Maybe this should be 2 wiki topics, but since both consciousness of hearing sounds and consciousness of body tactile sensations are on the same order of “depth” in jhāna, we’ll consider both of them together since proving one affects our understanding of the other.
Synopsis: We’re interested in the EBT perspective and source texts that can establish whether it’s possible, or not, to hear sound and be aware of bodily physical sensations while in jhāna attainment.
Texts where kāya means anatomical body
standard 3rd jhāna formula
Tibetan text, Anālayo, satipatthana perspectives VII.5
… experiencing just happiness with the body, what the noble ones reckon an equanimous and mindful dwelling in happiness,
Ekottarika-āgama, Anālayo, satipatthana perspectives IX.1.1
…one constantly knows and experiences pleasant feelings oneself with the body, as sought after by noble ones, with purity of equanimity and mindfulness
XIII.2 MADHYAMA-ĀGAMA version of MN 10, Anālayo, satipatthana perspectives IX.1.1, under kāyanupassana, the 3rd jhana simile
In the same way a monk completely drenches and pervades his body with happiness born of the absence of joy so that there is no part within his body that is not pervaded by happiness born of the absence of joy.
16 steps anapana-sati-[samadhi], step 3. sabba kāya patisaṃvedi
MN 10 from pali, Anālayo, satipatthana perspectives IX.1.1
He trains: ‘I breathe in experiencing the whole body’
XIII.2 MADHYAMA-ĀGAMA version of MN 10, Anālayo, satipatthana perspectives IX.1.1, under kāyanupassana
He trains [in experiencing] the whole body when breathing in;
also in Anālayo, satipatthana perspectives, there are some agama parallels in the vinaya corresponding with pali SN 54.9 (discourse where monks commit suicide, then are taught anapana 16 steps). someone fill in the exact details here for the reference when you have time. one could reasonably assume all the passages in those agamas corresponding to anapanasati 16 steps in the agamas would agree with “whole anatomical body” interpretation in step 3.
other translators of pali to english step 3:
- thanissaro: something like, breathes in sensitive to entire body
- b.bodhi: … in SN 54.1 anapana samyutta, he has “experiencing the whole body, I will breathe in”, but in MN 118, he has
He trains thus: ‘I shall breathe in experiencing the whole body [of breath]’
Texts where kāya does not mean anatomical body
16 steps anapana
Kāya as ‘group’
MN 148 – viññāṇakāyā, phassakāyā, vedanākāyā, taṇhākāyā
SN 22.56 – vedanākāyā, saññākāyā, cetanākāyā, viññāṇakāyā
DN 15 – nāmakāya rūpakaya
Kāya as non-corporeal body
MN 121 – ‘atthi cevidaṃ asuññataṃ yadidaṃ—imameva kāyaṃ paṭicca saḷāyatanikaṃ jīvitapaccayā’ti
SN 36.7 – Imameva kāyaṃ paṭicca.
physical and mental aspects of pīti, sukha, upekkha in jhāna
SN 36.31 nir-āmisa / not-(of the)-flesh
SN 48.40 not recommended, see reasons other entries
this wiki explores in detail the physical and mental aspects of pīti and sukha
EBT passages that support NOT hearing sound in first jhāna
SN 48.40 is cited by Vism. as proof that physical body awareness disappears in first jhāna. but this sutta contradicts the EBT agama parallels, hence probably is not a reliable sutta to use in support or against. see below (Clarification on Feelings in Buddhist Dhyāna/Jhāna Meditation, Tse Fu Kuan)
AN 10.72 Thorns-discourse: many people believe this proves you can not hear sound in 1st jhāna based on this.
EBT sutta and vinaya passages where meditator is in a deep samadhi that sound can not arouse them
vin parajika #4 moggallana can’t here elephants thumping around in water(?)
Sutta References Organized by Nikaya
The Y/N labels (and the quick quips) below are loosely based on a roughly conceived “argument-initiator” heuristic. Links to individual comments/resources forthcoming.
Y: DN 2 – “No part of the body unsuffused with rapture and pleasure”
N: MN 13 – Kāmā in “vivicceva kāmehi” refers to all objects of the five senses.
Y: MN 118 – "I breathe out sensitive to pleasure and rapture"
Y: MN 125 – “Abide contemplating body without sensual thoughts, then with stilling, second jhana” (!= MA 198, c.f. MA 102 != MN 19)
Y: MN 152 – “A blind man would have developed faculties if one does not hear eye/sound in developing faculties”
Y: SN 40.1 – "While I dwelt in first jhana sensual perceptions assailed me"
N: SN 48.40 – “[Bodily] dukhindriya ceases without remainder in first jhana”*
N: SA 559 – “Percipient without experiencing senses in first jhana+” (as in AN 9.37 for formless)
Y: AN 3.63 – "When I am in fourth jhana, I walk back and forth, celestial"
Y: AN 5.113 – "One who can withstand the five senses can remain in right concentration"
Y: AN 5.176 – "[Bodily] pleasure & [mental] joy dependent on the skillful, while dwelling in seclusion & rapture"
N: AN 9.34 – "Sensual perceptions in first jhana like pain for a healthy person"
N: AN 9.37 – Jhana is samādhi na sasaṅkhāraniggayhavāritagato (c.f. AN 3.101, DN 34, SA 557, SA 558, SA 559)
N: AN 9.38 – "Dwelling in first jhana is dwelling at the end of the world"
N: AN 10.72 – “Noise is a thorn to first jhana”
Y: Ud 3.3 – After emerging from imperturbable concentration, during which questions were asked, Buddha responds to question.
Y: Pi Tv Bu Vb Pj 4 – “After attaining an imperturbable stillness on the banks of the river Sappinikā, I heard the noise of elephants plunging in, emerging, and trumpeting.”
* c.f. Clarification on Feelings in Buddhist Dhyāna/Jhāna Meditation, Tse Fu Kuan, Journal of Indian Philsophy (2005) 33: 285 – 319; p.290: T28, 979b; T32, 285b; T30, 331a; Ak-P 440
- It has been shown that AN 10.72 can be understood as meaning one can hear sound in jhana, with a solid counter-argument to the considerations seeking to debunk AT’s essay on the issue.
[TODO: mine links more thoroughly]
Vitakka vicāra (Jhana-factors)
Roderick S. Bucknell - Reinterpreting the Jhānas (1993)