s when they do no bad deeds with their body; speak no bad words; think no bad thoughts; and don’t earn a living by bad livelihood. When an individual has these four qualities I describe them, not as an invincible ascetic, but as having achieved the same level as a little baby.
Dasahi kho ahaṃ, thapati, dhammehi samannāgataṃ purisapuggalaṃ paññapemi sampannakusalaṃ paramakusalaṃ uttamapattipattaṃ samaṇaṃ ayojjhaṃ. Ime akusalā sīlā; tamahaṃ, thapati, veditabbanti vadāmi. Itosamuṭṭhānā akusalā sīlā; tamahaṃ, thapati, veditabbanti vadāmi. Idha akusalā sīlā aparisesā nirujjhanti; tamahaṃ, thapati, veditabbanti vadāmi. Evaṃ paṭipanno akusalānaṃ sīlānaṃ nirodhāya paṭipanno hoti; tamahaṃ, thapati, veditabbanti vadāmi.
When an individual has ten qualities, master builder, I describe them as an invincible ascetic—accomplished in the skillful, excelling in the skillful, attained to the highest attainment. But certain things must first be understood, I say. ‘These are unskillful behaviors.’ ‘Unskillful behaviors stem from this.’ ‘Here unskillful behaviors cease without anything left over.’ ‘Someone practicing like this is practicing for the cessation of unskillful behaviors.’
Ime kusalā sīlā; tamahaṃ, thapati, veditabbanti vadāmi. Itosamuṭṭhānā kusalā sīlā; tamahaṃ, thapati, veditabbanti vadāmi. Idha kusalā sīlā aparisesā nirujjhanti; tamahaṃ, thapati, veditabbanti vadāmi. Evaṃ paṭipanno kusalānaṃ sīlānaṃ nirodhāya paṭipanno hoti; tamahaṃ, thapati, veditabbanti vadāmi.
‘These are skillful behaviors.’ ‘Skillful behaviors stem from this.’ ‘Here skillful behaviors cease without anything left over.’ ‘Someone practicing like this is practicing for the cessation of skillful behaviors.’
Ime akusalā saṅkappā; tamahaṃ, thapati, veditabbanti vadāmi. Itosamuṭṭhānā akusalā saṅkappā; tamahaṃ, thapati, veditabbanti vadāmi. Idha akusalā saṅkappā aparisesā nirujjhanti; tamahaṃ, thapati, veditabbanti vadāmi. Evaṃ paṭipanno akusalānaṃ saṅkappānaṃ nirodhāya paṭipanno hoti; tamahaṃ, thapati, veditabbanti vadāmi.
‘These are unskillful thoughts.’ ‘Unskillful thoughts stem from this.’ ‘Here unskillful thoughts cease without anything left over.’ ‘Someone practicing like this is practicing for the cessation of unskillful thoughts.’
Ime kusalā saṅkappā; tamahaṃ, thapati, veditabbanti vadāmi. Itosamuṭṭhānā kusalā saṅkappā; tamahaṃ, thapati, veditabbanti vadāmi. Idha kusalā saṅkappā aparisesā nirujjhanti; tamahaṃ, thapati, veditabbanti vadāmi. Evaṃ paṭipanno kusalānaṃ saṅkappānaṃ nirodhāya paṭipanno hoti; tamahaṃ, thapati, veditabbanti vadāmi.
‘These are skillful thoughts.’ ‘Skillful thoughts stem from this.’ ‘Here skillful thoughts cease without anything left over.’ ‘Someone practicing like this is practicing for the cessation of skillful thoughts.’
Katame ca, thapati, akusalā sīlā? Akusalaṃ kāyakammaṃ, akusalaṃ vacīkammaṃ, pāpako ājīvo—ime vuccanti, thapati, akusalā sīlā.
And what, master builder, are unskillful behaviors? Unskillful deeds by way of body and speech, and bad livelihood. These are called unskillful behaviors.
Ime ca, thapati, akusalā sīlā kiṃsamuṭṭhānā? Samuṭṭhānampi nesaṃ vuttaṃ. ‘Cittasamuṭṭhānā’tissa vacanīyaṃ. Katamaṃ cittaṃ? Cittampi hi bahuṃ anekavidhaṃ nānappakārakaṃ. Yaṃ cittaṃ sarāgaṃ sadosaṃ samohaṃ, itosamuṭṭhānā akusalā sīlā.
And where do these unskillful behaviors stem from? Where they stem from has been stated. You should say that they stem from the mind. What mind? The mind takes many and diverse forms. But unskillful behaviors stem from a mind that has greed, hate, and delusion.
Ime ca, thapati, akusalā sīlā kuhiṃ aparisesā nirujjhanti? Nirodhopi nesaṃ vutto. Idha, thapati, bhikkhu kāyaduccaritaṃ pahāya kāyasucaritaṃ bhāveti, vacīduccaritaṃ pahāya vacīsucaritaṃ bhāveti, manoduccaritaṃ pahāya manosucaritaṃ bhāveti, micchājīvaṃ pahāya sammājīvena jīvitaṃ kappeti—etthete akusalā sīlā aparisesā nirujjhanti.
And where do these unskillful behaviors cease without anything left over? Their cessation has also been stated. It’s when a mendicant gives up bad conduct by way of body, speech, and mind, and develops good conduct by way of body, speech, and mind; they give up wrong livelihood and earn a living by right livelihood. This is where these unskillful behaviors cease without anything left over.
Kathaṃ paṭipanno, thapati, akusalānaṃ sīlānaṃ nirodhāya paṭipanno hoti? Idha, thapati, bhikkhu anuppannānaṃ pāpakānaṃ akusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ anuppādāya chandaṃ janeti vāyamati vīriyaṃ ārabhati cittaṃ paggaṇhāti padahati; uppannānaṃ pāpakānaṃ akusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ pahānāya chandaṃ janeti vāyamati vīriyaṃ ārabhati cittaṃ paggaṇhāti padahati; anuppannānaṃ kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ uppādāya chandaṃ janeti vāyamati vīriyaṃ ārabhati cittaṃ paggaṇhāti padahati; uppannānaṃ kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ ṭhitiyā asammosāya bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya bhāvanāya pāripūriyā chandaṃ janeti vāyamati vīriyaṃ ārabhati cittaṃ paggaṇhāti padahati. Evaṃ paṭipanno kho, thapati, akusalānaṃ sīlānaṃ nirodhāya paṭipanno hoti.
And how is someone practicing for the cessation of unskillful behaviors? It’s when a mendicant generates enthusiasm, tries, makes an effort, exerts the mind, and strives so that bad, unskillful qualities don’t arise. They generate enthusiasm, try, make an effort, exert the mind, and strive so that bad, unskillful qualities that have arisen are given up. They generate enthusiasm, try, make an effort, exert the mind, and strive so that skillful qualities arise. They generate enthusiasm, try, make an effort, exert the mind, and strive so that skillful qualities that have arisen remain, are not lost, but increase, mature, and are completed by development. Someone practicing like this is practicing for the cessation of unskillful behaviors.
Katame ca, thapati, kusalā sīlā? Kusalaṃ kāyakammaṃ, kusalaṃ vacīkammaṃ, ājīvaparisuddhampi kho ahaṃ, thapati, sīlasmiṃ vadāmi. Ime vuccanti, thapati, kusalā sīlā.
And what are skillful behaviors? Skillful deeds by way of body and speech, and purified livelihood are included in behavior, I say. These are called skillful behaviors.
Ime ca, thapati, kusalā sīlā kiṃsamuṭṭhānā? Samuṭṭhānampi nesaṃ vuttaṃ. ‘Cittasamuṭṭhānā’tissa vacanīyaṃ. Katamaṃ cittaṃ? Cittampi hi bahuṃ anekavidhaṃ nānappakārakaṃ. Yaṃ cittaṃ vītarāgaṃ vītadosaṃ vītamohaṃ, itosamuṭṭhānā kusalā sīlā.
And where do these skillful behaviors stem from? Where they stem from has been stated. You should say that they stem from the mind. What mind? The mind takes many and diverse forms. But skillful behaviors stem from a mind that is free from greed, hate, and delusion.
Ime ca, thapati, kusalā sīlā kuhiṃ aparisesā nirujjhanti? Nirodhopi nesaṃ vutto. Idha, thapati, bhikkhu sīlavā hoti no ca sīlamayo, tañca cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti; yatthassa te kusalā sīlā aparisesā nirujjhanti.
And where do these skillful behaviors cease without anything left over? Their cessation has also been stated. It’s when a mendicant behaves ethically, but they don’t identify with their ethical behavior. And they truly understand the freedom of heart and freedom by wisdom where these skillful behaviors cease without anything left over.

(kusala sīla purified by right effort)

Kathaṃ paṭipanno ca, thapati, kusalānaṃ sīlānaṃ nirodhāya paṭipanno hoti? Idha, thapati, bhikkhu anuppannānaṃ pāpakānaṃ akusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ anuppādāya chandaṃ janeti vāyamati vīriyaṃ ārabhati cittaṃ paggaṇhāti padahati; uppannānaṃ pāpakānaṃ akusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ pahānāya … pe … anuppannānaṃ kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ uppādāya … pe … uppannānaṃ kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ ṭhitiyā asammosāya bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya bhāvanāya pāripūriyā chandaṃ janeti vāyamati vīriyaṃ ārabhati cittaṃ paggaṇhāti padahati. Evaṃ paṭipanno kho, thapati, kusalānaṃ sīlānaṃ nirodhāya paṭipanno hoti.
And how is someone practicing for the cessation of skillful behaviors? It’s when a mendicant generates enthusiasm, tries, makes an effort, exerts the mind, and strives so that bad, unskillful qualities don’t arise … so that unskillful qualities are given up … so that skillful qualities arise … so that skillful qualities that have arisen remain, are not lost, but increase, mature, and are fulfilled by development. Someone practicing like this is practicing for the cessation of skillful behaviors.

(3 akusalā saṅkappā exact opposite of 3 aspects of right resolve, lust, ill will, harm)

Katame ca, thapati, akusalā saṅkappā? Kāmasaṅkappo, byāpādasaṅkappo, vihiṃsāsaṅkappo—ime vuccanti, thapati, akusalā saṅkappā.
And what are unskillful thoughts? Thoughts of sensuality, of ill will, and of harming. These are called unskillful thoughts.

(akusalā saṅkappā depend on 3 perceptions based on opposite of right resolves, lust, ill will, harm)

Ime ca, thapati, akusalā saṅkappā kiṃsamuṭṭhānā? Samuṭṭhānampi nesaṃ vuttaṃ. ‘Saññāsamuṭṭhānā’tissa vacanīyaṃ. Katamā saññā? Saññāpi hi bahū anekavidhā nānappakārakā. Kāmasaññā, byāpādasaññā, vihiṃsāsaññā—itosamuṭṭhānā akusalā saṅkappā.
And where do these unskillful thoughts stem from? Where they stem from has been stated. You should say that they stem from perception. What perception? Perception takes many and diverse forms. Perceptions of sensuality, ill will, and harming—unskillful thoughts stem from this.

(akusalā saṅkappā cease in first jhana)

Ime ca, thapati, akusalā saṅkappā kuhiṃ aparisesā nirujjhanti? Nirodhopi nesaṃ vutto. Idha, thapati, bhikkhu vivicceva kāmehi … pe … paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati; etthete akusalā saṅkappā aparisesā nirujjhanti.
And where do these unskillful thoughts cease without anything left over? Their cessation has also been stated. It’s when a mendicant, quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unskillful qualities, enters and remains in the first absorption, which has the rapture and bliss born of seclusion, while placing the mind and keeping it connected. This is where these unskillful thoughts cease without anything left over.

(right effort does the work of removing kusalā saṅkappā within, and prior to first jhana)

Kathaṃ paṭipanno ca, thapati, akusalānaṃ saṅkappānaṃ nirodhāya paṭipanno hoti? Idha, thapati, bhikkhu anuppannānaṃ pāpakānaṃ akusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ anuppādāya chandaṃ janeti vāyamati vīriyaṃ ārabhati cittaṃ paggaṇhāti padahati; uppannānaṃ pāpakānaṃ akusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ pahānāya … pe … anuppannānaṃ kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ uppādāya … pe … uppannānaṃ kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ ṭhitiyā asammosāya bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya bhāvanāya pāripūriyā chandaṃ janeti vāyamati vīriyaṃ ārabhati cittaṃ paggaṇhāti padahati. Evaṃ paṭipanno kho, thapati, akusalānaṃ saṅkappānaṃ nirodhāya paṭipanno hoti.
And how is someone practicing for the cessation of unskillful thoughts? It’s when a mendicant generates enthusiasm, tries, makes an effort, exerts the mind, and strives so that bad, unskillful qualities don’t arise … so that unskillful qualities are given up … so that skillful qualities arise … so that skillful qualities that have arisen remain, are not lost, but increase, mature, and are fulfilled by development. Someone practicing like this is practicing for the cessation of unskillful thoughts.

(3 kusalā saṅkappā are same as 3 aspects of Right Resolve)

Katame ca, thapati, kusalā saṅkappā? Nekkhammasaṅkappo, abyāpādasaṅkappo, avihiṃsāsaṅkappo—ime vuccanti, thapati, kusalā saṅkappā.
And what are skillful thoughts? Thoughts of renunciation, love, and kindness. These are called skillful thoughts.

(kusalā saṅkappā depend on the 3 kusala perceptions)

Ime ca, thapati, kusalā saṅkappā kiṃsamuṭṭhānā? Samuṭṭhānampi nesaṃ vuttaṃ. ‘Saññāsamuṭṭhānā’tissa vacanīyaṃ. Katamā saññā? Saññāpi hi bahū anekavidhā nānappakārakā. Nekkhammasaññā, abyāpādasaññā, avihiṃsāsaññā—itosamuṭṭhānā kusalā saṅkappā.
And where do these skillful thoughts stem from? Where they stem from has been stated. You should say that they stem from perception. What perception? Perception takes many and diverse forms. Perceptions of renunciation, love, and kindness—skillful thoughts stem from this.

(kusalā saṅkappā cease in 2nd jhana)

Ime ca, thapati, kusalā saṅkappā kuhiṃ aparisesā nirujjhanti? Nirodhopi nesaṃ vutto. Idha, thapati, bhikkhu vitakkavicārānaṃ vūpasamā … pe … dutiyaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati; etthete kusalā saṅkappā aparisesā nirujjhanti.
And where do these skillful thoughts cease without anything left over? Their cessation has also been stated. It’s when, as the placing of the mind and keeping it connected are stilled, a mendicant enters and remains in the second absorption, which has the rapture and bliss born of immersion, with internal clarity and confidence, and unified mind, without placing the mind and keeping it connected. This is where these skillful thoughts cease without anything left over.

(right effort removes kusala sankappa from first jhana resulting in no V&V of 2nd jhana)

Kathaṃ paṭipanno ca, thapati, kusalānaṃ saṅkappānaṃ nirodhāya paṭipanno hoti? Idha, thapati, bhikkhu anuppannānaṃ pāpakānaṃ akusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ anuppādāya chandaṃ janeti vāyamati vīriyaṃ ārabhati cittaṃ paggaṇhāti padahati; uppannānaṃ pāpakānaṃ akusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ pahānāya … pe … anuppannānaṃ kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ uppādāya … pe … uppannānaṃ kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ ṭhitiyā asammosāya bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya bhāvanāya pāripūriyā chandaṃ janeti vāyamati vīriyaṃ ārabhati cittaṃ paggaṇhāti padahati. Evaṃ paṭipanno kho, thapati, kusalānaṃ saṅkappānaṃ nirodhāya paṭipanno hoti.
And how is someone practicing for the cessation of skillful thoughts? It’s when a mendicant generates enthusiasm, tries, makes an effort, exerts the mind, and strives so that bad, unskillful qualities don’t arise … so that unskillful qualities are given up … so that skillful qualities arise … so that skillful qualities that have arisen remain, are not lost, but increase, mature, and are fulfilled by development. Someone practicing like this is practicing for the cessation of skillful thoughts.
Katamehi cāhaṃ, thapati, dasahi dhammehi samannāgataṃ purisapuggalaṃ paññapemi sampannakusalaṃ paramakusalaṃ uttamapattipattaṃ samaṇaṃ ayojjhaṃ? Idha, thapati, bhikkhu asekhāya sammādiṭṭhiyā samannāgato hoti, asekhena sammāsaṅkappena samannāgato hoti, asekhāya sammāvācāya samannāgato hoti, asekhena sammākammantena samannāgato hoti, asekhena sammāājīvena samannāgato hoti, asekhena sammāvāyāmena samannāgato hoti, asekhāya sammāsatiyā samannāgato hoti, asekhena sammāsamādhinā samannāgato hoti, asekhena sammāñāṇena samannāgato hoti, asekhāya sammāvimuttiyā samannāgato hoti—imehi kho ahaṃ, thapati, dasahi dhammehi samannāgataṃ purisapuggalaṃ paññapemi sampannakusalaṃ paramakusalaṃ uttamapattipattaṃ samaṇaṃ ayojjhan”ti.
Master builder, when an individual has what ten qualities do I describe them as an invincible ascetic—accomplished in the skillful, excelling in the skillful, attained to the highest attainment? It’s when a mendicant has an adept’s right view, right thought, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right mindfulness, right immersion, right knowledge, and right freedom. When an individual has these ten qualities, I describe them as an invincible ascetic—accomplished in the skillful, excelling in the skillful, attained to the highest attainment.”
Idamavoca bhagavā. Attamano pañcakaṅgo thapati bhagavato bhāsitaṃ abhinandīti.
That is what the Buddha said. Satisfied, Pañcakaṅga the master builder was happy with what the Buddha said.
Samaṇamuṇḍikasuttaṃ niṭṭhitaṃ aṭṭhamaṃ.

MA 179, || to MN 78 Discourse to the Carpenter Pañcakaṅga

(trans. B.Analayo)
Translation
Discourse to the Carpenter Pañcakaṅga
57
[720b]
1. Thus have I heard. At one time the Buddha was dwelling
at Sāvatthī, staying in Jeta's Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika's Park.
56
[57]
E.g., MN 27 at MN I 177,20 or MN 89 at MN II 123,19; cf. also DN 8 at
DN I 167,14, where the Buddhist notion of being a true samaṇa is contrasted
to the qualities associated with this concept among contemporary ascetics.
57
[61]
The translated text is MĀ 179 at T I 720a28 to 721c19, which at T I 720a28
gives the discourse's title as
五支物主
, literally "Master Five-limb", where
would correspond to thapati, which according to the Pāli commentary, Ps
III 114,5, qualifies Pañcakaṅga as a "foremost carpenter", vaḍḍhakījeṭṭhaka. A
reference to the present discourse in the Vyākhyāyukti in Lee 2001: 14,12 gives
the title as yan lag lnga pa’i phya mkhan gyi mdo, which Skilling 2000: 342
reconstructs as *Pañcāṅgasthapati-sūtra. A comparative study of MN 78 and
MĀ 179 can be found in Anālayo 2011a: 424–431.
120 ⋅ Madhyama-āgama Studies
2. At that time, the carpenter Pañcakaṅga had left Sāvatthī
at dawn and was approaching the place where the Buddha was
staying, with the intention to see and pay respects to the Blessed
One. [Then] the carpenter Pañcakaṅga had the following
thought: "For the time being [it would be better] to put off go-
ing to see the Buddha, [as] the Blessed One and the venerable
monks would probably [still] be sitting in meditation. I might
now rather visit Mallikā's Single-hall Park of heterodox practi-
tioners.
58
[159] Thereon the carpenter Pañcakaṅga, to entertain
and amuse [himself],
59
took the path to Tinduka plantation,
60
in
order to visit Mallikā's Single-hall Park of heterodox practitio-
ners.
3. At that time, in Mallikā's Single-hall Park of heterodox
practitioners there was the heterodox practitioner Samaṇa-
muṇḍikāputta,
61
a great leader, teacher of a congregation,
esteemed by the people, a teacher who was presiding over a
great community of five hundred heterodox practitioners.
62
58 [62]
MĀ 179 at T I 720b5:
一娑邏末利異學園
, which would correspond to the
ekasālaka mallikāya ārāma mentioned in MN 78 at MN II 23,8. A reference
to this location in Sanskrit fragments of the Pṛṣṭhapāla-sūtra, folio 416r4 in
Melzer 2006: 244, reads yenaikasālamālikānyatīrthikaparivrājakānām ārāma;
cf. also the unnumbered Hoernle fragment (photograph 179), no. 132 in Hart-
mann 1991: 236 V2: [li]kā any(a)[t](īr)[th](ikaparivrājakāḥ) and V3: eka-
sālam [ā](rāmam).
59
[63]
MĀ 179 at T I 720b6:
遊戲歡樂
; MN 78 does not mention that he had the
intention to entertain or amuse himself.
60
[64]
MĀ 179 at T I 720b6:
巾頭阿梨
, which has its counterpart in the tindukā-
cīra in MN 78 at MN II 23,7.
61 [65]
MĀ 179 at T I 720b8:
沙門文礽子
, literally "recluse mun gji's son", (cf. the
Early Middle Chinese pronunciation given in Pulleyblank 1991: 323 and 244
for
and
). This is closer to the name given in B
e
and S
e
as Samaṇamuṇḍi-
kāputta, as against Samaṇamaṇḍikāputta in C
e
and E
e
.
62
[66]
B
e
and S
e
agree with MĀ 179 on the count of disciples, whereas C
e
counts
Samaṇamaṇḍikā-sutta (MN 78) ⋅ 121
He was with a tumultuous company that was creating a
great clamour, being very noisy and discussing various types
of irrelevant talk,
63
namely talk about kings, talk about thieves,
talk about battles and quarrels, talk about drinks and food, talk
about robes and blankets, talk about married women, talk about
girls, talk about adulterous women, talk about the world, talk
about wrong practice, talk about the contents of the ocean,
having gathered in this way to talk various types of irrelevant
talk.
64
Seeing from afar the carpenter Pañcakaṅga coming, the
heterodox practitioner Samaṇamuṇḍikāputta admonished his
own congregation: "Keep silent! Be silent and do not speak
another word! It is proper for you to collect and control your-
selves. There is a disciple of the recluse Gotama coming, the
carpenter Pañcakaṅga. Of those who are householder disciples
of the recluse Gotama living in Sāvatthī, none surpasses the
carpenter Pañcakaṅga.
65
Why [should you be silent]? [Because]
he delights in silence and praises silence. If he sees that this
congregation is silent, perhaps he will come forward." At that
time, after the heterodox practitioner Samaṇamuṇḍikāputta
seven hundred and E
e
(MN II 23,1) only three hundred disciples.
63 [67]
MĀ 179 at T I 720b11:
畜生之論
, literally "animal talk", equivalent to ti-
racchānakathā in MN 78 at MN II 23,14; cf. also above page 83 note 6.
64
[68]
The listings in the two versions differ, paralleling in several respects the
differences noted above page 83 note 7. Both mention talk about: kings, thieves,
battles, food, drink, clothes, women, the world and the ocean. Unlike MĀ 207,
MĀ 179 at T I 720b13 also mentions "talk about wrong practice" or perhaps
"talk about [those who] practice wrongly",
論邪道
(which may correspond to
the expression micchāpaṭipanna found in other contexts in the Pāli discourses).
For a study of the listings of such talks in DN 2 in comparison with the Saṅ-
ghabhedavastu version cf. Ramers 1996: 238–253.
65 [69]
MN 78 at MN II 23,27 indicates only that Pañcakaṅga is one of the Bud-
dha's disciples at Sāvatthī, not that he is unsurpassed among them.
122 ⋅ Madhyama-āgama Studies
had stopped [the talking of] his congregation, he remained
silent himself.
4. Then the carpenter Pañcakaṅga approached the hetero-
dox practitioner Samaṇamuṇḍikāputta, exchanged greetings
with him and stepped back to sit to one side. The heterodox
practitioner Samaṇamuṇḍikāputta said:
5. "Carpenter, if [someone] is endowed with four qualities,
I designate him as accomplished in wholesomeness, supreme
in wholesomeness, an unsurpassable person who has attained
the supreme essence and has the nature of a genuine recluse.
What are the four? With the body he does not do evil deeds,
with the mouth he does not speak evil words, he does not en-
gage in wrong livelihood and does not think evil thoughts.
66
[160] Carpenter, if [someone] is endowed with these four
qualities I designate him as accomplished in wholesomeness,
supreme in wholesomeness, an unsurpassable person who has
attained the supreme essence and has the nature of a genuine
recluse."
6. On hearing the proposition made by the heterodox prac-
titioner Samaṇamuṇḍikāputta, the carpenter Pañcakaṅga nei-
ther agreed nor disagreed. [Instead], he got up from his seat
and left, [thinking]: "I shall personally approach the Buddha
and inquire about the meaning of what has been said like this
[by Samaṇamuṇḍikāputta]." [720c]
7. He approached the Buddha, bowed down with his head
to pay respects and stepped back to sit to one side. Then he re-
ported the entire conversation with the heterodox practitioner
Samaṇamuṇḍikāputta to the Buddha. Having heard it, the
Blessed One said:
66
[70]
A difference in the sequence of listing these four is that MN 78 at MN II
24,8 mentions thoughts before livelihood.
Samaṇamaṇḍikā-sutta (MN 78) ⋅ 123
8. "Carpenter, if what the heterodox practitioner Samaṇa-
muṇḍikāputta proposes were indeed the case, then a small in-
fant with tender limbs, lying on his back asleep,
67
would also
be accomplished in wholesomeness, foremost in wholesome-
ness, an unsurpassable person who has attained the supreme
essence and has the nature of a genuine recluse.
"Carpenter, a small infant has not yet a perception of the
body, what to say of him engaging in evil bodily deeds, [when
he] is only able to move the body [a little]? Carpenter, a small
infant has not yet a perception of the mouth, what to say of
him speaking evil words, [when he] is only able to cry? Car-
penter, a small infant has not yet a perception of livelihood,
what to say of him engaging in wrong livelihood, [when he] is
only moaning?
68
Carpenter, a small infant has not yet a percep-
tion of thoughts, what to say of him engaging in evil thoughts,
[when he] only thinks of the mother's milk?
69
"Carpenter, if it were as the heterodox practitioner Samaṇa-
muṇḍikāputta proposes, then a small infant would be accom-
plished in wholesomeness, foremost in wholesomeness, an un-
surpassable person who has attained the supreme essence and
has the nature of a genuine recluse.
9. "Carpenter, if someone is endowed with four qualities, I
designate him as accomplished in wholesomeness, supreme in
wholesomeness, but he is not yet an unsurpassable person, has
not attained the supreme essence, does not have the nature of a
genuine recluse.
70
[161]
67
[71]
MN 78 at MN II 24,23 does not specify that the child is asleep.
68 [72]
MN 78 at MN II 25,1 instead refers to the mother's milk, mātuthañña, as
'livelihood'.
69 [73]
MN 78 at MN II 24,33 instead mentions merely sulking, vikujjitamatta (B
e
:
vikūjitaº, C
e
: vikujitaº) as 'intention'.
70
[74]
According to MN 78 at MN II 25,7, someone endowed with these four quali-
124 ⋅ Madhyama-āgama Studies
"What are the four? With the body he does not do evil deeds,
with the mouth he does not speak evil words, he does not en-
gage in wrong livelihood and does not think evil thoughts.
"Carpenter, if someone is endowed with these four quali-
ties, I designate him as accomplished in wholesomeness, su-
preme in wholesomeness, but he is not yet an unsurpassable
person, has not attained the supreme essence, does not have
the nature of a genuine recluse.
71
"Carpenter, bodily deeds and verbal deeds I designate as
conduct (sīla). Carpenter, thoughts I designate as belonging to
the mind and being related to the mind's characteristics.
72
"Carpenter, I say one should know unwholesome conduct,
one should know from where unwholesome conduct arises,
one should know where unwholesome conduct is eradicated
without remainder, where it is destroyed without remainder,
and one should know: 'By what practice does a noble disciple
eradicate unwholesome conduct?'
"Carpenter, I say one should know wholesome conduct,
one should know from where wholesome conduct arises, one
should know where wholesome conduct is eradicated without
remainder, where it is destroyed without remainder, and one
should know: 'By what practice does a noble disciple eradicate
wholesome conduct?'
"Carpenter, I say one should know unwholesome thoughts,
one should know from where unwholesome thoughts arise,
one should know where unwholesome thoughts are eradicated
ties is not accomplished in wholesomeness and not supreme in wholesome-
ness, na c'eva sampannakusalaṃ na paramakusalaṃ.
71 [75]
At this juncture, MN 78 at MN II 25,18 announces that one endowed with
ten qualities is a true recluse, an announcement taken up again at the end of
the discourse, MN 78 at MN II 28,34.
72 [76]
This paragraph has no counterpart in MN 78.
Samaṇamaṇḍikā-sutta (MN 78) ⋅ 125
without remainder, where they are destroyed without remain-
der, and one should know: 'By what practice does a noble dis-
ciple eradicate unwholesome thoughts?'
"Carpenter, I say one should know wholesome thoughts,
one should know from where wholesome thoughts arise, one
should know where wholesome thoughts are eradicated with-
out remainder, [721a] where they are destroyed without re-
mainder, and one should know: 'By what practice does a noble
disciple eradicate wholesome thoughts?'
10. "Carpenter, what is unwholesome conduct? Unwhole-
some bodily conduct, unwholesome verbal [conduct], [un-
wholesome] mental conduct – this is reckoned to be unwhole-
some conduct.
73
[162]
"Carpenter, from where does this unwholesome conduct
arise? I declare the place from which it arises: One should
know that it arises from the mind. What kind of mind?
74
A
mind with sensual desire, with ill will [or] with delusion – one
should know that unwholesome conduct arises from this kind
of mind.
"Carpenter where is unwholesome conduct eradicated
without remainder, where is it destroyed without remainder?
[When] a learned noble disciple abandons unwholesome bod-
ily conduct and develops wholesome bodily conduct, aban-
dons unwholesome verbal and mental conduct and develops
73 [77]
MN 78 at MN II 26,10 instead defines unwholesome conduct as covering
unwholesome bodily action, unwholesome verbal action and evil forms of
livelihood.
74 [78]
MN 78 at MN II 26,14 precedes its listing of a mind with sensual desire,
etc., by indicating that the mind can be of many and various types and of dif-
ferent aspects, cittam pi hi bahu anekavidhaṃ nānappakārakaṃ (B
e
and C
e
:
bahuṃ).
126 ⋅ Madhyama-āgama Studies
wholesome verbal and mental conduct,
75
this is where un-
wholesome conduct is eradicated without remainder, destroyed
without remainder.
"Carpenter, by what practice does a noble disciple eradicate
unwholesome conduct? When a learned noble disciple in re-
gard to the body contemplates the internal body ... (up to) ...
feelings ... states of mind ... in regard to dharmas contemplates
dharmas – practising like this a noble disciple eradicates un-
wholesome conduct.
76
11. "Carpenter, what is wholesome conduct? Wholesome
bodily conduct, wholesome verbal [conduct], [wholesome]
mental conduct – this is reckoned to be wholesome conduct.
77
"Carpenter, from where does this wholesome conduct arise?
I declare the place from which it arises: One should know that
it arises from the mind. What kind of mind?
78
A mind free
from sensual desire, free from ill will [and] free from delu-
sion – one should know that wholesome conduct arises from
this kind of mind.
79
"Carpenter, where is wholesome conduct eradicated with-
75
[79]
MN 78 at MN II 26,21 also mentions the need to abandon wrong livelihood.
76
[80]
MN 78 at MN II 26,24 instead mentions the four right efforts for eradicat-
ing unwholesome conduct; for a discussion of their relevance to the present
discourse cf. Gethin 1992: 76–78.
77
[81]
MN 78 at MN II 27,3 instead defines wholesome conduct in terms of
wholesome bodily action, wholesome verbal action and purified livelihood.
78 [82]
MN 78 at MN II 27,8 precedes its listing of a mind free from sensual desire
etc. by indicating that the mind can be of many kinds, of various kinds and of
different aspects.
79
[83]
Skilling 2000: 342 notes that a counterpart to this passage is preserved as a
discourse quotation in the Vyākhyāyukti; cf. Lee 2001: 14,13: dge ba’i tshul
khrims ’di dag ni sems kyis kun nas bslang ba dag ste, sems de gang zhe na, dod
chags dang bral ba dang zhe sdang dang bral ba dang, gti mug dang bral ba
yin no.
Samaṇamaṇḍikā-sutta (MN 78) ⋅ 127
out remainder, destroyed without remainder? When a learned
noble disciple practises virtue without being attached to this
virtue,
80
this is where wholesome conduct is eradicated with-
out remainder, destroyed without remainder.
"Carpenter, by what practice does a noble disciple eradicate
wholesome conduct? When a learned noble disciple in regard
to the body contemplates the internal body ... (up to) ... feel-
ings ... states of mind ... in regard to dharmas contemplates
dharmas – practising like this a noble disciple eradicates whole-
some conduct.
81
[163]
12. "Carpenter, what are unwholesome thoughts? Thoughts
of sensuality, thoughts of ill will and thoughts of harming –
these are reckoned to be unwholesome thoughts.
"Carpenter, from where do unwholesome thoughts arise? I
declare the place from which they arise: One should know that
they arise from perception. What kind of perception? I say,
perceptions are of many kinds, of numberless kinds, with sev-
eral kinds of volitional formations, such as perceptions of sen-
suality, perceptions of ill will and perceptions of harming.
"Carpenter, because of perceptions based on the element of
sensual desire in living beings, unwholesome thoughts arise
that are in conformity with the element of sensual desire. If
there are [such] perceptions, then because of those perceptions
unwholesome thoughts arise in conformity with the element of
sensual desire. Carpenter, because of perceptions based on the
elements of ill will and harming in living beings, unwhole-
80
[84]
MN 78 at MN II 27,12 adds that the noble disciple understands as it really
is the liberation of the mind and liberation by wisdom where wholesome con-
duct ceases, tañ ca cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti, yatth'
assa te kusalasīlā aparisesā nirujjhanti.
81 [85]
MN 78 at MN II 27,15 instead mentions the four right efforts for eradicat-
ing wholesome conduct.
128 ⋅ Madhyama-āgama Studies
some thoughts arise that are in conformity with the elements
of ill will and harming. If there are [such] perceptions, then
because of those perceptions unwholesome thoughts arise in
conformity with the elements of ill will and harming. This is
[how] unwholesome thoughts arise from this kind of percep-
tion.
82
===================================================================================================================

(unwholesome thoughts cease in first jhana)

"Carpenter, where are unwholesome thoughts eradicated
without remainder, [721b] where are they destroyed without
remainder? When a learned noble disciple, secluded from sen-
sual desires and secluded from evil and unwholesome qualities,
with [directed] awareness and contemplation,
83
with joy and
happiness born of seclusion, dwells having attained the first
absorption. This is [how] unwholesome thoughts are eradi-
cated without remainder, destroyed without remainder.

(4sp wipes out unwholesome thoughts prior to first jhana)

"Carpenter, by what practice does a noble disciple eradicate
unwholesome thoughts? When a learned noble disciple in re-
gard to the body contemplates the internal body ... (up to) ...
feelings ... states of mind ... in regard to dharmas contemplates
dharmas – practising like this a noble disciple eradicates un-
wholesome thoughts.
84
13. "Carpenter, what are wholesome thoughts? Thoughts
free from sensuality, thoughts free from ill will and thoughts
free from harming – these are reckoned to be wholesome
thoughts. [164]

82 [86] This paragraph, relating unwholesome thoughts to the corresponding 'ele- ments', is without a counterpart in MN 78. 83

[87]
MĀ 179 at T I 721b2:
有覺
,
有觀
, which in the present context are coun-
terparts to vitakka and vicāra in the standard description of the first jhāna in
Pāli discourses; cf., e.g., DN 1 at DN I 37,2 (MN 78 at MN II 28,1 abbreviates
this part).
84 [88]
MN 78 at MN II 28,4 instead mentions the four right efforts for eradicating
unwholesome thoughts.
Samaṇamaṇḍikā-sutta (MN 78) ⋅ 129


"Carpenter, from where do wholesome thoughts arise? I
declare the place from which they arise: One should know that
they arise from perception. What kind of perception? I say,
perceptions are of many kinds, of numberless kinds, with sev-
eral kinds of volitional formations, such as perceptions free
from sensuality, perceptions free from ill will and perceptions
free from harming.
"Carpenter, because of perceptions based on the element of
absence of sensual desire in living beings, wholesome thoughts
arise that are in conformity with the element of absence of sen-
sual desire. If there are [such] perceptions, because of those
perceptions wholesome thoughts arise in conformity with the
element of absence of sensual desires. Carpenter, because of
perceptions based on the elements of non-ill will and non-
harming in living beings, wholesome thoughts arise that are in
conformity with the elements of non-ill will and non-harming.
If there are [such] perceptions, then because of those percep-
tions wholesome thoughts arise in conformity with the ele-
ments of non-ill will and non-harming. This is [how] whole-
some thoughts arise from this kind of perception.
85

(wholesome thoughts cease in FOURTH jhana)

"Carpenter, where are wholesome thoughts eradicated
without remainder, where are they destroyed without remain-
der? When a learned noble disciple, with the cessation of
pleasure and pain, and with the earlier cessation of joy and dis-
pleasure, with neither-pain-nor-pleasure, equanimity, mindful-
ness and purity, dwells having attained the fourth absorption.
86
85 [89]
This paragraph, relating wholesome thoughts to the corresponding 'ele-
ments', is without a counterpart in MN 78.
86
[90]
According to MN 78 at MN II 28,22, the cessation of wholesome thoughts
takes place already with the second jhāna, a position probably taken with ref-
erence to the cessation of vitakka and vicāra that is characteristic of this level
of absorption.
130 ⋅ Madhyama-āgama Studies

(4sp removes wholesome thoughts from first 3 jhanas)

This is [how] wholesome thoughts are eradicated without re-
mainder, destroyed without remainder.
"Carpenter, by what practice does a noble disciple eradicate
wholesome thoughts? When a learned noble disciple in regard
to the body contemplates the internal body ... (up to) ... feel-
ings ... states of mind ... in regard to dharmas contemplates
dharmas – practising like this a noble disciple eradicates whole-
some thoughts.
87
"Carpenter, by wisely contemplating a learned noble disci-
ple knows unwholesome conduct as it really is, knows as it
really is from where unwholesome conduct arises, and by
wisely contemplating knows as it really is how this unwhole-
some conduct is eradicated without remainder, destroyed with-
out remainder. A noble disciple who practises like this comes
to know the cessation of unwholesome conduct as it really is.
[165]
"By wisely contemplating [a noble disciple] knows whole-
some conduct as it really is, knows as it really is from where
wholesome conduct arises, and by wisely contemplating knows
as it really is how this wholesome conduct is eradicated with-
out remainder, destroyed without remainder. A noble disciple
who practises like this comes to know the cessation of whole-
some conduct as it really is.
"By wisely contemplating [a noble disciple] knows un-
wholesome thoughts as they really are, knows as it really is
from where unwholesome thoughts arise, and by wisely con-
templating knows as it really is how these unwholesome
thoughts are eradicated without remainder, are destroyed with-
out remainder. A noble disciple who practises like this comes
87 [91]
MN 78 at MN II 28,25 instead mentions the four right efforts for eradicat-
ing wholesome thoughts.
Samaṇamaṇḍikā-sutta (MN 78) ⋅ 131
to know the cessation of unwholesome thoughts as it really is.
[721c]
"By wisely contemplating [a noble disciple] knows whole-
some thoughts as they really are, knows as it really is from
where wholesome thoughts arise, and by wisely contemplating
knows as it really is how these wholesome thoughts are eradi-
cated without remainder, are destroyed without remainder. A
noble disciple who practises like this comes to know the cessa-
tion of wholesome thoughts as it really is.
"Why? Based on right view arises right intention, based on
right intention arises right speech, based on right speech arises
right action, based on right action arises right livelihood, based
on right livelihood arises right effort, based on right effort
arises right mindfulness, based on right mindfulness arises
right concentration.
88
With a mind concentrated like this, a no-
ble disciple attains liberation from all desire, anger and delu-
sion.
"Carpenter, a noble disciple with a mind that has been
rightly liberated like this comes to know that all [forms of]
births have been extinguished, the holy life has been estab-
lished, what had to be done has been done, [for him] there will
be no no experiencing of a further existence – he knows this as
it really is.
"One who is reckoned to be training and to have acquired
vision is endowed with eight factors, while an arahant who has
destroyed the influxes is endowed with ten factors.
"Carpenter, what are the eight factors with which one who
is training and who has acquired vision is endowed? To wit,
the right view of one in training ... (up to) ... the right concen-
88
[92]
A similar sequential linking of the path factors can be found in MN 117 at
MN III 76,1, where it covers all ten path factors.
132 ⋅ Madhyama-āgama Studies
tration of one in training – these are reckoned the eight factors
with which one who is training and who has acquired vision is
endowed.
89
[166]
14. "Carpenter, what are the ten factors with which an ara-
hant who has destroyed the influxes is endowed? To wit, the
right view of one beyond training ... (up to) ... the right knowl-
edge of one beyond training – these are reckoned the ten fac-
tors with which an arahant who has destroyed the influxes is
endowed.
"Carpenter, when someone possesses these ten factors, I
reckon him as accomplished in wholesomeness, supreme in
wholesomeness, an unsurpassable person who has attained the
supreme essence and has the nature of a genuine recluse."
The Buddha spoke like this. The carpenter Pañcakaṅga and
the monks, having listened to what the Buddha said, were de-
lighted and received it respectfully.
90
(end of sutta)

(study: Ven. Analayo’s analysis)

A comparison of the above translated Madhyama-āgama dis-
course with the Samaṇamaṇḍika-sutta of the Majjhima-nikāya
brings to light several differences that point to the vicissitudes of
oral transmission. In what follows, I will take up only selected
differences for discussion, in particular those that have a direct
bearing on the notion of a true samaṇa.
In the early discourses in general, the effects of oral transmis-
sion can be seen particularly well in regard to the sequence of list-
ings which, unless a particular list is so much standardized that it
89 [93]
This whole section of MĀ 179, beginning with "Carpenter, a learned noble
disciples by wise contemplation knows unwholesome conduct as it really is",
up to the present juncture, is without a counterpart in MN 78.
90 [94]
MN 78 at MN II 29,13 does not mention the presence of monks listening to
the Buddha's exposition.
Samaṇamaṇḍikā-sutta (MN 78) ⋅ 133
has become thoroughly fixed, can easily change. An example is
the presentation of the four qualities that according to the Bud-
dha's critique do not suffice to make one a true recluse. The Pāli
and Chinese versions differ in as much as they have the themes of
thoughts and livelihood in the opposite sequence. Nevertheless,
when illustrating these themes through the simile of the infant
they present the respective manifestations of thoughts and liveli-
hood in the same sequence, in that both mention the infant sulk-
ing or moaning as their third, and the mother's milk as the fourth,
as can be seen in table 5 below.
Table 5: Sequences of Listing the 3
rd
and 4
th
Qualities
MN 78 MĀ 179
3
rd
thoughts: sulking livelihood: moaning
4
th
livelihood: mother's milk thoughts: mother's milk
The net result of this is a somewhat different presentation,
[167] as in the Pāli version the infant's thoughts express them-
selves by sulking, while in the Chinese parallel the infant's
thoughts are concerned with the mother's milk. Conversely, in the
Pāli version the child's livelihood is [to drink] the mother's milk,
while in the Chinese parallel its livelihood is to moan [as a way of
demanding nourishment]. Since both presentations make sense, it
remains open to conjecture which of the two versions has pre-
served the original order of exposition.
A somewhat more important difference manifests in regard to
the Buddha's assessment of the notion of a true recluse proposed
by Samaṇamaṇḍikāputta. According to the Majjhima-nikāya ver-
sion, the Buddha rejected the entire proposal. This is not the case
in the Madhyama-āgama presentation, where he instead makes
the finer distinction that someone endowed with purity of bodily
134 ⋅ Madhyama-āgama Studies
and verbal activities and pure livelihood is indeed "accomplished
in wholesomeness", though such a one nevertheless fails to be a
true recluse in the highest sense.
91
In this way, the Madhyama-āgama version gives proper place
to the importance of ethical conduct by avoiding unwholesome
deeds, which is somewhat lost sight of with the Majjhima-nikāya
version's sweeping dismissal. Elsewhere the Pāli discourses regu-
larly emphasize the importance of ethical purity of conduct,
92
pas-
sages that would support the Madhyama-āgama version's presen-
tation that someone who has achieved such purity is indeed "ac-
complished in wholesomeness". Yet, more is required to become a
'true recluse' in the Buddhist sense, since ethical purity is only a
means to an end – at least in early Buddhist thought – and this
end, according to both versions of the present discourse, is reached
when a samaṇa becomes fully liberated (thereby becoming the
epitome of ethical perfection).
Another instance of sequential variation can be found in regard
to the depiction of the qualities that do suffice to make one a true
samaṇa: the ten path factors of an arahant. The Pāli version briefly
mentions these ten at the outset of its exposition, right after the
Buddha has rejected Samaṇamaṇḍikāputta's proposal with the
help of the simile of the infant. The passage reads: [168]
"Carpenter, [on] possessing ten qualities I designate a person
as endowed with wholesomeness and foremost in wholesomeness,
as one who has reached the supreme and is an invincible re-
cluse".
93
91 [96]
See §9 of the translation and above note 70.
92 [97]
Cf., e.g., AN 4.116 at AN II 119,30, a whole discourse dedicated to the
importance of developing wholesome bodily, verbal and mental conduct, to-
gether with right view.
93
[98]
MN 78 at MN II 25,18: dasahi kho, ahaṃ, thapati, dhammehi samannāga-
taṃ purisapuggalaṃ paññāpemi sampannakusalaṃ paramakusalaṃ uttama-
Samaṇamaṇḍikā-sutta (MN 78) ⋅ 135
The Pāli discourse does not continue with this theme at this
point, but instead takes up the subject of unwholesome conduct.
The transition to this topic is somewhat abrupt in the original, so
much so that in his translation Bhikkhu Bodhi in Ñāṇamoli (1995/
2005: 650) adds "[But first of all]" in order to provide a lead-over
from the announcement of the ten qualities to the treatment of un-
wholesome conduct.
An exposition of these ten qualities occurs only at the end of
the Majjhima-nikāya discourse, where the corresponding passage
in the Madhyama-āgama version is found as well. In the Majjhi-
ma-nikāya version, this exposition begins with:
"Carpenter, [on] possessing what ten qualities do I designate a
person as endowed with wholesomeness and foremost in whole-
someness, as one who has reached the supreme and is an invin-
cible recluse?"
94
In other Pāli discourses, it is a standard procedure that a first
announcement (such as "possessing ten qualities I designate a per-
son as ...") is immediately followed by a question worded in the
same terms (such as "possessing what ten qualities do I designate
a person as ..."). This then leads over to a detailed exposition of
the qualities mentioned in the first announcement.
In view of this standard pattern, the fact that in the present
case most of the actual discourse intervenes between the first an-
nouncement of the ten qualities and the corresponding inquiry and
exposition of these ten qualities gives the impression that a tex-
tual error may have occurred during transmission.
This impression is further strengthened by the fact that the in-
quiry and exposition of the ten qualities in the Majjhima-nikāya
pattipattaṃ samaṇaṃ ayojjhaṃ (B
e
: paññapemi).
94
[99]
MN 78 at MN II 28,34: katamehi cāhaṃ, thapati, dasahi dhammehi saman-
nāgataṃ purisapuggalaṃ paññāpemi sampannakusalaṃ paramakusalaṃ utta-
mapattipattaṃ samaṇaṃ ayojjhaṃ? (B
e
: paññapemi; S
e
does not have cāhaṃ).
136 ⋅ Madhyama-āgama Studies
version sets in somewhat abruptly, just as its earlier announce-
ment of the ten qualities ends in a somewhat abrupt manner. The
Madhyama-āgama discourse provides instead a gradual build-up
to the theme of the ten qualities (see table 6). [169]
Table 6: Sequence of the Exposition
MN 78
simile of infant
examination of 4 qualities
announcement of 10 qualities
unwholesome conduct
wholesome conduct
unwholesome thought
wholesome thought
10 qualities of an arahant
#VALUE!
MĀ 179
simile of infant
examination of 4 qualities
unwholesome conduct
wholesome conduct
unwholesome thought
wholesome thought
understanding conduct & thought
development of 8 path factors
liberation
8 qualities of a sekha
10 qualities of an arahant
#VALUE!
Samaṇamaṇḍikā-sutta (MN 78) ⋅ 137
This gradual build-up begins by indicating that a noble disci-
ple through wise contemplation acquires knowledge of conduct
and thoughts in all their aspects as described in the body of the
discourse. Such wise contemplation then leads to a development
of the eight factors of the path of one in training. This in turn is-
sues in full liberation, at which point a recapitulation of the eight
path factors of a disciple in higher training (sekha) and of the ten
path factors of an arahant fall naturally into place.
Such a gradual build-up is not found at all in the Majjhima-ni-
kāya version. In view of the abrupt and somewhat disconnected
way of the Majjhima-nikāya version's exposition of the ten quali-
ties, it seems quite probable that the Madhyama-āgama discourse
has preserved a presentation closer to the original exposition in
this respect. [170] That is, an error during the oral transmission of
the Pāli version may have caused a loss of the exposition on un-
derstanding conduct and thoughts, of the eight path factors lead-
ing to liberation and of the recapitulation of the eight qualities of
a sekha. Possibly the same error may also be responsible for the
disruption of the exposition on the ten qualities of a true recluse,
with the introductory statement shifted to an earlier part of the
discourse.
The gradual build-up in the Madhyama-āgama discourse pro-
vides a better conclusion to the main theme of the true recluse, by
at first turning to an understanding of conduct and thoughts in
their wholesome and unwholesome manifestations, followed by
indicating that based on such an understanding a noble disciple
practices the noble eightfold path and eventually reaches libera-
tion.
In this way, the Madhyama-āgama parallel to the Samaṇamaṇ-
ḍikā-sutta offers significant perspectives on the Majjhima-nikāya
version's presentation, perspectives that accord well with the range
of implications of the term samaṇa in other Pāli discourses.
138 ⋅ Madhyama-āgama Studies
In sum, then, becoming a true samaṇa from an early Buddhist
perspective requires a basis in ethical purity and progress through
the four stages of awakening until complete liberation is reached.
"One who pacifies evil [states]
altogether, be they small or great,
because of the pacification of evil [states]
is reckoned a [true] recluse."
95
95 [100]
Dhp 265: yo ca sameti pāpāni, anuṃ thūlāni sabbaso, samitattā hi pāpā-
naṃ, samaṇo ti pavuccati; with a partial counterpart in Gāndhārī Dharmapada
189, Brough 1962/2001: 149): śamadhare va pa[va]ṇi, śramaṇo di pravucadi;
and full counterparts in the Patna Dharmapada 236, Cone 1989: 164 or Roth
1980: 118: yo tu śameti pāpāni, aṇutthūlāni sabbaśo, śamaṇā eva pāpānāṃ,
śamaṇo ti pravuccati; and in Uv 11.14c-f, Bernhard 1965: 190: śamitaṃ yena
pāpaṃ syād, aṇusthūlaṃ hi sarvaśaḥ, śamitatvāt tu pāpānāṃ, śramaṇo hi nir-
ucyate (on this edition cf. the study by Schmithausen 1970), translated by
Hahn 2007: 46. The corresponding stanza 11.15 in the Tibetan Uv, Beckh
1911: 39 or Zongtse 1990: 127, reads similarly: gang dag sdig pa che phra
dag, kun la brtags nas byed pa dang, sdig pa zhi ba de dag ni, dge sbyong
nyid ces brjod par bya, translated by Rockhill 1883/1975: 48, Sparham 1983/
1986: 75 and Iyer 1986: 269. In the Chinese Dharmapadas and Udānavargas
the second part of the stanza can be found; cf. T 210 at T IV 569a4:
謂能止惡
...
是為沙門
, translated by Dhammajoti 1995: 208 (27.10a+d); T 211 at T IV 597b2:
謂能止惡
...
是謂沙門
, translated by Willemen 1999: 152, (27.8a+d); T 212 at
T IV 681a19:
謂能捨惡
,
是謂沙門
; T 213 at T IV 783a5:
所言沙門者
...
穢垢
盡消除
, translated by Willemen 1978: 47 (11.17a+c), though the stanza relates
the eradication of defilements to being reckoned one who has "gone forth",
/ pravrajya, whereas the notion of a 'śramaṇa' stands only for pacifying the
mind.
Vekhanassa-sutta (MN 80)
Introduction
The present chapter takes up the Vekhanassa-sutta as a case
study in the potential of comparative studies of Pāli discourses in
the light of their Chinese parallels. The discussion between the
Buddha and the wanderer Vekhanassa reported in the Pāli version
has counterparts in the Madhyama-āgama, translated below, and
in an individual Chinese translation. [90]
Translation
Discourse to *Vekhanassa
1